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ratives, that was not rather his official tied with a rattlesnake's skin, it was than his personal designation. This judged best to fortify the town. Meansachem, who was a dependeut of Massa- while, a small recruit had been received, soit, received the visitors very kindly ; made up of those who, owing to the but they found that he lived in perpetu. unseaworthiness of the Speedwell, the al terror, not only of the Taranteens, Mayflower's consort, had been left be or eastern Indians, who were accus- hind in England ; but this accession tomed to send war parties along the was not enough to make up for the coast in canoes, but, also, of a certain number that had died. The fortification Squaw Sachem, who dwelt somewhere now erected was a palisado, formed of in the interior, and to avoid whose at- trunks of trees driven into the ground. tacks he constantly shifted his abode. It was a mile in circuit, and had three Standish landed, and marched some gates—no inconsiderable work for so distance in hopes of meeting with feeble a colony. Standish, on this octhis Squaw Sachem, but foand only some casion, divided his men into four comwomen employed in gathering corn, panies, with officers of his own appointwho entertained the English with much ing, and issued certain judicious orders fear at first, but, being

encouraged by as to what each company was to do, in the "mild carriage" of their visitors, case of attack or fire. Soon after, the treated them to boiled cod, and such colonists having heard, by way of Monthings as they had. Squanto would higgon-an island on the coast of Maine, have persuaded the colonists to plunder and then a famous fishing station_news these women of their skins and other of the massacre perpetrated by the commodities, under pretense that they Indians in Virginia, a fort was built on were a "bad people,” and had often the crest of the rising ground, inclosed threatened the English. To which within the palisade, which, as in the Standish, much to his honor, replied, case of the art capitolinus of the that, “were they never so bad he would Romans, served in the three-fold ca: not wrong them, nor give them any just pacity of citadel, temple-or, in New occasion of complaint. Mere words,” England parlance, meeting-house-and 80 be said, " he regarded but little ; let forum, or place of public assembly. them, however, once attempt anything Meanwhile, another party of Engagainst him, and he would deal with lish settlers had established themselves them far worse than Squanto desired." about thirty miles north of Plymouth,

"Having well spent the day," says at Wissagusset (now Weymouth), on the contemporary narrative of this ex- Massachusetts bay--the first settlepedition, written, probably, by Winslow, ment in that quarter. They were ** we returned to the shallop, almost mostly indented servants, to the number all the women accompanying us, to of about sixty, sent out by one Weston, truck, who sold their coats from their a merchant of London, who had been backs, and tied boughs about them, but one of the mercantile partners in fitting with great shamefacedness, for, indeed, out the Plymouth company, and who, they are more modest than some of our dissatisfied with the pecuniary results English women We promised of that enterprise, had entered into the them to come again, and they prom- dubious and, as it proved, disastrous ised us to keep their skins."

speculation of planting a colony of his In February, 1622, in consequence of some demonstration of hostility from These Wissagusset colonists, an Canonicus, head sachem of the Narra. idle and vicious set, soon made themgansetts, who had sent to Plymouth, selves very obnoxious to the neighborby way of defiance, a bundle of arrows, ing Indians, who, it was said, entered

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*Isaac de Rosières, secretary of the colony of New Netherland, who visited Plymouth in 1627, gives the following ourious account of this fort and its uses : “Upon the hill they have a large square house, with a fat roof made of thick sawn planks, stayed with ook beams, apon the top of which they have six cannons, which shoot iron balls of four or five pounds, and com. mand the surrounding country. The lower part they use for their church, where they preach on Sandays and the usual holidays. They assemble by beat of drum, each with his musket and firelock, in front of the captain's door; they have their cloaks on and place thomselves in order, three abreast, and are led by a sergeant without beat of drum. Behind comes the govern. or in a long robe; beside him, on the right hand, comes the preacher with his cloak on, and with a small cane in his hand and so they march in great order, and each sets his arms down near him"-Seo BKODHEAD'S History of New York.

into a plot to destroy them. Massasoit, " When they were in the thicket," grateful for Winslow's remedies, by says Winslow, "they parleyed, but to which he was cured of a dangerous sick- small purpose, getting nothing but foul Dess, or, at least, supposed himself to language.' So our captain dared the be so, informed him that such an attack sachem to come out and fight like a was talked of; whereupon, Standish, man, showing how base and woman-like with eight men, was dispatched to Wis- he was in tongueing it as he did. But bagusset under pretense of trade, but, he refused and fled. So, the captain in fact, to judge as to the reality of the returned to the plantation, where he replot, with directions to inform the Wis- leased the Indian women-of whom a sagusset men of their danger, and number had been taken prisoners-and with orders, which, certainly, must be set would not take their beaver coats from down as rather harsh and peremptory, them, nor suffer the least discourtesy to to bring back the head of Wituwamat, be offered them." These bloody proa noted warrior, accused of being the ceedings—which remind one of some principal instigator of the plot.

recent transactions in Oregon-appear Standish found the Indians full of to have been perfectly approved at taunts and bravadoes, even going so Plymouth, to which place Wituwamat's far, some of them, as to twit the gallant head was carried and set up to the fort captain with being "but a little man,” by way of warning; but they occasioned as, indeed, was the case, so far as somo misgivings in the mind of John stature was concerned. Taking this Robinson, who, though he still remained as full evidence of the reality of the in Leyden, unable as yet to find means plot, Standish watched his opportunity, of transportation for the remainder and having got the obnoxious Wituwa- of the society, exercised, however, a mat, with three followers, into the same pastor's watchfulness over the people cabin with himself and several of his of Plymouth, whom he hoped soon to inen, he suddenly closed the door, and, join, and to whom he wrote as occasion making a signal to his soldiers, snatched offered. “It would have been hapa knife from the neck of one of the In- py," so he expressed himself in one of dians and stabbed him to the heart. these letters, alluding to the above deStandish's men, imitating the example scribed exploit of Standish, “ that you of their leader, fell upon Wituwamat had converted some before you had and killed bim and another Indian. The killed any;" and he went on particularly fourth, who was but a boy, they took to request them to consider the disposi. alive but afterwards hanged. It is tion of their captain, who was of " & incredible,” says Winslow, to whose warm temper." He hoped the Lord “Good News from New England” we had sent him among them for their are indebted for the knowledge of these good, if they used him right, but be transactions, “how many wounds these doubted whether there was not wanting two pineses (warriors) received before that tenderness of the life of man, made they died, not making any fearful noise, after God's image, which was meet. but catching at their weapons and striv- Winslow, however, insists, in his ing to the last."

"Good News," already quoted, that Not content with this slaughter, the course adopted by Standish had Standish sent word to another company the best effect, as it “terrified and of Woston's men to kill the Indians amazed” the other Indians who wero among them. They killed two, and ready to have joined in the plot, and Standish and some of his men found and caused them to fly into the swamps, killed a third. Standish was greatly where many died. It did not, however, vexed that, through the negligence of save the colony of Wissagusset. That one of the party, another Indian escaped, plantation was abandoned, a few of the and, by spreading the alarm,"discovered people removing to Plymouth, and the and crossed their intended purpose of rest sailing to Monhiggon, whence they killing a good many more." At the obtained passages home in the fishing head of half his men, Standish marched vessels assembled there. again against the Indians, “to make Returning from this exploit, Standish spoil of them and theirs;" but they soon had an opportunity to relieve escaped into a swamp, whence Standish himself from his domestic loneliness. in vain challenged the chief to como Already the captain, at least, so the out and fight him.

traditions of Plymouth report, though

66

we can find no early written authority In the next enterprise in which he for the story, very shortly after the de- was employed, Standish gave a now discease of the first Mrs. Standish, had play of the somewhat extra botness of his made one attempt to this end, in which temper. he had been defeated in a somewhat vex. White, a Paritan clergyman of Doratious manner. The captain's heart had chester, in the west of England, bad been touched by the charms of a lovely projected a new settlement,

whence, a daughter of Mr. William Mullins, whó, few years later, sprung the famous with her father, had been his fellow- colony of Massachusetts bay. The passenger in the Mayflower. To ob- fishing business was intended to be a tain leave from the father to address his leading object of this settlement, and daughter, as the custom which the pil- the first place selected for it was grims brought with them from England the rocky promontory of Cape Anne, required, Standish sent to him a Mr. which forms the dorth shore of MassaJohn Alden, the youngest of the pil- chusetts bay, and upon which the grims, then about twenty-one years of Plymouth people had already estabage, of a most excellent form, of a fair lished a fishing station. White and his and ruddy complexion, and of very pre- associates employed in this enterprise possessing address. In the division of the Lyford and Conant, who had lately colonists into nineteen families, already been expelled from Plymouth on grounds mentioned, Alden bad been assigned to of religious differences. A ship in the the family of Standish, and hence his service of this company, commanded selection for this delicate mission. The by one Capt. Hawes, arrived at Cape father received the proposals favorably, Anne, in 1625, and took possession but added, like a sensible man, that the of the Plymouth fishing stage erected young lady herself must first be con- there the year before. No sooner sulted, before he could return a decided had news of this encroachment reachanswer. She was, accordingly, sent for, ed Plymouth, than Standish was sent when Mr. Alden, in his most winning with a party of men to retake the fishmanner, redelivered his mossage to her, ing stage. The then occupants refused to which the blushing maiden, fixing her to give it up; and the .controversy eyes upon him, artlessly replied :

grew very warm. Prithee, John, why do you not speak Standish, indeed, might well be supfor yourself ?" Who could resist, pil- posed not very amiablo in his feelings grim or no pilgrim, an appeal like towards Lyford and Conant, since Lythat? It is scarcely necessary to add ford, in an intercepted letter, alluding that the result was a marriage of Miss to his small size, had spoken of him as Mullins, not with Captain Standish, looking " like a silly boy." but with John Alden.

“The dispute," says Hubbard, who, Standish, however, was too stout probably, derived bis information from hearted to be thus diverted from his Conant, « grew to be very hot, and high purpose. In August, 1623, arrived the words passed between them, which might third company of colonists, about sixty have ended in blows, if not in blood in number, by the Anne and Little and sluughter, had not the prudence and James. To one of these new-comers, moderation of Mr. Roger Conant, at by name Barbara, the gallant Stand- that time there present, and Mr. ish-in addition to the lobster, piece Peirce's interposition, who lay just by of fish, and cup of cold water, which with his ship, timely prevented. For was the best entertainment that could Mr. Hewes bad barricaded his company be set before the others-offered him with hogsheads, on the stage-head, self in marriage, and was quickly ao- while the demandants stood upon the cepted.

land, and might easily have been cut

* Bellingham, one of the founders of the Massachusetts colony, and for several years its gov. ernor, was the hero of a similar adventure. While a widower, he was overcome by the charms of a young lady, wbose hand he had been employed to seek for a friend, and, instead of proposing for him, proposed for himself. The lady accepted, and, without waiting to conform to the publishment law, the governor, by virtue of his authority as a magistrate,

performed the marriage ceremony himself! For this breach of the publishment law, the grand jury found

a bill against him; but, when it came op for trial, he refused to leave the bench on which he sat as one of the judges, in consequence of which the case was postponed and afterwards dropped.

off ;

but the ship's crew, by advice, prom- signature to the document–in considerising to help them to build another, the ation of a six years' monopoly of the Indifference was shortly ended." It must dian trade, gave their private bond be admitted that Hubbard, a Massachu- for that amount. The principle on setts historian, exhibits some little sec- which the colony had been settled, of a tional feeling, and even personal pique, joint stock, in which these London merin the following rather disparaging re- chants had been the chief parties in flection in which he indulges at the con- interest, was now abandoned. A divi. clusion of this narrative. “He (Cap- dend was made of the movable proptain Standish) had been bred a soldier erty, and twenty acres of land, near the in the Low Countries, and never en- town and fort, were assigned in fee to tered into the school of Christ, or each settler, who, henceforth, was to be of John the Baptist; or, if ever he was his own man, and to labor for himself. there, he had forgot his first lessons, to Already, since the planting of Plyoffer violence to no man, and to part mouth, a number of straggling settlers, with the cloak rather than needlessly with or without grants from the Councontend for the coat, though taken cil for New England, had established away without order. A little chimney is themselves along the neighboging coast soon fired; so was the Plymouth cap- to the northward. Among the rest, a tain a man of very small stature, yet party of about thirty persons, under a of a very hot and angry temper. The Captain Wollaston, had lately set up fire of his passion soon kindled, and, a plantation in Massachusetts bay, not blown out into a flame by bot words, far from the abandoned Wissagusset, at might easily have consumed all, had a place which they called Mount Wolit not been seasonably quenched." laston, now Quincy. This plantation Soon after this expedition to Cape soon fell under the control of one Anne, Standish was sent to England Thomas Morton, who describes himto solicit supplies for New Plymouth. self, in his “ New English Canaan," as of The ship in which he sailed, arrived "Clifford's Inn, Gentleman," but whom safely, but her consort, with her cargo the Plymouth historians insist upon of fish and furs, was taken by the stigmatizing as a "kind of pettifogger Turks, and this loss, with the bad sale of Furnival's Inn;" while Dudley of of the other cargo, proved a severe Massachusetts, in his famous letter to the blow to the infant colony. The plague Countess of Lincoln, speaks of him as was raging in London, and times were having been, when he lived in England, very hard. Standish succeeded, with "an attorney in the west counties." mueh difficulty, in getting credit for Morton changed the name of the setthe colony to the small extent of only tlement to Merry Mount, or, according £150, and that at the exorbitant in. to his version of the ry, Mare Mount, terest of over fifty per cent., and, with sold powder and shot to the Indians, the goods thus purchased, he returned gave refuge to runaways from the fishin 1626. He, however, prepared the ing vessels, and from the plantations, way for a very important arrangement, and, what was looked upon at Plymouth entered into the next year, by which as scarcely less an enormity, set up a the London partners in the colony May-pole, on which occasion he and agreed to sell out their interest for his company broached a cask of wine £1,800, to be paid in nine annual in- and a hogshead of ale, and held a high stallments. Eight of the principal revel and carousal.* These proceedings, colonists—Standish's being the second especially the harboring of runaways

.Morton represents himself as having arrived in June, 1632, with thirty servants, and provisions of all sorts fit for a plantation. It is possible he was of Weston's company, who arrived at that time. He makes no mention of Wollaston por Weston. Bradford represents him as having had some small adventure of bis own or other men's” in Wollaston's company, bot as being “of little respect, and slighted by the meanest servant ;" and that, in the absence of Wollasion and his chief partner, wbo, pot " finding thing to answer their expectations," had taken a part of their servants to Virginia " to sell out their timo to other men," he had persuaded those left behind,“ lost they, also, should be carried away and sold as slaves," to revolt against the person left

in charge, and to join him “free from service," and as bis "partners," " associ. ateo," and equals in the plantation in which he bad an interest. "After this,” says Bradford, “they fell to great licentiousness, and led a dissolute life, pouring out themselves into all profano. ness, and Morton became lord of misrule, and maintained, as it were, & school of atheism. And after they got some goods into their bands, and got much monoy by trading with the Indians, they

and the selling of powder and shot to And, upon May-day, they brought the May. the Indians, alarmed and disgusted all

pole to the place appointed, with drums, guns. the settlers on the coast; and the people

pistols, and other fiting instruments for that

purpose; and there erected it with the belp of of Plymouth, as being the oldest and savages that came thither of purpose to see most powerful settlement, were request

the manner of our revels. ed by the others to interfere. After

“A goodly pine tree of thirty foot long was

reared up, with a pair of buck's horns nailed repeated warnings and remonstrances,

on, somewhat doar unto the top of it, where which Morton treated with contempt, it stood as a fair sea-inark for directions how Captain Standish was sent to Mount to find out the way to mine host of Ma-re

Mount.
Wollaston in June, 1628, at the head of

“And, because it should more fully appear an armed party, to take him into custo- to what end it was placed there, they had a dy. Morton and his men, armed and poem in readiness, made, which was fixed to heated with liquor, shut themselves up

the May-pole, to show the new name conferin their house, and replied to his sum

red upon that plantation." mons to surrender with abuse and This poem was a sort of riddle, which, threatened resistance. As Morton ster

"mine host of Ma-re Mount," for so ped out of his door, musket in hand, Morton designates himself, says, “ puz*not to yield, but to shoot," Standish zled the Separatists," meaning, thereby, grasped it with one band, while with the Plymouth men, “most pitifully to the other be secured Morton's collar, expound it,” as, indeed, it well might. and so made him prisoner; upon which This poetical riddle, with its explanation, the rest submitted without firing a gun,

we omit, but insert the "merry song and without any bloodshed, except, as

which,” says Morton, “to make their Bradford facetiously observes, on the revels more fashionable, was sung with part of one who " was so drunk that he a chorus, every man bearing his part, ran his nose upon the point of a sword which they performed in a dance, hand that one held before him, as he entered in hand, about the May-pole, whilst one the house;" but even be " lost but a of the company sung and filled out the little of bis hot blood.". The prisoners good liquor like Ganymede and Jupiwere taken to Plymouth, whence Mor- ter.” Of this song we may observe, by ton was sent home to England.

way of preface, that it was, doubtless, Such is the account of this affair, as as Bradford says, written by Morton, given by Bradford, the contemporary who, to judge from the spatches of verse Plymouth historian. Morton's own re- scattered through his book, evidently port of it, in bis “New English Canaan," prided himself not a little on his poeticis somewhat different, though in many

al gifts. It must be confessed, toon points he and Bradford agree. Of the

that the tenor of it seems to give some setting up of the May-pole, he gives the color to the charge brought by Bradford following account:

against Morton and his men, of more

intimacy with the Indian women than “ The inhabitants of Pasonagessit (having was in accordance with Puritan stricttranslated the name of their habitation from that ancient savage name to Ma-re Mount, and

ness and decorum.
being resolved to have the new name confirm.

“THE SONG.
od, for & memorial to after-ages) did devise
among themselves to have it performed in a

“Drink, and be merry, merry, merry, boys, solemn manner, with revels and merrimont,

Let all your delights be in the Hymen's joya, after the English custom; proposed to set up

Io, to Hymon ! now the day is done, & May-pole upon the festival day of Philip and

About the merry May-pole take a room Jacob, and, therefore, brewed a barrel of ex- “Make green garlands, bring bottles ont, oellent beer, and providod a case of bottles,

And fill sweet nectar freely about, to be spent with other good cheer, for all com- Uncover thy head and sear no barm, ors of that day. And, because they would

For hero's good liquor to keep it warm. have it in a complete form, they had prepared

“Then drink and be merry, etc., a song fitting to the time and present occasion. lo, to Hymen, etc.

1

spent it as vainly in quaffing and drinking both wine and strong waters in great excess, as some reported, ten shillings' worth in a morning. They also set up a May.pole, drinking and dancing about it many days together, inviting the Indian women for their consorts, dancing and frisking together like so many fairies (or furies rather), and worse practices, as if they bad anew revived and celebrated the foasts of the Roman goddoos, Flora; or the beastly practices of the mad Bacchanalians. Morton (likewise to show his poetry) composed sundry rhymes und verres- some tending to licentiousness, and others to the detraction and scandal of some persons, which he affixed to this idlo or idol May-pole. They changed, also, the name of their place, and instead of Mount Wollaston, they called it Merry Mount, as if this jollity world bave lasted over."

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