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lieves that self-confidence “crystallises itself around the penis” and that "social shame" arises from feelings of inferiority in connection with that organ.
In the second part of the paper, he discusses certain observations of Darwin, Gerson, Havelock Ellis and others on the phenomenon of blushing and concludes that the mechanism of blushing is similar to that of conversion hysteria, that it manifests itself like a compulsion neurosis and that it is an autoerotic libidinal function of the skin. Freud has shown that one of the sources of self-confidence is the remnant of childish narcissism, and this primary narcissism is intimately connected with intactness of the genital organs. In the Unconscious the ego may be identified with the penis (in dreams, folk-lore, etc.). We know also from Ferenczi that there is a universal identification of the ego with the face. Thus blushing (= erection) is a compensation for the injury to self-confidence.
Dr Paul Schilder (Vienna) gives a detailed account of a psychosis following on an operation for cataract. The patient was a woman of fifty-three, whose naturally timid and nervous disposition was accentuated by the disturbance of her sight. Two days after a successful operation for cataract, she became greatly excited and suffered from visual and auditory hallucinations. As time went on, her delusions took two principal forms: that those around her were about to murder or mutilate her, and that birds or beasts were in the room or the bed, attacking her or soiling the bed-clothes, etc. These terrors continued for seven weeks, after which a hypomanic condition set in but gradually abated and finally disappeared. Dr Schilder shows that the operation upon the eye (a frequent symbolic representative of the genitals) roused the patient's castrationcomplex, which he believes to play an important part in post-operative psychoses. Further, he is of opinion that the resolution of a complex may lead to hypomanic states, as in the case of this patient, a view which he has elsewhere put forward. (** Preliminary studies for a psychology of Mania,” Zeitschrift f. d. ges. Neur. u. Psych., 68, 1921.)
In a paper on the psycho-analysis of a case of homosexuality, Dr M. Nachmansohn (Königsberg, Pr.) traces the influence of the innate and the acquired factors in a severe case, the analysis of which (lasting in all over 2) years) was conducted in three separate periods, in which it went through three distinct phases. In the first phase, the development of the perversion was traced, its innate character being given special prominence. In the second phase, the incest-complex was revealed as the root of the disease and manifested itself with great force. In the third phase, by means of 'active' therapy, the completion of the cure was effected.
Besides these original articles, this number of the Zeitschrift contains the following communications:
“The Oedipus-dream of a schizophrenic," by Dr Arnold Stocker. “Father-rescue and father-murder in neurotic phantasies,” by Dr Karl Abraham. “Bridge symbolism and the Don Juan legend,” by Dr S. Ferenczi.
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