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readers, for Dr Brill's psychiatric training leads him to present the findings of psycho-analysis in a broader way than is common to writers who have in mind chiefly those morbid states in which psycho-analytic treatment is most useful, namely, the transference neuroses; and thus the reader is enabled to envisage in a truer perspective the bearings of psycho-analytic theory on all the problems of normal and abnormal mental life.
The chapters on "The Only Child" and "Selections of Vocations" will be helpful to those whose chief desire is to know the practical applications of psycho-analytic teaching. A widespread knowledge of the difficulties in adjustment to life which beset the pathway of the only child, and a clear realization of the folly of attempting to choose for another human being the vocation which he or she should follow, may have profound effects on the health and happiness of future generations.
If we try to discover from Dr Brill's book what the fundamental conceptions of psycho-analysis really are, we may be inclined to reduce them to two: (1) all behaviour is based upon unconscious mentation, and (2) all unconscious mentation is motivated by the wish. These two conceptions come to light in the examination of all those forms of mental and bodily activity which are considered in this book: the symptom, forgetting, the slips and blunders of every-day life, wit, dreams, fairy-tales and artistic productions; and, indeed, they may perhaps be truly regarded as the most fundamental conceptions of psycho-analytic theory.
T. W. M.
Sex Problems in Women. By A. C. MAGIAN, M.D. London: William Heinemann (Medical Books), Ltd, 1922. pp. 219. Price: 12s. 6d.
This book is a series of discursive essays on various aspects of feminine sexuality. The title is misleading as no problems are either formulated or discussed. The book is actually, as the author himself states in the Preface, a compilation from standard works. No original contributions are made to the subject, and the evidence which professional experience has brought the writer is most sparingly adduced. The promise of the introductory chapter, that an attempt will be made to elucidate various problems such as why a woman should cherish a love-passion for the man who ill-treats and abuses her, etc." (p. 1), is not fulfilled. It can hardly be held that the inference that a woman loves her cruel husband because cruelty causes her sexual satisfaction, affords any explanation of, or insight into, the problem of sex for that type of woman, but no other elucidation is forthcoming. This example is characteristic of how the subject-matter is treated throughout. Some of the ethnological statements succeed in conveying false impressions; thus the 'rite' is transformed into the 'right' of defloration (p. 46). Again, the sacred prostitution practised in Babylon is referred to as a 'penance' (p. 140), whereas it was a propitiatory sacrifice to ensure easy child-birth and general fertility. Some points of treatment seem open to criticism such as the use of local irritants as a cure for masturbation (p. 100), or of marriage for mild cases of nymphomania (p. 76). It is interesting, too, to find valerian still considered an active therapeutic agent. Though abnormal sexual conditions and impulses are acknowledged to be "the active agents in the production of the most diverse forms of mental disease and neurasthenia" (p. 1) the references to psycho-therapy are of the most meagre. To the psycho-pathologist this book can be of no service.
As a whole this is a readable, fair-minded, superficial presentation of wellrecognized facts, but it is no more if it is no less. It is, however, baffling to understand why the author should consider that 30 pages of anatomy and physiology-surely unnecessary for the medical readers to whom the book is explicitly addressed-"place the matter on a scientific basis."
JANE I. SUTTIE.
The Psychology of Misconduct, Vice and Crime. By BERNARD HOLLANDER, M.D. George Allen and Unwin, Ltd. pp. 220. Price: 7s. 6d. net.
This book contains the author's reflections on his experiences of moral derangement in the course of 25 years' practice as a physician specializing in nervous and mental disorders. We are told in the Preface that "it is written from the standpoint of the 'new psychology,'" but it is difficult to find any justification for this statement. There are so many 'new psychologies' nowadays that we may well be in doubt as to what particular brand is favoured by any writer who is enamoured of this term. Ordinarily, its use implies some reference to the changes introduced into the study of the mind by the work of the psychoanalysts and we are naturally led to expect that any book "written from the standpoint of the 'new psychology"" will show at least some understanding of, if not sympathy with, psycho-analytic theory and practice. It is evident, however, that Dr Hollander does not use 'new psychology' in this sense. It is true that he uses words such as 'repression' and 'sublimation' and insists that "mental analysis can, and should be practised by every medical psychologist"; but although he sometimes uses the terms of psycho-analysis, the concepts to which he applies them belong to an older psychology. "The voice is Jacob's voice, but the hands are the hands of Esau."
Starting from the fact that "there are a number of elementary instincts and feelings which we possess in common with animals," the author tells us that "these instincts in man do not act blindly as in animals. They are reduced in him to obscure impulses which urge him in certain directions, but leave him to choose the itinerary of his course. Instincts, in man, therefore, are sometimes spoken of as propensities."
The various forms of misconduct are described and correlated with the propensities to which they are due. Drink and drug habits are the result of the propensity to eat and drink; aggressiveness, ill-temper and violence are the outcome of the combative propensity; morbid suspicion, cunning, and deceitfulness arise from suspicion, which is "a protective propensity and hence a necessary quality"; theft is due to the propensity to acquire and hoard; sexual crime is due to "the sexual propensity." On all of these topics the author writes in an easy, popular, style and conveys a considerable amount of information which may prove interesting and instructive to the non-professional reader; but the student will find here hardly any reference to what at the present day we understand by the psychology of misconduct, vice and crime.
Throughout the book an inordinate importance is ascribed to the part played by the intellect in the determination of conduct. Thus we read: "The greater the intellect of a man the greater the check upon his motives and passions" (p. 22). Again we are told that some people "though endowed with considerable intellect, still have not enough of it to resist their propensities" (p. 29). "The better furnished his intellect, the greater the check on his actions' (p. 179); "it is the highly developed intellect of a man which changes the innate
animal propensities into glorious faculties" (p. 169). Another and a different set of values seems implicit in the following quotation: a lack of ethical feeling is often an advantage. Some of our most successful public men would not be in the position they now occupy if they were too tender-hearted. On the other hand, a lack of intellect is always a drawback" (p. 162).
The last chapter is devoted to the treatment of moral failings. Stress is laid upon the physical basis of many moral defects and the importance of physical treatment in such cases is pointed out. On the psycho-therapeutic side Dr Hollander advocates suggestion, mental analysis and re-education. He considers psycho-analytic treatment to be a risky procedure for the physician (because of transference) and dangerous to the patient if undertaken by a layman. His attitude towards psycho-analysis may be judged from his comments on the following passage which he quotes from Stekel; women who have not the courage to commit a sin against morality will steal some article which is of no value to them, as the symbolic fulfilment of a forbidden action, whereby the symbolic significance of the stolen article very often reveals the true nature of the instinctive action." Dr Hollander says: "We may well defer our opinion on this explanation until a psycho-analyst of the ultra-Freudian kind, who sees 'sex' in every abnormality, will give evidence in defence of a lady kleptomaniac. We shall then hear what the judge will have to say on the defence that the article stolen symbolically gratified the lady's sexual longings" (p. 199). A strange ground, truly, on which to base a scientific judgment!
T. W. M.
Studies in Psychoanalysis. By CHARLES BAUDOUIN. Translated by E. and C. PAUL. London: George Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1922. pp. 326.
"Monsieur Baudouin is already well known to the English public as the author of Suggestion and Autosuggestion, in which he acted as the evangelist of Coué. His new book Studies in Psychoanalysis is put forward as an attempt to show that the method of suggestion as set forth in his previous treatise may advantageously be combined with psychoanalysis, in the treatment of nervous disorders. He claims to have found from his personal experience that "a great deal of time and trouble is saved by the use of suggestion in conjunction with psychoanalysis."
Baudouin, however, is careful to point out that there is suggestion and suggestion, and while certain forms are incompatible with analysis others are commendable adjuvants. Thus the suggestion which increases repression is to be avoided. The latter he terms the 'vade retro' method of dealing with a symptom and recognises that it cuts off the shoots without touching the root of the evil; it is the 'ça passe' exorcism of Coué. The other form, what we might call positive suggestion, is termed by Baudouin the Veni Creator' method; it corresponds to Coué's formula "day by day in every way I get better and better." It is to this form of suggestion that Baudouin looks for help. He applies it to the overcoming of resistance, and to the guidance of the patient both during and after a course of analytical treatment. Though this is the gist of Baudouin's thesis he has a great deal more to discuss and many will find other of his points of greater value. The book is divided into two sections; the first, a theoretical exposition, occupies rather less than one-third of the volume. The second contains case histories of twenty-seven patients. The case histories
are clearly written and show as admirably as an elementary presentation well could a selection of common neurotic dispositions and how these are illuminated by psychoanalysis. They do not, however, give us any inkling as to how the author applies his method. One learns from them nothing of that unceasing collaboration between autosuggestion and psychoanalysis which is assigned as the raison d'être of their publication. The reviewer also failed to gain any more precise information than is given in Part I when visiting the Jean Jacques Rousseau Institute, attending the clinic there and conversing with Monsieur Baudouin early this year (1922).
In Part I Baudouin defines his aim as the production of a record of his own work which might interest experts, not the writing of a popular treatise for beginners. Yet he admits that the French as a nation are most backward in psychoanalytical knowledge and therefore feels it incumbent upon him to deal with general principles as most of his readers are in fact beginners. For this we may well be grateful since it has induced Baudouin to give us what is a most stimulating and suggestive discussion on several points. He tritely remarks that however tolerant and kindly psychoanalysts may be to their patients they seem to take a positive delight not only in violently upsetting the smug prejudices of the world in general, but also in clothing their theories in obscure neologisms. Certainly Baudouin himself is free from this reproach, for though he never lacks courage his statements are put forward with no less delicacy than force. After commending Victor Hugo for his frankness in the poem "Boaz endormi" he remarks "I find the idea that all poetry, all glory, all holiness have this (instinctive) lowly origin no more offensive than I find Darwin's idea (now generally admitted) of the descent of man."
Therefore, although addressed to so-called experts, Baudouin's book will fill a useful rôle in introducing some of the conclusions arrived at by analytical methods to the more intelligent of the laity without giving them an unnecessary mental dyspepsia. Baudouin's treatment of condensation and displacement in particular is stimulating. He regards symbolism as the natural outcome of the interaction of the laws of condensation and displacement, yet he finds the concept of the censor one of the most valuable contributions of Freudian psychology. Once these mechanisms exist they are at the disposal of the censor for disguisement and may have yet other functions. Freud himself has said "that which is to-day linked under the form of the symbol presumably constituted at the outset a conceptual and verbal unity." Once we agree that the dream is a regression to an archaic mode of thought we may anticipate disguise even though disguise is not purposive. Again the mechanism has a further utility in that it is the essence of creative imagination. For just as intelligence ensures our adaptation to the real so does imagination ensure the adaptation of the real to ourselves.
Baudouin would agree with Claparède in assuming for dreaming the same function as has Groos for play, namely, the exercise of certain activities which have a prospective value to the individual. Thus though Baudouin is sympathetic to Freudian psychology he seeks to discover a wider basis and utility for certain mechanisms.
This he expresses poetically by likening the dream to an orchestra in which a number of instruments are playing. The ear can, at will, follow the notes of one instrument or another, and various interpretations are possible. Only we must never lose sight of the plurality of meaning, never cease to attend to the orchestra as a whole.
The crux of Baudouin's thesis is the transference. He considers that psychoanalysts by admitting the transference have adopted suggestion willy-nilly and that they would be wise to recognise this and attempt to guide their suggestions. That the transference is the meeting place of psychoanalysis and suggestion has long been recognised and the whole question has been rather fully treated by Dr Ernest Jones (vide his Collected Papers) and others. It is therefore not necessary to enter into this matter here nor to confute the statement that transference itself takes the form that is imposed upon it by suggestion. In the course of his general exposition Baudouin briefly appraises the value of the tendencies of Adler and Jung. The attempted synthesis of the latter he regards as philosophical rather than scientific. He considers that the time for synthesis has not yet arrived, rather is further analysis first required. Each instinct requires to be studied separately and the utmost done to trace all its possible metamorphoses in the human psyche. This offers an interesting perspective to investigators and if it is undertaken we may expect a series of monographs upon the different instincts. Already we have Trotter's study of the herd instinct and Pierre Bovet's account of the combative instinct. Each instinct will, in Baudouin's opinion, be found to undergo a religious sublimation and he is interested to trace the history of their avatars. A general synthesis should only be undertaken as the crowning result of such researches. Looking at things in this light Baudouin may be said to view Adler's work as a monograph upon the Ichtriebe of Freud, while he tends to regard Freud's work as too exclusively concerned with the Sexualtriebe. In a footnote he says it is amusing to note that the names of these two men of science are symbolical of their respective theories: for Freude signifies joy (the pleasure principle), while Adler signifies eagle (will to power). Whatever our view may be there is no occasion for pessimism. All instincts have a rightful place in our make-up; the neuropath is out of harmony with the real only because he has become obsessed by one principle only. Fortunately, the other instincts are, like sexuality, capable of undergoing sublimation. On the whole Baudouin's outlook is sympathetic towards psychoanalysis, indeed he seems to fear that he may be accused of being a pan-sexualist. Possibly this attitude is influenced by what he knows of the readers to whom his work is addressed, yet his constant endeavour to weaken the sexual motive appears also as the expression of a personal need. The book, however, forms interesting reading and indicates the path along which the Latin mind is groping towards an understanding of psychoanalysis. There is a useful glossary and an adequate index.
The Psychology of the Criminal. By H. HAMBLIN SMITH, M.A., M.D. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. pp. 182. Price 6s. net.
This book is a valuable contribution to clinical psychology and may be recommended to all who are interested in social science as well as to professional students of Law and Medicine. It is an attempt to apply to the study of the criminal the new conceptions introduced into psychology by Freud and his followers, and the author's main contention is that the intensive investigation of individual offenders in the light of psycho-analytical theory is the road to the solution of the problem of criminality.
According to Dr Hamblin Smith "crimes are, from the legal point of view,