« 上一頁繼續 »
The motive of the compact is first considered. There is no indication that Haitzmann was influenced, as others who made similar agreements are said to have been, by a thirst for power, wealth or the pleasures of the senses. We learn that he made the compact when in a state of depression, following on his father's death. He found himself falling into melancholy and inhibited in the pursuit of his calling, so that he was in a condition of destitution. The terms of the agreement are peculiar: it simply says that he affirms himself to be the son ("leibeigner Sohn") of Satan and that in nine years' time he will deliver himself to the devil, body and soul. There is apparently no mention of what the devil is to do for him in return. Freud conjectures that for the space of nine years he was to take the place of the patient's father, to act, that is, as a father-substitute. He argues that, just as the idea of God is, according to the psychoanalytic doctrine, derived from the figure of the father as he appears to the child, so the notion of the devil springs from the hate side of the ambivalent relation between parent and child. The record of a case such as this shows, in clear relief, mental processes which can only be reached in modern times by the analysis of neurotic symptoms and the free associations of patients. The conjecture seems to be borne out in the case of Haitzmann by the fact that we are expressly told that after his father's death he fell into a state of melancholy. Freud has shown elsewhere ("Trauer und Melancholie," Sammlung kl. Schriften, IV) that melancholia has its origin in the ambivalent conflict following upon the loss of the loved object.
If it be assumed that this was indeed the meaning of the compact other points in the record may be analysed. The sexual motive Freud holds to be represented in the number 9 (the compact for nine years), which is the number of months in the period of gestation, and by the fact that the devil frequently appeared in the male form but with the breasts of a female. In this apparition Freud sees a reaction against a repressed phantasy of the artist's, namely, that of bearing a child to his father-a phantasy arising out of a feminine attitude towards the father such as is often met with in the analysis of male patients. The reaction against the phantasy is due to the fear of castration (for the abandonment of the male rôle carries with it the loss of the male organ) and expresses itself in a new phantasy by which the feminine rôle is forced upon the father. In Haitzmann's visions this is symbolised by the female breasts upon the male figure. This feature may be over-determined and indicate a displacement of love from the mother to the father and a previous mother-fixation. It is to the Mother of God that he turns in his distress, and it is on her birthday that he is released from his compact.
The fragment of the artist's diary contains the account of the second phase of his illness, the period between the first and second exorcisms. He was once more tormented by apparitions, sometimes of the tempter, sometimes of Christ and the Virgin: all of these he regarded as manifestations of the Evil One.
Having emerged from his state of melancholy after the first deliverance, he became a prey at first to worldly and sensual visions; on rejecting these he was bidden by the heavenly visitants to forsake the world and become a hermit, the command being accompanied by promises of bliss and threats of damnation if he refused. Later, a sexual phantasy obsessed him, after which he fell into a trance, endured the torments of hell and heard a voice which told him he was being punished for his wicked thoughts. Some months later he returned, as we know, to Mariazell, was finally released from his compact and became a religious
This was the solution at once of the moral conflict and the problem of his material necessities. He had been unable to pursue his calling; possibly, as Freud suggests, the inhibition indicates remorse and self-punishment, or even a tardy obedience to his father who may have opposed his artistic career. It is probable that he belonged to that class of persons who are always dependent on others for their maintenance because of a fixation to the infantile situation at the mother's breast. But material necessity alone, without the inner conflict arising out of his relation, would not have driven him to sign his pact with the devil-in other words, would not have resulted in neurosis.
NOTES ON RECENT PERIODICALS.
Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse, Part 1, 1923.
Prof. Freud contributes notes on the theory and practice of dream-interpretation. He touches on the technical question of how to set about collecting the dreamer's free associations in analysing a dream. The various elements in the dream may be taken according to their actual sequence, or some striking feature may be picked out and the dreamer required to give his associations to it, or he may be questioned about the events of the previous day which occur to him in connection with the dream, or, if he has some acquaintance with the technique, he may begin his associations at any point he likes.
The degree of resistance encountered in analysing a dream is of great importance. When the resistance is very strong, the analyst has to content himself with suggesting some symbolic interpretations. When it is less, the associations usually diverge widely from the manifest elements, only to converge again on the latent thoughts.
Freud distinguishes between dreams from above and dreams from below. The latter are due to the force of a repressed wish which seeks to break through from the Unconscious; the former, though reinforced by unconscious material, are rather of the nature of waking thoughts or purposes. In the latter case analysis generally aims at bringing the latent thoughts into line with those of waking life without paying attention to the unconscious factor.
In some analyses there is at times a curious cleavage between waking and dream thoughts, so that the dreams form a kind of continued story analogous to the workings of phantasy.
In interpreting dreams it must be remembered that they have first of all to be translated and judgment must be suspended till this is done. It is, says Freud, like reading a chapter of Livy: we must first find out what he relates, before we consider whether the narrative is historical or legendary. The analyst is warned against a "too great respect for the 'mysterious Unconscious,"" for the dream is a thought like any other, but reinforced from the Unconscious and subject to the dream-work which, as we know, includes distortion and secondary elaboration.
Freud mentions the so-called 'recovery dream,' which may indicate a hopeful adjustment on the part of the patient, but may be simply a convenience dream' expressing his desire to escape the painful analytic work.
When a conflict between ambivalent feelings is going on in the patient's mind, it is rash to jump to a conclusion from a single dream, or the dreams of a single night, as to the victory of one feeling or the other. Only by taking into consideration the whole situation, including the waking thoughts, can we guess how the battle is going. Freud discusses the question: how far are dreams influenced by the 'suggestion' of the physician? This is a point frequently raised by sceptics in order to cast doubt on the results of analysis. As regards the manifest content it is obvious that, since the treatment belongs to the impressions of waking life and since these give rise to dreams, the dream is influenced by the analytic treatment. The latent thoughts also are susceptible to influence in so far as they consist of preconscious material which may contain the patient's reaction to the analyst's suggestions. The mechanism of dream-formation is however inaccessible to external influence and with regard to the unconscious wishes (which combine with the preconscious thoughts in the latent content) analytic experience shows that they cannot be suggested by the analyst. It may happen that in an analysis dreams which have reference to past situations in the dreamer's life appear only after certain analytic constructions have been put upon his symptoms and associations. Such dreams seem to confirm these constructions, but it is objected that, even when the patient believes that he is recalling actual experiences, he may be mistaken and they may have been suggested to him. It is
true that recollections carrying conviction are generally lacking, for that which is repressed comes only gradually into consciousness and moreover we may be dealing not with actual facts but with unconscious phantasies. Yet Freud's experience has led him to believe that these 'confirmatory' dreams are not produced simply by suggestions made in the analysis. The analysis is like a picture puzzle in which different pieces have to be fitted together and both patient and analyst have to wait and see how the constructions or recollections, taken together, yield the solution of the whole complicated problem. Moreover, patients may recollect dreams dating from before the analysis which lead to the same results as the dreams during treatment. It is however likely that repressed material comes to light more plainly in dreams in the course of analysis. În order to explain this we must look for some unconscious force which serves the purpose of the treatment. This force Freud believes to belong to the parent complex: the patient's docile attitude towards the parents is repeated in the transference. Freud has never disputed the part played in the transference by 'suggestion' in this sense and it in no way invalidates his conclusions.
Dreams which occur in traumatic neuroses and repeat the traumatic situation are probably the only exception to the rule that the dream is a wish-fulfilment. 'Punishment' dreams seem to be an exception but a closer scrutiny shows that they are a reaction against the latent thoughts and are due to an intervention of the censorship. This is really an extension of the familiar process by which a single element in the latent thoughts is represented in the manifest content by its exact opposite.
In his final note Freud touches on the fact that the ego can appear in more than one figure in a dream. This is due to the secondary elaboration and is an attempt to represent the many sides of the dreamer's personality. Freud does not, however, believe that every person in the dream represents some aspect of the ego.
In a paper on "The genesis of the castration complex in women,” Frau Dr Horney, writing from her own experience in the analysis of women patients in whose neuroses this complex was prominent, seeks to penetrate to its true origin. Much has already been written upon the forms in which the castration complex manifests itself in women and it has been traced to the little girl's envy of the penis. Dr Horney thinks that, though this explanation may seem obvious to male narcissism, it is unsatisfactory both from the point of view of female narcissism and of biological thought that half the members of the human race should be dissatisfied with their sex. She admits that the forms in which the complex manifests itself are largely conditioned by the envy of the penis, but she does not see in it the alpha and omega of the complex.
In the first part of the paper she discusses the reasons for such envy and shows that the little girl is in reality at a disadvantage with the boy in the gratification of certain instinct-components of great significance in the pregenital phase of the libido. That is to say, the little girl's envy of the penis is connected with the desire to urinate ‘like a man' and that she is debarred from gratifying her urethral erotism, her active and passive observation impulses and her wish to manipulate her genital organs, in ways which are open to the boy.
Dr Horney then passes to the second part of her paper and tries to penetrate beyond the envy of the penis to a deeper motivation of the castration complex. The results of her analysis of certain female patients have led her to conclude that the question of the pathogenic effect of the penis-envy complex is intimately bound up with the Oedipus complex.
The little girl passes from her auto-erotic narcissistic desires by taking the father as her love-object and identifying herself with the mother. The desire for the penis is then transformed into the womanly desire for the man (=the father) and for the child (from the father). In the cases Dr Horney has in mind the attachment to the father was so intense that the incestuous phantasy had all the force of reality. The inevitable disappointment left deep traces in the neurosis, amongst them a disturbance in the sense of reality resulting in doubts (e.g. of the reality of other love-relations), Moreover, feelings of guilt proved to be really reproaches against the father, turned against the subject, as well as being due to hostile impulses against the mother. The desire for the child was of the greatest significance and was related to the penis-envy complex in two ways: (a) the maternal instinct received unconscious reinforcement from the auto-erotic desire for the penis; and (b) after the disappointment with the
father there was regression to the old desire which in its turn was reinforced by the womanly wish for the child.
The father was then abandoned as love-object and, in accordance with the Freudian mechanism, the object-relation gave place regressively to identification.
In this identification with the father, accompanied by regression to a pregenital phase, Dr Horney sees one root of the castration complex in women.
Now Freud has shown that identification with the father is a basis of manifest homosexuality in women. In the cases under discussion Dr Horney concludes that the love-relation was not wholly repressed nor the identification complete. The patients did, however, without exception, show a tendency to homosexuality.
The second root of the female castration complex the writer holds to be the phantasy of having been castrated through the love-relation to the father. The patients felt that they were not normal, or had sustained some injury, in the genital region. Their phantasy of intercourse with the father caused them to attribute to him this injury. Here we have an intimate connection between castration-phantasy and repressed womanliness, a connection which seems to account more satisfactorily than does the simple penis-envy for revengeful feelings against men. Freud has shown how defloration may arouse such feelings. It would appear that in the act of defloration the unconscious sees the repetition of the phantasied intercourse with the father and the affects which belong to the latter situation are repeated.
Moreover, feelings of guilt attach themselves more easily to the idea of castration through an incestuous act with the father than to the envy of the penis.
Dr Horney concludes that just as the male neurotic whose fear of castration conceals the desire to be castrated (to lay aside the masculine rôle) identifies himself with the mother, so the female neurotic, who suffers from the castration-complex has identified herself with the father.
In the introduction to his article on "Anal Character" (Ergänzungen zur Lehre vom Analcharakter) Dr Karl Abraham refers to the work of Freud, Ferenczi, Jones and Sadger on the subject of anal erotism. In Freud's view the obsessional neurosis originates in a regression of libido to a pregenital phase of organisation in which the anal and the sadistic component instincts are prominent. Abraham hopes at some later date to throw light on the problem of the connection between sadism and anal erotism. In this paper he deals not so much with the symptoms which originate in repressed anal erotism as with certain typical 'anal' character-traits. Freud, in his first description, specified three such traits: self-will, a tendency to economy and a love of order, qualities which in their exaggerated forms appear as obstinacy, miserliness and pedantry.
Abraham describes some of the ways in which these characteristics manifest themselves in neurotic persons and relates them to infantile tendencies and experiences connected with the function of excretion. When a child is trained to habits of cleanliness, compelled, that is, to renounce his gratification in the products of excretion and his self-will with regard to the process, his narcissism sustains a blow but in general he is able to conform to the training through object-love, his desire to please his mother or nurse. If this training is forced upon him too early, the libido may undergo narcissistic fixation and the capacity for object-love suffers. This is the explanation of a type of character in which, underlying a marked outward docility and correctness, there are rebellious impulses and obstinacy. The conscious resignation and selfsacrifice of such persons conflicts with unconscious impulses of revenge.
It must be remembered that the infantile narcissistic feelings are clearly bound up with the excretory function. Abraham states that, just as the child in one stage believes in the omnipotence of his wishes, so at a still earlier stage he sees in his excretions the expression of his omnipotence. Hence the significance of the early training in cleanliness for his psycho-sexual development. In certain patients nervous constipation is accompanied by feelings of impotence. Here the libido has been displaced from the genital to the anal zone. Closely connected with this primitive feeling of omnipotence is the pride characteristic of certain neurotics in their own supposedly unique powers and possessions.
Self-will which has its origin in anal erotism may appear as a dislike of any kind of interference, an unwillingness to conform to the systems of others, combined with a strong desire to make rules and systems for oneself, or as a reluctance to yield to