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And there could certainly be no such thing as a 'castration-complex,' in which, as I have suggested, the ego trends play such an important part. In every case, the woman would accept herself and her destiny without knowing that there was anything to accept. As indeed, the larger proportion of women actually do; but the anomalies and exceptions have shown that this is by no means a simple inherent state, but is, as we have put it, the end-result of a long and complicated process of development. And it is the details of this development which we have as psychologists to inquire into.

On this view, then, briefly, the male and female infant are alike in the general character of the ego trends, and at first hardly differentiated in their sexuality. The little girl is almost as positive, active, sadistic and exhibitionistic as her brother, inevitably showing in her earliest love situations the clitoral attitude, as we have called it, rather than the reticence and modesty of her elder sister. But presently, towards the end of the first period of object-love, a hint of the divergence of the sexual and egoistic trends is seen in the girl child and of their convergence in the male, a phenomenon repeated more dramatically and on a much larger scale, with the onset of adolescence. And throughout the period of development there is a complex interplay, on both physiological and psychological levels, of the egoistic and sexual components of the personality.

The basic biological facts have often been stated, that the reproductive functions of the female set very definite limits to the development of her individuality, keeping her closer to type than the male, in whom, as we have seen, there is a greater range of individual variability. On the psychological side, it means that in the woman the reproductive functions and the qualities of femininity itself have to be taken up into the ego-ideal, so as to transform the initial power elements of the ego trends, in harmony with the character of the sex impulse and biological destiny. It is clear that the problem of reconciliation of the ego and sexual trends is more complicated for the female than it is for the male. Male sex activity becomes, indeed, the prototype for all activity, for the ego trends themselves. The penis is the organ of power and of knowledge; and in the fantasy of male and female alike, the first actual power experiences, the possession and expulsion of the faeces, are later equated to the male organ. Castration fantasies are not, of course, peculiar to the female mind; the essential difference is that the female ego has in reality to become reconciled to what is expressed on the unconscious level as castration. There has to be a reconciliation to the

loss of the penis, to the limiting of the direct expression of the power tendencies, to the transformation of the ego functions. And, as we know, this transformation is brought about, not only by the incorporation of femininity into the ego ideal during the formative period, but, at a much deeper level, by the unconscious identification of penis-faeceschild. The loss of faeces is, for the unconscious mind, the birth of a child; and to bear a child, especially a man child, is to recover the penis. This is the egoistic element in the self-forgetfulness of mother-love. Or, for other women, the possession of a lover, or of many lovers, is the possession of a penis; and power becomes the power to attract and hold the desire of a man.

Castration elements must thus be present in the unconscious mind of all women, although they are not necessarily pathogenic, nor so marked as to deserve the name 'castration-complex.' They undoubtedly play a large part in the genesis of that state of total repression of sex interest and sex knowledge in highly educated women, where there is present a strongly marked ego development with a complete repudiation of even the existence of sexual facts.

This would raise for us the question of what are the predisposing conditions to the development of a castration-complex, in women. (I confine myself here to women, because I am inclined to think that the genesis of the complex in men is related much more to the Oedipus situation, than it is to the question of sex differences-although there are of course important common elements.) I would suggest that the predisposing conditions fall into four groups. (1) Circumstantial; which I mention first, not because I think them the most or the least important, but because there is so little to say about them. We do not yet know what they may be, although we cannot doubt that they are operative. In discussing the external relations of the child presently, we shall come near to this issue. (2) The fact, to which I am inclined to attach a good deal of importance, that the awareness of the primary sex distinction comes to the child well before there is any marked development of the appropriate secondary sex characters. To put it simply, the little girl discovers that she is short of what her brother possesses (for, of course, to the child and the primitive, it is a matter of the mere presence or absence of a single positive organ, as there can be no knowledge of the real complementary organs and processes of the female), long before the characteristically feminine emotions and impulses, conditioned by the endocrine secretions, have come into play to any extent, and long before the development of the breasts, the equivalent of the penis in Med. Psych. II.


unconscious fantasy. (3) The fact that the secondary sex characters, including the emotional and temperamental, natively present every degree of difference from individual to individual. It will clearly be less easy for a girl child who is near the middle region of differences as regards type of energy, and instinctive and emotional endowment, to accept the supposed loss of the phallus, and effect the normal feminine transformation of the ego. The castration fantasy will in such a case tend to be pathogenic, for the conflict will be greater. Where there is from the beginning a more typically feminine organic and emotional setting, the psychological problem will be less acute. (4) We may consider also initial differences in anal and urethral erotism, which are unmistakeable elements in the complex, and are, as we have already noted, closely connected with the power aspects of the ego trends. Wherever we found stongly marked anal defiance and obstinacy in the girl child, we should, I think, expect to see hints of a castration-complex; and, conversely, wherever we found a well developed castration-complex, we should expect to find strong anal interests and dislike of interference in connection with the process of evacuation. (The most marked case I have observed of the castration-complex in a girl child, A., showed this very clearly. From the period of infancy onwards there was always a refusal to evacuate at the required time and place, the process being postponed as long as possible with every show of defiance and obstinacy, traits which were excessively developed in every direction. She was an unusually questioning, 'naughty' and unhappy child. In her second and third years, she developed the habit of drinking her bath water, and was on one occasion found drinking the water in which tadpoles had been kept. When about four and a half years of age, she persuaded her brother (eighteen months her senior) to cut off her hair, remarking "Now I am a boy." And was presently discovered in the act of swallowing some large object with great difficulty, an object which turned out to be her brother's whistle; her comment was "I didn't like the noise, so I hid it in myself.")

(c) We may now turn to our third question, that of whether there are any psychological mechanisms peculiar to or more characteristic of either male or female, a question which will occupy us only a few moments. It is, I think, probable that there is only one specific sex difference here, viz. that women show a greater tendency to reactionformation than do men. We might take as examples, the greater frequency in women of over-devotion, over-conscientiousness, over-cleanliness and prudishness. But when we have called these reaction-formations, we

cannot leave the matter. Further analysis is required before anything very significant can be said. It is clear that two of our examples, viz. over-cleanliness and prudishness, are related to the processes we discussed in our last section, and two, viz. over-devotion and over-conscientiousness, to the problem we are to take up next, that of the external relations of the boy and girl. Over-cleanliness is probably the simplest case of reaction-formation; it is a strong disgust barrier erected against strong interests in the excretory processes; and, as one might expect, includes a marked masochistic element. The situation is more complicated in the case of prudishness, which is not a simple reaction barrier to a simple primitive tendency. It includes a pure reaction element, against the active sex curiosity and exhibitionism of the clitoral phase in the girl child; but it is more than this. As we have seen, it is in part the outcome of the castration-complex, a repudiation of the female role, and of the limits which this imposes upon the direct expression of the power elements in the ego trends. By denying sex, the childish interest in sex, and the fact of femaleness, are at one and the same time repudiated.

In addition to this specific fact of the greater frequency of reactionformations in women, it is also clear that the total degree of repression appears to be greater, and more widely diffused, over the sexual life.

(d) We may now consider differences in the external relations of boy and girl, and in the problems of adjustment which these relations dictate. We may leave on one side the relations with brothers and sisters, since the situation varies so greatly with the number and relative ages of these; and content ourselves with a brief survey of the phases through which the boy and the girl travel in their relations with parents and parent surrogates.

The first phase, covering the intra-uterine and suckling periods is, of course, exactly similar for boy and girl. Both are sheltered in the mother's womb, both suffer the first great trauma of birth, both find nourishment and pleasure at the mother's breast, and have to endure the loss of the nipple at the time of weaning. Thus, for both, there is a stage when child and mother are one; and for both, the mother first means shelter, warmth and tenderness. And in each case the first interferences and discipline come from the mother, interferences with anal and urethral powers and pleasures; the mother is thus the first and most intimately personal authority, for both boy and girl. She is also, however, for both, the first object of love. When, in the child's second year of life, the growing ascendancy of the exteroceptors and the power of active exploration of the world establish more active relations

with the persons around him, there develops the gradual awareness of them as persons, and the movement of the libido outwards. The mother, with whom the child has had physical union, and who has served his most intimate personal needs, then forms the natural bridge between the phase of complete auto-erotism and that of developed object-love; she, as the first source of pleasure, is the first natural focus for the outward-flowing libido, whether in boy or girl. The child's first attitude to the mother is thus ambivalent; she is the first love, and the first hostile force, the emphasis on one or other of these aspects varying with the child and the characteristics of the mother. Behind the intimate figure of the mother is that of the father, more remote, more powerful, vaguer, and larger, coming and going more mysteriously and independently. And presently, with the gradual widening of experience and growth of intellectual power, he becomes linked with the great power symbols of the child's world, with the policeman, the soldier, the tramconductor and engine-driver. He thus early becomes the more impressive figure of authority and power, an image which must be made immensely vivid and compelling where the young child is allowed to be witness of the marital embraces of the parents, as is most usually the case. This, again, must be true for both boy and girl.

During this same period, however, the sexual preferences of the parents, whether they find conscious or unconscious expression, begin to act upon the young child. The father is more easily indulgent and demonstrative with the girl child, the mother with the boy; the father is more ready to find fault with and to check the waywardness of his son, the mother to restrict and correct her daughter. This differentiated reaction of the parents must be the earliest stimulus to the differentiation. of the sex object in the child; but very presently it is reinforced by the organic stimulus of the first functioning of the interstitial glands of the reproductive organs, bringing the earliest hint of secondary sex characters, and of differentiation in the sexual impulse, as we have already noted. And thus the sex preferences of the child himself are established. From this point there is an important difference between boy and girl, in external relations. We may follow out the boy's development first.

For him, the first infantile love-object, the mother, who drew his budding affection in the transitional period between complete autoerotism and differentiated object-love, remains as the true and normal centre of his sex interest, and the prototype of all normal love-objects for him. The early discipline situations with the mother, her interference with excretory pleasures, are then sexualised, the faeces and urine

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