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lowed by the ordinary happy man or woman, unless indeed it is for professional purposes, when it becomes indispensable. After a family tiff one is not to be sent round for treatment to the nearest analyst.

Jung and his disciples from their point of view would, as the author points out, submit everyone to a course of the "synthetic method," to be repeated whenever there is an individual or family jar. Dr van der Hoop seems alive to the dangers of the synthetic method (p. 106) leading the patient to accept the analyst's views and opinions and to mould his life upon experiences which are not his own. The analysis complete, Freud would have his patient build up his own life; ideally he is free to pursue his own path once the blinkers have been removed; Freud would have too much respect for the individual to seek to interfere with the regulation of another life.

The dream analyses which the author gives are rather marked instances of the dangers and futility of the synthetic method. It is surprising that so experienced an analyst can accept so banal an interpretation of a dream as that given on page 123-where he vaunts the absence of all associations; again he would surely on reflection not insist that the dream analysed on page 109 is an instance of the solution of an intellectual problem in a dream. In both cases the intepretations come near degenerating (to use the author's own criticism of the synthetic method) into "washy mysticism or superficial moralising."

Dr van der Hoop is generally so unbiassed in his exposition of Freud's views that one may ask him whether it is quite fair to leave the reader under the impression that Freud regards the sexual impulse as solely accountable for art and religion. A few similar misstatements might well be corrected in the next edition.

The first three chapters with their dullish account of psycho-analysis seem unnecessary, as does Chapter V on psychological types. In the one case Freud's Introductory Lectures serve the purpose better: in the other Jung's own book is more readable. Anyone not convinced by Jung's work (the position of the reviewer), will certainly not be converted-an appropriate term-by Dr van der Hoop's chapter.

The reconciliation which the author is supposed to effect between the views of Freud and Jung is not attempted in the body of the book.

The translation is probably accurate enough, there has been no opportunity of testing it. There are several errors in the references to the bibliography, e.g. p. 143, xxxXIV should be xxvi; p. 112 xxxvII should be XXVI.

M. D. EDER.

Heredity and Child Culture. By HENRY DWIGHT CHAPIN, M.D. London: George Routledge and Sons. 1923. Pp. 189. Price 6s. net.

This is a sound and very hopeful book. Nothing relevant to the subject has been omitted and every aspect of child culture receives sympathetic consideration.

Dr Chapin believes that heredity seems to be more important as an influence in the lower organisms than in man, and while granting the truth, on the biological side, of Weismann's theory, "that every child is moulded solely by inherited tendencies which cannot essentially be altered," he feels we have the possibility of a wide and splendid social heritage which may do much to shape life's currents and even compensate for some defects of organic inherit

ance. His own experience as director of a Children's Village Settlement for incorrigible boys, in the United States, leads him to the conclusion that a bad social inheritance was responsible for their downfall. When this was corrected, a favourable result nearly always followed.

The expectant mother is the object of careful study, and due weight is given to all conditions necessary for the production of a healthy infant. The high mortality among infants of one month old may, it is considered, be reduced by education and careful supervision of the mother during pregnancy. The unfortunate results arising from neglect of the child of pre-school age are well brought out. At this most susceptible period when the foundations of health and character should be firmly established, a relaxation of parental attention frequently takes place. Among the better off the child may pass from the skilled hands of the nurse to those of an ignorant if well meaning attendant. The poorer child, once it has "found its feet," is regarded as more or less adapted to the habits of adult life. "A careful oversight of the infant's bottle gives place to a later laxity of feeding. As result various forms of malnutrition and even deficiency diseases may ensue." Measles, whooping-cough, and early tuberculosis may lower resistance and, by their sequelae, handicap the future life of the individual. “Grief, worry, anger, fear, apprehension and emotional shocks may become fixed and form the early beginnings of what will eventually lead to individual and social maladjustments." The seeds of these mental weeds can be freely planted where the mind of the child is unguarded.

A thoughtful consideration is extended towards the school-child and the problems of adolescence. The author rightly deprecates the crowded state of the school time-table as working in every way against the true function of education. While the child should early be taught to think, and think straight, premature forcing may lead to a later reaction in which the child pays up for impressions crowded too soon upon an immature mind. Dr Chapin would lessen the number of subjects taught and shorten school holidays. He is uneasy about the physical results of higher education upon girls. At the time of maturing the body is more important than the mind, yet this is just the time when the girl is pushed hardest in her educational career, if she expects to pursue a course in high school or college. His remedy is that the girl should be educated with the idea of becoming a wife rather than a school teacher.

While there is grave reason to suspect an intellectual education which is proved to cripple the body while only partially training the mind, surely a solution of the problem is not to be found in specialised training for a vocation which the person so trained may never be called upon to fulfil. The difficulty is great. But the need is rather to lighten the burden of celibacy for the maternal woman, to whom social conditions deny the exercise of her natural functions.

The future of the child rendered dependent by death or poverty of parents, or by illegitimacy, is handled with very real sympathy and insight. The author has devised and set working a practical scheme of boarding-out and adoption which has been enthusiastically received by international authorities. But if the child is above all things to be protected from emotional storms, one is inclined to protest against the adoption of dependent waifs as a way of salvation for "neurotic wives and neurasthenic spinsters." "From him that hath not shall be taken away even that which he hath"?

Clear and interesting diagrams and tables are used as illustration, and the whole book proves itself "the work of a man of sense raised to a high point of

sensitiveness." One may hope that the "supervision" of family life which is so largely recommended will be only temporary and educational. And one might doubt the stability of a society which demands for its protection such drastic steps as the permanent incarceration of "all tramps and cranks." "All tramps," in a land where there is a whole continent to tramp in? And "all cranks"! Is there no housing shortage in the States?

LORNA YARDE-BUNYARD.

The Constitutional Factors in Dementia Praecox. By NOLAN D. C. LEWIS, M.D. Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Company, New York and Washington, 1923. pp. 134. Price $3.00.

This work embodies the results of an extensive research into the morbid anatomy of Dementia Praecox. The author excludes Dementia Paranoides for reasons which he will explain in future publications.

From a study of over six hundred autopsies on cases of Dementia Praecox, the author shows that the heart and circulatory system are undeveloped in this disease. In 75.5 per cent. of the cases of Dementia Praecox the heart was below average weight, the nearest approach to this proportion in other insanities being 59.1 per cent. in General Paralysis; but it would appear that the heart is below average weight in all the insanities. In Dementia Praecox, however, even the lumen of the aorta is strikingly small.

The author naturally sought an explanation of his discovery by examining the endocrine glands. This he did thoroughly in 22 of his cases and he found histopathological changes (aplasias, atrophies, scleroses and patchy hyperplasias), not only in the gonads as Sir Frederick Mott has described, but also in the thyroid, adrenals and (in six of the cases) the pituitary.

These changes "are as universally present as are the characteristic mental symptoms in the clinical picture of a case." They "do not depend on age, duration of psychosis, or the association of physical disease." Dr Lewis's considered conclusion is that the function of the glands has suffered during the development of the personality. From this and other passages in the book we gather that the author is willing to accept the view that the morbid anatomical features he has discovered are not primary, but secondary to mental factors; and that dementia praecox is of purely psychical origin.

W. H. B. STODDART.

Psychoanalysis and Suggestion Therapy. By Dr W. STEKEL. Authorized translation by JAMES S. VAN TESLAAR. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner and Co., Ltd. Pp. xi + 155. Price 6s. 6d. net.

Fortunately the eulogistic description of the author on the jacket, which might be regarded as mere advertisement, is confirmed by a reading of the book itself. Dr Stekel leaves no doubt in the minds of his readers, through a proper reiteration of his merits and through the avowal, with the modesty of true greatness, of occasional errors in diagnosis and treatment (these generally little ones and at any rate having occurred a long while ago excuses familiar to most doctors) that he is the world's greatest psychotherapist.

In the handsomest manner Dr Stekel admits that Freud has, or rather had his value; more in sorrow than in anger he demonstrates that Freud's decline began with his refusal to accept the lightning strokes of the world's greatest, etc. Dr Stekel complains that his cured patients evince so little gratitude; he, however, insists almost to wearisomeness that whoever does not get well under treatment by Dr Stekel has only himself to blame through his "will to illness,' that the cured perhaps not unfairly claims his recovery as due to his own efforts, to his "will to wellness"-alone I did it might say both the cured and uncured.

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"I assumed a bellicose tone" Dr Stekel states in one case; he always seems to be assuming a bellicose tone, to be tyrannizing the unfortunate person who does not respond to treatment by making the sufferer entirely responsible for the failure. The reviewer is reminded of the insight he once obtained into the methods of a Christian Scientist who for years ministered to a man suffering from progressive muscular atrophy. When the only progress the patient made was towards a bulbar paralysis the practitioner turned round and abused, in a most unchristian way, the wife and the other members of the family. It was their want of belief, the atmosphere of evil thinking, that was killing the patient. The poor wife was distracted to frenzy by her attempts to believe that her dying husband was getting better every day; self-accusations and mental torture evoked the compassion of a non-Christian Scientist. Dr Stekel's abusive methods, though less cruel, for they are only directed towards the patient, are not dissimilar.

However, no one would wish to have a real disagreement with Dr Stekel; it is hard to conceive of a serious discussion on psychotherapy with him as it would be to have a serious discussion on, say entomology, with Morpho Adonis. The existence of that brilliant butterfly is its own justification as is the existence of Dr Stekel with his possession of the born journalist's mind: the journalist's mind is an excellent and valuable article for a journalist; for the scientist?

With most of Dr Stekel's opinions there will be substantial agreement among psychologists: they are the commonplaces of the literature.

Perhaps Dr Stekel in the book he is now publishing or writing (he seems to have discovered the secret of perpetually finding publishers to publish the same kind of thing under another title) will correct the remark about Jung's method on p. 5.

The translation is an excellent piece of English; 'facetiously' on p. 8 would be better rendered 'half humorously.'

M. D. EDER.

Dreams. By H. TASMAN LOVELL, M.A., PH.D. Published by the Australasian Association of Psychology and Philosophy, Sydney, N.S.W. pp. 74. Price 2s. 6d.

This monograph by the associate Professor of Psychology in The University of Sydney is an attempt to expound the main features of Freud's theory of dreams and to make a critical examination of some of the more important of Freud's principles.

The author does not pretend that his treatment of the subject is exhaustive and he tells us that he is conscious of the defects that are present in the critical

section of his work; but he exercises the right which, he thinks, "every psychologist may claim, of expressing his views upon principles which are the subject of controversy, and of attempting to reconcile traditional psychology with what is apparently incontrovertible in the invaluable system evolved by Freud." We may well demur to this claim on the part of "every psychologist until he can show that he has an adequate acquaintance with the principles he is expounding or criticising.

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Dr Lovell is apparently at that stage of criticism of Freud's doctrines where judgment is influenced by the affects connected with the subject of sex. We have all probably passed through the phase in which we feel that "there is something out of focus in this psychology" and that "there is an over-emphasis put upon the sex interests which does not accord with the facts of spiritual life as many good men and women actually lead it." We have also perhaps experienced a glow of satisfaction when the happy thought has occurred to us that "perhaps this over-emphasis may be due to the fact that the great majority of the dreams upon the analysis of which the theory was founded were the dreams of neurotic patients."

For so small a book there appears to be an inordinate amount of quotation. We have here whole pages of letterpress embraced by inverted commas. The authors chiefly drawn upon are Freud, Jung, Maeder and Rivers. Such liberal use of authors' own words should tend towards accuracy of exposition; but Dr Lovell frequently goes astray when he takes his eyes off the book. He says that Freud used dreams in his analytic search of the patient's mind and that "he claims to have been so successful that he calls dreams the ‘royal road' to psycho-analysis." But, alas, Freud has told us of no royal road' to psychoanalysis; what he has told us of is the 'royal road' to the Unconscious.

It seems as if Dr Lovell has not yet found this road, for he says he "has felt for some time past that it is unscientific and mystifying to regard the unconscious as an entity of diabolical cunning and intelligence, which is ever at work repressing and dissociating this, resisting the rise, disguising, or altering the emphasis of that, until the hope of explanation seems to be denied any fulfilment."

This monograph is dated 1923.

T. W. M.

Multiple Sclerosis (Disseminated Sclerosis). An Investigation by the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases. New York: Paul B. HOEber. pp. xvi + 241. Price $3.75.

Of all organic diseases of the nervous system none is, in one sense, of greater interest to the psychotherapeutist than Multiple Sclerosis. In its early stages it is easily mistaken for hysteria and there are probably few psychotherapeutists of experience who have not been at some time asked to treat cases of this incurable disease; for even the most expert neurologists are sometimes at fault in making the differential diagnosis between the two conditions. This book should therefore be of interest to those whose work lies in the field of the functional neuroses, for an accurate knowledge of the general and special symptomatology of Multiple Sclerosis may some day save them from bringing discredit on the art of psychotherapy.

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