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difference as hostility. Now just as the jealous paranoiac recognises the unfaithfulness of others rather than his own (for in delusional jealousy all three strata' are present). so in delusions of persecution the element of hate in the ambivalent feeling causes the patient to suspect the person most dear to him.

The second patient might not, at this stage of his illness, have been classified as suffering from paranoia persecutoria, nevertheless analysis showed that delusions of persecution were present in him, though he himself attached no importance to them but derided or rationalised them. Freud draws the significant conclusion that the qualitative factor is of less practical importance than the quantitative, i.e. that what matters is the degree of investment of existing neurotic formations. Once more, our attention is drawn to the economic aspect.

The dreams of the second patient had an obvious paranoia content, while those of the first were free from delusion and had suggested to Freud the question whether paranoia can penetrate into dreams. He shows that this question implies a faulty conception of the dream. For such terms as 'hysterical' or 'paranoiac' are inapplicable to that which is repressed; it is the other part of the dream material, namely the preconscious thoughts, which may take on the character of hysteria or paranoia. That which was repressed entered into the dreams of both patients, but those of the second, who in waking life derided his own delusional ideas, had a paranoia content. But Freud notes that no general rule is necessarily to be inferred from these facts. In the section on homosexuality Freud recapitulates the psychic factors recognised hitherto: fixation to and identification with the mother; the tendency to narcissistic object-choice; the high estimation of the male organ, leading to disparagement of the woman; the castration complex (fear of rivalry with the father) and early fixations resulting from seduction. He now shows that to these must be added the factor of jealousy, for the reaction-formation against this tendency gives rise to tender feelings towards the once hated rival (e.g. the elder brother). In Freud's opinion this is an exaggeration of the process by which the individual develops social impulses1.

The first three sections of Dr Ernest Jones' work on "The Theory of Symbolism" have appeared in a previous number of the Zeitschrift (vol. v, p. 244). The last two sections, "Functional Symbolism" and "Review of Conclusions" are contained in the second original paper in this number. English readers are referred to Dr Jones' book: Papers on Psycho-Analysis (Baillière, Tindall and Cox), chap. vii, pp. 58 ff.

In a paper entitled "Psycho-Analysis and organic diseases" Dr Felix Deutsch discusses the part played by psychic factors in the aetiology of organic disease. It will, he says, be commonly conceded that pleasure and pain exercise an influence upon the bodily processes, the former affect causing expansion, and the latter contraction, of the peripheral vascular system. Such a disturbance in innervation may lead, by way of functional change, to organic injury. The organism aims primarily at maintaining a condition of equilibrium (= pleasure) by mastering excessive stimulation (= pain); thus, every change in the organic processes indicates the working of instinctive impulses, which is as much as to say that by means of psychic mechanisms organic changes can be brought about.

Dr Deutsch puts forward certain conclusions to which he has come as to the connection between the organic symptom and the psychic processes. He believes that the constitutional factor in disease is often over-rated and that what is taken to be the hereditary inferiority of a particular organ may really result from the mechanism of identification, producing functional disturbance, though it is true that a repressed tendency will choose the path of least resistance (i.e. will avail itself of the constitutional disposition) for symptom-formation. Organic injury may ensue simply from long-continued psychic over-stimulation of an organ, or some exogenous injury may occasion the symptom for which such stimulation has prepared the way. The mental conflict can express itself in morbid changes of organs over which the patient has no conscious control, and the same organic symptom may be motivated by the most varied unconscious tendencies2.

1 v. Massenpsychologie und Ich-Analyse, 1921.

2 These remarks apply to such organs as receive their innervation from the vegetative nervous system.

When organic illness has developed from some exogenous cause, the repressed tendencies may all take advantage of the weakened state of the ego, so that, as the writer puts it, "every organic illness acts in a certain sense as the provocation of a neurosis in little."

He maintains that, in different nations as well as in different individuals, the same disease may display different symptoms, and that particular symptoms may represent certain mental characteristics (e.g. the symptom of constipation may indicate the anal character). Following this line of thought he concludes that a number of the symptoms in organic diseases are psychically determined.

Discussing "the mysterious leap from the psychic to the organic," Dr Deutsch suggests that less psychic expenditure is required for the formation of an organic, than for that of a psychoneurotic, symptom; the formation of the one or the other would depend upon the quantity of libido which has to be mastered.

An organic symptom may be determined not by one psychic motivation only, but by many, and the Unconscious can make use of any organ the more easily in proportion to the extent of anatomical change which has taken place from longcontinued psychic excitation.

Often the psychic cause may remain hidden, because there is an adequate physical explanation, but, even in such cases, the writer would confidently look for concealed psychogenic sources.

He illustrates his points by cases which have come under his own notice and ends his paper by raising the question whether psycho-analytic treatment of organic changes is possible. Such treatment, he observes, must suffer two limitations: on the one hand, where an irrevocable organic injury has taken place, it is only possible to remove the psychic superstructure with its conversion symptoms, while, on the other hand, where a double treatment by a physician and an analyst has to be carried out, the former is hampered by the necessity of not disturbing the transference to the latter.

In his theory of the "masculine protest" Adler maintains that the aetiology of neurotic illness is to be sought in organ inferiority, the individual endeavouring, throughout life, to compensate for such inferiority by asserting his "will to power. In an article upon “The part played in a neurosis by an organic superiority” Dr C. P. Oberndorf describes the case of a patient of his own, whose 'superiority' lay in the unusually large size of his penis, and shows that the true basis of the symptoms was the sexual impressions and external happenings of early childhood, and that in later life the patient displaced the neurotic conflict upon the 'superior' organ. Marcinowski has demonstrated1 that in cases of organ inferiority also the feeling of inferiority arises later, when the child has suffered disappointment in his sexual life. This is in accordance with Freud's view that the impulse of aggression is not in itself sufficient to account for the majority of neurotic symptoms, the true origin of which is the conflict with repressed infantile sexual tendencies.

"A dream of a homosexual" is the second of Dr Felix Boehm's contributions to the psychology of homosexuality2. He discusses the unconscious phantasy of certain homosexuals, according to which the woman possesses an immense, concealed penis which is a source of danger to the male organ.

Besides critical notes and reviews this number contains seventeen short communications. Of these four are on the subject of 'errors,' two on birth-dreams and two on the female castration complex. Professor Freud relates that he was recently visited by "Little Hans" whose analysis was published in 1909. He is now 19 years old and free from psychic disabilities or inhibitions. Freud notes as a curious instance of amnesia that Hans has lost the recollection of his analysis.


1 G. Marcinowski: "Die erotischen Quellen der Minderwertigkeitsgefühle." Zeitschrift für Sexualwissenschaft, IV, 12, 1918.

2 "Homosexualität und Polygamie" appeared in the Zeitschrift, vol. VI, No. 4.

Journal de Psychologie normale et pathologique (XIX).

No. 3. March 1922.

La méthode dans l'étude des dessins d'enfants. (G. H. LUQUET.)
A critical summary of method in the study of child drawings.

Three classes of enquiry are described: (i) the method of enquiry, (ii) the method of direct observation, (iii) study of street drawings. The first method, which is that used by Lamprecht in 1904, consists in obtaining, by the aid of various correspondents, principally teachers, a number of child drawings. It yields a large amount of material and enables comparison to be made of work of different children on the same subject; but the children are working under artificial conditions, their efforts being not spontaneous either as to occasion or material. It is impossible to secure equality of interest, aptitude and method of procedure from the various collaborators; the classification by age in years is too coarse and the application of statistical methods leads to the elimination of points of real psychological interest. In the third method attempts are made to copy and trace the origin of street drawings. These drawings are entirely lacking in personal information, are almost always anonymous but occasionally bear a title, while some of the most interesting are unintelligible. They have been executed apart from all suggestion by those in authority but there may have been suggestions from companions and the influence of drawings already present can sometimes be clearly seen. All the drawings however are not the work of children. In the second method, which in the opinion of the author is the best, the child is observed by one with whom he is quite familiar but should be unaware of the particular interest of his work for the observer and his work should be quite spontaneous. While giving a sound basis for the formation of hypotheses it does not supply sufficient data to permit of generalisation with certainty and in consequence the other methods must be called in to determine average standards of performance. Finally, attention is drawn to the necessity of seeking for drawings which exhibit significant evidence on various points and the possibility of obtaining these under experimental conditions is discussed.

Essai sur la multiplication logique et les débuts de la pensée formelle chez l'enfant. (J. Piaget.)

An enquiry into the circumstances under which and age when formal reasoning appears in the child and of its development, conducted by means of five series of test problems, the solution of each involving certain logical processes.

Notes sur les troubles de l'évaluation du temps chez les aliénés. (G. Halberstadt.)

Cases from the work of Virchon, Bechterew, Rosenberg, and from the author's own observation, of abnormal estimation of time among sufferers from dementia praecox and other maladies. Intervals of time may be greatly shortened or lengthened in the estimation of the sufferer.

L'évolution contemporaine de la psychiatrie et son passage de la psychologie à la biologie. (André Barbé.)

The study of mental troubles, originally purely psychological, came to embrace general and anatomical pathological methods as well as clinical observation. These have led to the recognition of the part played by intoxications and infections. Encouraging results have been obtained from the study of the cerebro-spinal fluid. Investigations on the blood of the insane are still in the experimental stage and the study of the glands and internal secretions is worthy of attention. Functional modifications of the circulatory, respiratory and digestive systems are important, and radiography, especially of the skull, may yield information. At the same time clinical study of the nervous system, (1) as regards intellectual functioning, (2) physical study of reflexes, etc., must proceed.

De l'utilisation de la méthode comparative comme critère de la positivité des faits psychologiques. (P. Masson-Oursel.)

Paper and discussion of the Société de Psychologie at its Meeting of 8th December, 1921.

No. 5. May 1922.

Tendances et faits psychologiques (1). (Fr. Paulhan.)

The writer would seem to argue for a form of psychological atomism: the mind being conceived as a plurality of "tendencies." Tendencies are the simplest elements of mind. They can excite other tendencies and form groups. Tendency is the essential fact of mental life but a tendency can only be precisely defined by its end. The total of the acts determined by a tendency gives information about it. All tendencies are not psychological; some are physiological. The psychologist is concerned only with those affecting mental life. Tendency is anterior to psychological facts: the latter only exist by virtue of the system of which they are a part. Tendencies come in contact with exterior reality; they also react on one another. Thus are produced the psychological phenomena ('facts'). Percept and idea like emotion have only real participation in mental life through the tendencies which they serve or through the systems of tendencies to which they belong.

Reflexions sur la paramnésie. (M. Déat.)

The writer criticises Bergson's views, examines the facts in some detail and enunciates the hypothesis: paramnesia occurs when a present position of consciousness gathers together on one hand a superficial, imaginative, natural element, and on the other hand, deeper down, an organic, affective, motor content; and when these different states are joined, not by an intelligible correspondence already worked out in fact or attachable to other analagous experiences, not by the unity of an undivided act where all rapport remains eminently synthetic, but by a symbolic link and transfer, made sensible through a commencing dissociation which they also hold together, a link of which the immediately seized certainty does not give us the key.

Genèse de la métaphysique. (F. Sartiaux.)

La peur de l'action (résumé preliminaire). (P. Janet.)

No. 6. June.

Signification et valeur de la psychophysique. (E. Bonaventura.)

Whether Weber's Law be rejected, modified or accepted, there remains the question of what is really measured in the so-called psychophysical researches. Fechner held that what is measured is the relation between sensation, a psychical fact, and the external agent, a physical fact. Taking mass as an example: muscular sensation is compared with visual sensation, in reading the movement of the pointer of the balance. There is no justification for regarding this visual sensation as a physical fact, and therefore Fechner's interpretation cannot stand. The author considers the view put forward by M. Bourbon (Revue philosophique, LXXXVIII, 1919, pp. 119-121) to be in close agreement with the facts, but believes that the theory must be extended.

There are four means of comparing two sounds of equal pitch but differing in intensity, (1) by hearing, (2) by touch: the vibrating reeds giving different sensations distinguishable only with great difficulty, (3) by sight (direct): the vibrations being seen confusedly, and (4) by sight (indirect): when a graphic record is taken. This last is by far the most delicate. Similar consideration of the other senses shows that sight is the means to the most accurate comparison of sensations, and sight is therefore used as the standard.

In order to estimate the accuracy of judgments as to the measurable characters of things (intensity, extensity, protensity) it is necessary first of all to decide on one class of judgments as "true." The criteria for the choice cannot, as such, be rational: experience can be the only guide. The class chosen is that of visual judgments of space. This allows of superposition which enables us to carry precision to the limits of sensory acuity; for visual acuity is 300 times greater than tactual or motor acuity. In general we look on the visual presentation of space as the direct revelation of external reality and it was by overlooking the fallacy in this that Fechner fell into error. M. Pradines (Rev. Philos. xc, 1920, 393-431) is also criticised. Visual spatial

presentations are the standard for sensorial judgments, because we possess no more perfect perceptual instrument. They do not necessarily always reveal reality without error; only we have no means of control. The subject does not give us information of things but only of his own nature, and it is this fact that makes the problem of psychophysics one proper to psychology.

Thus regarded, it has two principal tasks. (1) To establish the experimental laws which express the normal relation of accuracy between the judgments founded on visual space and other sensorial judgments. (2) To determine the physiological and psychological conditions which modify these relations.

(1) We require to know, firstly, the size of the errors in sensory judgments, with reference to visual spatial judgments, and, secondly, if that accuracy is constant for all variations in the measurable characters of things. We are not à priori obliged to believe all the phenomena governed by a single law. Experience shows that the logarithmic law applies best to hearing. In sensation of light an exponential law has been found. In the case of muscular sensation an attempt to apply a parabolic law has been made. If it is wished to advance the hypothesis that one of these laws is fundamental it can only be that which has from the psychological as well as the mathematical point of view the widest significance: that is the exponential law. which is the law of all the so-called critical phenomena.

(2) It is also necessary to determine the conditions which modify the normal values of the differential threshold. The most fruitful psychophysical methods, the method of "right and wrong cases" and the method of 'mean error,' are statistical methods. This means that the values of the threshold taken as bases for the different laws are those most frequently found. But all the values differing from these must have their reasons and it is the task of psychophysical analysis to discover these. L'esthétique fondée sur l'amour. (Ch. Lalo.)

The origin of personal decoration, according to Yrjo Hirn (Origins of Art, London, 1900) is not to be sought only in sex. There are other more important origins for primitive peoples. It serves as a tribal distinction, having a political significance. All primitive peoples take pride in wearing trophies of war and the chase. It is not proved by historical arguments that art is a product of sexual selection.

The aim of art is to excite affective states, and the erotic impulse being the most intense, it is natural that a developed (conscious) art should make use of it. At the beginning of evolution, and at its end, however, the relations of the sexes awaken different feelings and if art derives much of its development from sex, it does not owe its origin to it.

For Nietzsche and his school everything in art comes from instinct; reason merely builds on its foundations, and without sex there can be no art. But it is by the Freudian school that the erotic basis of art receives greatest stress. Art is a "sublimation" and the artist is one who has great power of sublimation, but little power of repressing the impulses arising within him. This is unjustifiable generalisation: the method of psychoanalysis must be retained but its obsession for sex must be abandoned. Tendences et faits psychologiques (2). (Fr. Paulhan.)

L'imagination objectivante et les hallucinations visuelles vraies. (M. Mignard.)

True visual hallucinations are simply the result of the unbalanced exercise of a normal function. Creative imagination is a psychological function which serves as a complement to perception. In sleep, the suspension of controlling functions, necessary to adapted action, allows this function to proceed abnormally with dream vision as a result.

Un Cas de brusque variation dans la forme des crises d'origine émotive. (H. Wallon.) Sur la sincérité de certains délirants. (F.-L. Arnaud.)

Two papers read before the Société de Psychologie, each followed by a discussion from P. Janet.

R. J. B.

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