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nystagmus without nystagmus ever having been noted after careful expert examination.
Only a very limited examination by the psychoanalytical method was possible in the limited time available, but it showed that the symptoms in all cases so examined formed an integral part of the mental make-up of the patient. The following case illustrates some relationship between the man's symptoms and his life in the pit. He was not, however, analysed. His eyes showed irregular nystagmoid movements. He stated that he occasionally had fainting attacks in which he usually lost consciousness, but sometimes retained some awareness of his surroundings. During the first examination he had a severe attack of generalized tremors, nystagmus and internal strabismus of both eyes, rapid shallow respiration, pulse 120 and a facial expression of marked anxiety. He stated that the fainting attacks commenced with a "rising sensation" in the abdomen closely resembling the sensation experienced while going down in the cage. A feeling of giddiness was next described similar to that felt on stooping or looking at a lamp in the dark galleries. At this stage he would fall. On coming to he would have general tremors with a subjective sensation which he said was like that previously induced by exertion and later by excitement at any time. These resemblances were all pointed out by the man himself. The fainting attack appeared to be, then, a reproduction of the various subjective sensations experienced first in the pit and later above-ground under conditions which reproduce those of the pit.
Nystagmus may have a sudden onset. Such occurrences have made themselves felt during influenza and other lowering affections1, and such necessities for psychic re-adaptation as a bereavement, also after accidents and local injuries to the head or eyes, or even accidents to remote parts, for instance, blows on the back or limbs. Events of this sort frequently serve as determining causes for the outbreak of a neurosis, so again creating a point of resemblance between nystagmus and the neuroses.
Summary of Observations.
(1) Injury sustained to the head, eyes or other part of the body, severe illness or mental anguish may be followed by severe trains of neurotic symptoms and nystagmus may be observed on examination2.
(2) Injury to, or a foreign body in one eye aggravates both the subjective symptoms and the objective signs, in cases where nystagmus already existed, for some time after the attendant conjunctivitis has cleared up.
1 Llewellyn, Miners' Nystagmus, p. 134.
2 Ibid. pp. 98-101.
(3) The effect of directing the patient's attention to his symptoms is to aggravate the symptoms.
(4) Symptoms of nystagmus may first be observed at the time of onset of a neurosis.
(5) When neurotic symptoms intervene in a case of hitherto pure nystagmus, the symptoms secondary to the nystagmus are incorporated amongst those of the neurosis.
(6) The nystagmus group of symptoms passes gradually, without line of demarcation, into the anxiety group. Tremors of the hands follow those of the head which latter are secondary to the nystagmus, and these tremors are apt to become general on excitement or exertion. Finally tachycardia, hyperidrosis and other anxiety symptoms follow.
(7) In those cases of nystagmus which are combined with an obvious neurosis the ocular oscillations are experimentally inseparable from the tremors and other neurotic signs.
(8) A few cases, in the course of analysis, became greatly agitated and suffered great exacerbation of their symptoms, including the nystagmus. In other words the nystagmus took part in an abreaction.
(9) In certain cases physical re-education of the eye movements, which really amounted to treatment by suggestion, favourably influenced the nystagmus as well as the subjective sensations.
(10) The actual nystagmus itself did not appear accessible to analysis, and, therefore, seemed to be of the nature of an actual neurotic rather than a psychoneurotic symptom.
(11) The course of the cases under treatment is a good example of the dependence of the patient upon the physician, so characteristic of hysteria.
(12) The patient exhibits resistance against the removal of his symptoms, of which resistance he is quite unaware, and over which he has no control. For instance, several of the men stated that their state came on or got worse whenever they started off for the clinic, sometimes causing them to turn back and go home. This sudden exacerbation of the symptoms occurred too often under these and similar circumstances to be a coincidence and seemed to be a definite feature of the disease.
In conclusion I wish to express my keen appreciation of the great kindness and assistance which I met with at the hands of the late Dr W. H. R. Rivers, Dr T. Lister Llewellyn and Mr G. H. Pooley of the Miners' Nystagmus Committee, and of the Managers and Staffs of the collieries which I visited in Tredegar, Newcastle-under-Lyme and Sheffield.
Psychological Types or the Psychology of Individuation. By C. G. JUNG. Translated by H. GODWIN BAYNES. Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd. Pp. xxii + 654. Price 25s. net.
The task of reviewing a work of the first magnitude must always bring the reviewer face to face with his limitations, but when, as in the present case, the range of the book embraces the profoundest philosophical and psychological speculations, this consciousness may amount almost to disability. To offset this critical disability the present writer can only claim a very special intimacy with the work, which gives him a certain justification for discussing or rather describing its contents.
The ground-theme of the book is the basic psychological antithesis which the author has termed extraversion and introversion. In previous contributions he had identified extraversion with feeling and introversion with thinking; but this point of view, though genetically correct, proved true in practice only when the concept of feeling was limited to the objective relation, and that of thinking to the particular kind of thinking which is abstracted from the object. Deeper investigation, therefore, proved the necessity of relinquishing the criterion of function and of describing the fundamental type antithesis in terms of libido-mechanisms. In extraversion the habitual tendency of the libido flows from the subject towards the object, so that in this type the objective factor always tends to predominate. Whereas in introversion the libido flows from the object to the subject and the subjective factor becomes the paramount consideration.
In every individual the two mechanisms are constantly present, at least potentially (Jung compares them with the systole and diastole of cardiac activity), but one mechanism, whether from inborn disposition, milieu influences, or profound physiological causes as yet unknown, tends to find greater favour than the other and gradually becomes the predominant or habitual attitude. The fundamental differentiation represented by these opposite mechanisms has its physiological as well as its psychological manifestations, and the author draws attention to the fact that homologous phenomena can easily be demonstrated throughout the animal and vegetable kingdoms. I use the term "homologous" advisedly because what Jung is here describing are general attitudes or preconditions of psychological differentiation, hence something that is just as radical as the differentiation of sex. The extraverted and introverted he calls general attitude types, by which nothing more is said than the words imply, namely, a general tendency of the libido to follow either an outward or an inward course.
His further typification is based upon the particular basic function with which the individual is mainly identified for purposes of adaptation. The four basic functions which constitute, as it were, the ground-structure of the psychological house are thinking, feeling, intuition and sensation. The first pair are rational functions and, when directed by the will, conform to definite rational criteria. The latter pair are irrational or arational functions and have no relation to rational judgment. The author can provide no rationale for his
choice of these four basic functions. They simply emerge as psychic elements and, as is also the case with physical elements, their sole justification is experience. The author regards them as four cardinal points of the psyche, equally necessary for psychic orientation as are the corresponding points of the compass for the purposes of terrestrial orientation. The nature of consciousness demands this fourfold differentiation, and everyone who has had any practical experience of dream-analysis must long since have recognized this fourfold principle, which almost invariably appears in one form or another whenever the need for further individual differentiation or a new psychic orientation begins to manifest itself.
Any one of the four basic functions may become the main function of adaptation, and in each event a characteristic psychology will result. There is also the further possibility that each function-type can be either extraverted or introverted, so that we arrive at eight typical classes of individuals, among which we may find every possible variation of the general type. In Chapter X Jung has portrayed the general characteristics of these eight typical psychologies with incomparable subtlety and skill. The particular character of the leading function, i.e. whether rational, viz. thinking and feeling, or irrational, viz. intuition and sensation, provides yet another classification into rational and irrational types.
As we might suppose, the incidence of extraversion and introversion has no sort of relation to sex, social level or parental types. Apparently the distribution is entirely accidental. But with regard to the function-types Jung finds that the feeling types occur more frequently among women, while the thinking types are more common among men.
The general attitude produces such profound modifications in the character and aim of the various functions that it is not to be wondered at that Jung was at first misled in his earlier descriptions of the types. For example, thinking in the extraverted attitude, occupied as it is with objective facts and data, presents an entirely different aspect to the thinking of the introverted attitude, the character of which is entirely determined by the subjective factor. In both cases it may be true thinking, i.e. governed by the laws of logic, yet its whole aim and quality is so profoundly influenced by the underlying extraverted or introverted attitude that the same rational function will commonly lead men of opposite types to diametrically opposite conclusions. Similarly with feeling, intuition, and sensation. In practice, therefore, it is essential that the general-attitude type should first be considered in order that the character of the main and auxiliary functions should not be misunderstood.
The author lays stress upon another very essential difficulty in function and type-analysis, which arises from the fact that in no individual do we find all the four basic functions at the same level of differentiation. Were such an individual possible he would be in a state of suspension, since no orientation would be possible at all unless one function were given capital value. But the result of this most-favoured-function tendency of the psyche is that the two functions which participate in the activity of the consciousness become relatively developed, while the two which remain more or less unconscious are not only relatively inferior but acquire certain of the negative and primitive characters of repressed elements generally.
Jung's delineation of the negative character and subtle subliminal influence of these repressed and, therefore, inferior functions is a psychological tour de force. In these portraits there is a mastery of cunning line and suggestive
shading which not only reveal an astonishing intuitive insight but also a great artistry in the selection and use of the intuitive material.
It may well be asked why, if the four basic functions are inherent in the structure of the psyche, should two of them normally exist in a state of relative repression. It is, of course, only another expression of the radical duality of the psyche that the basic functions should also be grouped into pairs of opposites. The rational pair are thinking and feeling, the irrational intuition and sensation. Thinking that is differentiated and true to its own principle is essentially incompatible with feeling. Feeling values must be rigorously excluded if thinking is to be pure thinking. And thinking values are equally prejudicial to pure feeling. Hence an attitude that is orientated by either of these values must necessarily tend to repress the other. Intuition and sensation are similarly opposed. Sensation is focussed upon the concrete superficies of the object, while intuition is constantly peering through or beyond the external appearance of things to glimpse the further possibility that lies beyond. Hence a sensational attitude will tend to exclude intuition and vice versa.
The rational and irrational functions because they are different in nature can, however, co-operate harmoniously together, wherein one becomes the main or decisive function while the other serves as auxiliary. These combinations produce familiar and characteristic psychologies, as, for instance, where thinking is combined with intuition in the speculative philosopher or scientist, or intuition with feeling in the poetic and artistic temperaments. Where the artist is influenced more by the quality and texture of his medium than by the possibilities contained in his creative vision we may find the combination of sensation and feeling. Where sensation is the primary function the thinking or feeling associated with it has always a very concrete and substantial quality and shows the greatest difficulty in appreciating the nature of an abstraction.
It will perhaps have been perceived that Jung gives to the function he calls feeling a very definite meaning, which does not wholly correspond with the sense in which we commonly use the term. In his acceptance of the term, feeling is a directed and rational function. It is a function of judgment which refers to a definite criterion of value. Feeling-values are related to an absolute principle just as much as thinking values. Furthermore every dynamic collective idea, such as justice, fatherland, God, etc., is just as much feeling as thought.
I have dealt at some length with this aspect of the book because, although it is not its most absorbing or most essential content, it is nevertheless on the basis of this typification that the main theme must be discussed.
Jung's investigation of the type-problem has already inspired other writers who have worked under him to elaborate the same theme from the angle of their own type. Dr Beatrice Hinkle's article on Psychological Types, reviewed in this Journal1 by Dr Constance Long, is a very good extraverted elaboration of Jung's system of types, and is, of course, derived from his ideas.
The main body of the book is devoted to an exhaustive investigation of the type problem in all its various manifestations throughout the whole range of human culture. He shows that the type problem has always had a certain subjective appreciation by leading minds in every cultural epoch, but that until objective psychology (which is only of recent growth) came into existence the problem of types could never be apprehended as an objective problem.