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perty; but, alas: she was not des- libertine even during the life tined to enjoy long her married hap- of her husband ; but that husband piness. Her young husband died, or did not care to encounter the anger was murdered, and Julia was left a of the emperor by noticing her irrewidow at seventeen.
gularities. After some nine years of Agrippa had been one of the ear- union, Agrippa died ; and Augustus, liest friends of the Emperor. They wanting, not an heir--for Julia had had been in Greece together as boys. four children, and another coming, They had returned together to Italy, but an assistant to his throne, was when it became necessary to put off instigated by his wife to give Julia boyish things. Together they had again in marriage to Tiberius, Livia's fought their battles and got rid of son. Tiberius had a wife of his own ; their common enemies. They were but she also was disposed of, and the of the same age ; and though neither royal princess went a third time to the circumstance of birth or fortune the altar. gave to Agrippa early hope of great Tiberius, however, loved the wife station, he had won his way by suc- he had lost, and would not put up cess in wars, and prudence in council, with the debaucheries of her whom to be the second man in the empire. he had gained: and thus his domestic Indeed we do not know how Augus- joys were not conspicuous. From tus could have done without him. this time forth the conduct of Julia But it seems that Agrippa was hardly became atrocious. We hear dark contented with his place as chief of stories of orgies, such as have disministers and first of soldiers. He graced humanity in the persons of a wanted to connect himself more close- few, and but a few, royal ladies since ly with the imperial seat, and was her time. It would seem that she jealous that another should be named almost equalled Messalina as a prineren as the heir of Augustus. It be- cess, and Theodora as a woman, in came necessary either to gratify him the violence of her debaucheries. At or get rid of him, and there seems to last the emperor, who had long enhave been a doubt which course was deavoured to persuade himself and most desirable. Mæcenas, the se- others that his daughter was a patcond favourite minister of Augustus, tern for Roman matrons, could bear had whispered to his master that he it no longer ; and Julia, at the age should either make Agrippa his son- of thirty-six, was banished to an in-law, or else murder him. There island. were objections to both alternatives But Julia had har five children, as long as Marcellus lived. The mi- the hope of Rome. Of these the two nister was too useful to be lost, and elder sons died early, both with susthe nephew too near to be abandoned. picion of violence; the third was But when Marcellus died, the diffi- banished, apparently because he was culties cleared themselves.
too clumsy for imperial grandeur. Agrippa, it is true, had received, But the daughters were destined to as an instalment of imperial grace,
be the mothers of emperors. The the hand of Marcella, the sister of elder daughter-a second Julia---was Julia's husband, and she at this mo- early married to a scion of a noble ment was his wife. She, however, family ; but she also misbehaved herwas of course divorced, and Julia self, and was punished, as Mr. Mewas at once married to her father's rivale tells us, by relegation to friend.
an island." The daughter of the This match produced a large fa- emperor was in one island, and his mily of aspirants to the throne, the grand-daughter in another; both bayoungest of whom was born af- nished, and both for such gross mister the death of his father. But in conduct as even imperial resources spite of her maternal duties, Julia could not keep covered from the eyes was not a discreet matron. It is pro- of the world. bable that she was averse to the some- Poor ladies! Such were the effects what stern husband that had been of Roman marriages. given her, whose age, and face, and When Augustus had once firmly official duties, were hardly fitted to consolidated his imperial power, he console a woman for the loss of one had already given to posterity that whom she had really loved. She bes lesson in state craft which we have
been endeavouring to explain. Had been in Europe most similar to his he died twenty years earlier than he were denied such fortune. Alexandid, the proof might have been less der died young, Cæsar was murdered convincing, but the lesson would before he had enjoyed his power, and have been the same. He outlived by Napoleou's fate was even worse than many years his two great ministers, Cæsar's. “The closing scene," says Agrippa and Mæcenas, and was at Mr. Merivale, “ of this illustrious last fain to lean upon his step-son and life has been portrayed to us with son-in-law Tiberius.
considerable minuteness. It is the We have not here touched on the first natural dissolution of a great character of this third of the Cæsar's man we have been called upon to --a monarch whose dark shadows witness, and it will be long, I may have been made fearfully plain to us add, before we shall assist at anoin the annals of Tacitus. It was not ther." Previous to the time at which with his own good will that Augus, Augustus sat securely on his throne, tus bequeathed his great inheritance the fate of a noble Roman who took to Tiberius. He never liked him. part in the affairs of his country was, And though thesuccess of his son-in- all but invariably, to die by violence. law, as a Roman general, must have After the days of Augustus, such a made him very valuable, the enipe- fate was as certain and more wretchror raised him to high power solely ed. Men in high places were slaughbecause there was none other whom tered like sheep at the caprice of he could raise.
the emperors ; and emperors were We must mention one trait of Au- slaughtered at the caprice of their gustus in his latter days. A certain ministers. To Augustus and his two Cinna contrived a plot against his councillors, Agrippa and Mæcenas, life, and was detected. Such an act it was permitted to pay the debt of in this man was one of personal in- nature naturally. gratitude, as well as national trea- Great reverses towards the end of chery; as he had been favoured by the reign befel the inperial arms. A Augustus. The emperor sent for Roman general with his legions was him, and showing him that his plot entrapped into an ambush among the was discovered--impaled him alive. German tribes, and the whole army Such must have been the conduct of was routed and destroyed. Personsuch an emperor. No-he did not ally this defeat distressed the Empeimpale him, but conferred on him ror much, and seems even to have the consnlship! It has been sup created in his mind an unnecessary posed that this clemency in his old panic. But nothing occurred to shake age should wipe out the blood-stains his power in Rome, or for a moment which merciless cruelty in youth has to make his authority doubtful. That left the name of Octavius. the wretched termination of all his We can come to no such conclusion family hopes, the fate of his daughin these days. Policy may have ter and his grand-daughter, and the made it necessary to abstain from the death of his son-in-law and graud. punishment which the traitor de- sons, must have carried much misery served. Policy may even have whis- into his private life, we cannot doubt, pered that it would be wise to make if we are to believe that there was a consul of the traitor. But we can- anything of the man about him. But not see that clemency had much to do in his public life he was of all men with it. Augustus had no such ap- the most fortunate. This he felt, and petite for blood as other later sove- he died probably contented and selfreigns have hadl-but he had no hor- satisfied. He had played his part ror of it. The life and death of
he had not disgraced the shrine others was to him a matter of in- which had been dedicated to him as difference.
a god : he had executed his mission Augustus was fortunate to the with success; and when called on to last. To him it was allowed to die leave his corporeal splendor and his naturally in his bed at a venerable temples, his human power and divine age. To how few of those whose ta- attributes, he was able to do so withlents and ambition have carried them out a regret or a fear. No rememso high, has the same boon been brance of the bloody lists which he granted. Those whose careers have had written sullied his repose. No
thoughts of those friends and enemies over whose bodies he had stepped up to dominion harrowed his mind. He had done that which the fates required of him, and had done it with success. No Roman could have required more to justify his euthanasia.
At his last moments he was careful as a Roman should be of things exterior. Cæsar when he was falling covered his face decently with his robe. Pompey when he was murdered gave up his last human energy to the arrangement of his mantle. And Augustus, as we are told, had his hair dressed. He then asked those around him whether he had not deserved their applause by the man
ner in which he had acted his part in life's drama--and so he died.
Here we will end our present remarks. They have only carried us to the middle of the second of the three volumes which now lie before
We may possibly before long return to the remainder of the work, and endeavour to give some short account of the life of Tiberius.
We will not end our article without expressing our thanks to Mr. Merivale for his labours. His truth is never to be doubted. His classic attainments are of the highest order. His research has included all that has been necessary for his purpose, and his personal trouble has never been spared,
PRISONS AND PRISONERS.
It has been said that the worst use nions : or, if his delinquency be not you can make of a culprit is, to hang of so deep a dye, and his skill in rehim. But we “ know a trick worth commending himself to the good two of that”_send him to Gaol. There graces of the prison authorities be he will have the pleasure of meeting less adroit, he will have the privilege with companions exactly suited to of experiencing all that petty tyranny his taste, who, modestly declining to and “ insolence of office,” which his raise themselves to his moral level, more expert fellow-convict will be will take the most disinterested pains sure to exercise over him. There, to bring him down to theirs, so that he too, if he is placed under the tutemay go forth a greater villain than la ge of the Separate System, as at he went in. There, if he happens to present administered, he will feel any be utterly uneducated, care will be incipient desire of reformation, or taken to teach him to read : so that, any settled resolution to lead a new while in prison, he will acquire the life, effectually put down by the prosinvaluable faculty of perusing his pect of his removal to the Public Bible and Prayer-book, to be laid works, where, with singular conaside, when he comes out, for The His- sistency, he is ruthlessly exposed to tory of Dick Turpin and Jack Shep- the gaze of those very associates from pard. There he will have the benefit whose view, while in Separate conof the ministrations of the chaplain, finement, he had been sedulously who will use his best endeavours to
guarded. rectify his corrupt principles, encou- Such is the uniformity, such the raged all along by the comfortable general excellence, such the tried eftireflection, that those endeavours will cacy, of our present Prison discipline! be rendered utterly unavailing by And such it would in all human probathe jeers and gibes of the prisoner's bility long continue to be, if an event associates. There, if he is so fortu- had not just occurred, which denate as to be brought under the dis- mands a readjustment of the whole cipline of what is called the Silent system of Secondary Punishment. System, he will, if the gravity of his Transportation is at an end, or very offence, combined with the plausibi- nearly so. All our Colonies, with a lity of his hypocrisy, entitle him to trifling exception, refuse any longer that indulgence, be released from the to receive our convicts. We confess observance of the severer rules of the that, so far from sharing in the disprison, and promoted to the office of may which this announcement has warder over his less guilty compa- occasioned, we hail it with solemn
VOL. XLVIII.NO. CCLXXXIII.
satisfaction ; for now, at last but over again, by those who are most no thanks to ourselves--we must gird conversant with the statistics of up our loins with fitting resolution crime, that we must not suppose the to grapple with a subject which we number of our criminals to be so should otherwise have trifled with to great as the number of committals, the end, as we have trifled with it seeing that many offenders are comfrom the beginning. Now the con- mitted twice, thrice, or oftener. We dition and treatment of our criminal answer-So much the worse for sopopulation will receive at our hands ciety. Would that the number of the attention it deserves.
committals and of offenders exactly, And it is high time. Crime has or very nearly, tallied! We might already attained to colossal magni- then hope that crime was a managetude, and is advancing with gigantic able thing. But the bare fact, that strides. Two hundred thousand com- for our worst offenders the prison has mittals to prison in one year in the no terrors, fills us with terror indeed. United Kingdom, constitute a foe Can any one now tell us what we are difficult to cope with, and not to be to do with a felon when we have viewed without uneasiness ; and the caught him? Can any one tell us number is increasing with fearful ra- what a felon is to do with himself af. pidity: Nor is its character less ter we have let him go? These are alarming than its extent. It encoun- questions that might, up to this time, ters force with ruffian violence; baf- have been merely asked : they are tles ingenuity by superior artifice; now questions that must be promptly steals our purses unsuspected in the answered. We can no longer fall public streets and in the glare of back on the old adage, Ce n'est que
le day; rifles our chambers, unheard, premier pas qui coate. Our perplexity in the dead of night, in spite of locks now begins exactly where it is used and bolts ; springs upon us, from its to end ; and the difficulty is not how ambush, even in the public thorough- we shall most readily catch the offare, with the elastic bound and fero- fender, but how we shall treat and city of the tiger ; and, after the mo- dispose of him when we have got him del of the Indian Thug, disables its safely locked up within four strong victim with a dexterity equal to his, walls. and with an audacity that even its If it were not for the momentous pattern has never reached. The very interests that are in peril, the whole character of our greater criminals is history of our prison management the opprobrium of our penal system; for the last century (we confine our. for that character plainly implies selves to that period) might be said skill, dexterity, long practice, con- to be simply ludicrous; and it is only tempt of danger, a steady hand, an with the hope that we may be made inventive brain, a callous heart, and wiser for the time to come, that we an utter disregard, through habitual now glance rapidly at our past misbrutality, of the agonies of its vic- carriages. tim. Nor are we imperilled by vio- In the march of prison improvelence alone ; fraud too-fraud exqui- ment, Howard led the way. In 1756, sitely trained, long and successfully immediately after the earthquake at practised-surrounds us with its sub Lisbon, he embarked for that city ; tile meshes, apparently as feeble as but on his voyage the vessel in which the film of the gossamer, but proving he sailed was captured by a French in the issue to have fettered its un- privateer, and carried into Brest. conscious captive with a chain of ada- The barbarous treatment which he, mant. It is a fact as well attested as with the rest of the passengers, exany other in the records of crime, perienced in the Castle of that seathat a numerous class of desperate port, in a dungeon in which they and dangerous depredators exists were all confined for several days, led among us; pursuing their nefarious him in the first instance to seek the calling for years, at once with abso- mitigation of the sufferings of such lute impunity and signal success, and of his countrymen as were in the living upon the fruits of their vil
places where he had himself been lany, not only in competence, but in confined in France. This humane luxury.
feeling gained further strength and But we have been told over and development from what he observed
in the prisons of his own country, gular man through the whole of his and particularly from what came un- subsequent benevolent course ; but der his immediate notice, when, some we cannot just now help thinking of years after, in 1773, he was high- its close, when we remember that his sheriff of the county of Bedford. remains repose near a spot upon which He refers, in his “ Account of the he could hardly have foreseen that Prisons in England and Wales,” to the intent gaze of the universe would the circumstances with which his dis- be fixed, and close to which the emcharge of that office made him ac- battled hosts of five mighty nations quainted, as those which induced him would in future times meet in deadly take those humane journeys of in- conflict. Howard's grave is at Kherspection, in the course of which he son, almost within view of Sebastovisited most of the prisons in Eng- pol ! land. In 1774, he was examined on The first movement in the direction this subject by the House of Com- pointed out by Howard was made by mons, and had the honour of receiv- individual magistrates, among whom ing the thanks of that body.
the foremost and most distinguished Together with the remonstrances was the then Duke of Richmond; of Howard, another circumstance and on the 2nd October, 1775, at the powerfully co-operated to produce a Quarter Sessions at Petworth, in general desire for the improvement Sussex, it was ordered that a new of our Prisons. At the termination prison should be erected there in conof the American war, the loss of our formity with a plan produced by his Transatlantic dependencies had de- Grace. In Howard's work already prived us of those remote colonies to mentioned, he speaks of this prison : which we had been accustomed for a “ The new gaol that was building in long time to transport many of our 1776 is now (1779) finished. The convicted felons, and imposed on us plan appears to me particularly well the necessity of devising a substitute suited for the purpose. Each felon is for the system of transportation to have a separate room, ten feet by which had been hitherto pursued. seven, and nine feet high to the The result of this combination of crown of the arch.” In his account humane remonstrance and poli- of a subsequent visit, in 1788, he tical necessity appears to have been thus expresses himself :-“ No altea general desire that something should ration in this well-ordered prison. be speedily done to improve our pri- The debtors and felons are quite seson discipline. The first impulse to parate. All the prisoners were in public feeling was given by the labours health : each has his separate room, of Howard ; and great is the obliga- and proper bedding. No infirmary : tion which the cause of humanity attention to cleanliness and order has owes to the unwearied and ardent be- hitherto prevented the want of it. nevolence of that distinguished phi- Divine service every day." lanthropist. But Howard's attention The first of the legislative measures seems to have been almost absorbed by that followed the labours of Howard the physical sufferings which it was was the 19th Geo. III. cap. 24. ; an his lot to witness. The very magni- enactment of great importance, which tude and intensity of those suffer- was the result of the joint labours of ings seem to have prevented him from Sir William Blackstone, Mr. Howard, looking beyond them to a considera- and Mr. Eden, afterwards Lord Auktion of the moral evils of imprison- land. This measure became law in ment, which are still more deplorable 1778. In the 5th section we find it than the captive's physical ones, and affirmed that “if many offenders conwithout a proper remedy for which, victed of crimes for which transporthis more comfortable prison life would ation has been usually inflicted were only lead him to think of pursuing ordered to solitary imprisonment, acwith greater zest that career of crime companied by well regulated labour which first led him into gaol. The and religious instruction, it might be impulse, however, was thus given to the means, under Providence, not the demand for prison improvement: only of deterring others, but also of it was prompt and decisive ; and to reforming the individuals, and inurHoward the merit of it is most justlying them to habits of industry.” Thus due. We forbear to track this singu- we see that the principle of modified