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bread-making, washing, and every brace in it, how do we keep pace in the thing requisite to make the poor supply of the necessary trained man's house comfortable, and to econo- teachers, school apparatus and school mise to the utmost his gains. This is books? It was our intention to have a knowledge most deplorably defi- said a good deal on each of these subcient in the mind of working men in jects ; but the topics on this great these countries, and the introduction question are so numerous, that we of it into the people's schools in Eng- have already exceeded our limits. In land is a most important step for- training teachers, great as has been wards. Miss Coutts has published the the progress of late years, and more results of her first prizes.
clearly as is daily seen the importSuch is the brief outline of our ance of this department, there is educational position and prospects. yet ample room for advance. A Who shall not say that it is a most whole volume might be written on cheering one? Without the state school apparatus ; but we can only assuming a high tone, and enforcing congratulate teachers on the many a universal and compulsory system, it excellent diagrams published by Reyextends a hand of annually increasing nolds, in the Strand ; by Johnston, liberality. Only in one instance, we Edinburgh; and Darton, on Holborn believe, and a most singular and unac- Hill. At the same time, we would countable one, does it withhold its suggest the great want of other diagenerous aid, and that is to the
grains, such as bold diagrams of the Ragged School Society, to which, we hand and power-looms, of the old are assured by the highest authority, spinning-wheel, the spinning-jenny, it gives no grant whatever, nor spinning mule, cotton gin, carding the prospect of any. Is this just or engine, in fact, diagrams for illustragenerous towards an association that, ting the whole process of carding, besides its arduous labours, expends drawing, spinning, weaving, and £25,000 per annum to diminish the dyeing all our textile fabrics ; diacosts of our administrative system, grams also of different machines at the same time that it creates and processes for smelting, casting, valuable subjects out of the refuse of forging, rolling, drawing, punching, our population? But, with this ex- planing, and stamping metals of ception, our government, the church, various kinds. These are greatly dissenters of all classes, are in full desired by all schoolmasters of proactivity, and without sparing ex
gress. penditure. On all hands Sunday And, finally, as to school books. schools, day schools, evening schools, The answer here is, legion! We may ragged schools, infant schools, in- safely assert that there is no country dustrial and agricultural schools, - in the world which can equal us in peoples' colleges, where men of the the number or the excellence of highest eminence exert themselves to its school books. When we take give an efficient education in design, a moment's mental survey of those mensuration, calculation, history, and works, we are bewildered by their economical philosophy,--all are busily multitude. Every publisher's list at work, with the mechanics'institutes, abounds with them; and let goreading rooms, and libraries, in dif- vernment or the public go-a-head as fusing education and general know- fast as possible, they will find no difledge. We certainly have no cause ficulty in selecting, from the abundant to despair or even to despond ; on material prepared, the most perfect the contrary, we cannot behold all cycle of elementary knowledge. If this active and varied machinery in there should appear a link or two motion, spurred on by the emulative wanting in the chain, we have a host spirit of rival parties and opinions, of able and spirited authors and pubwithout feeling that a very few years lishers ready to fill up the hiatus. must place us as a nation, in point of We have already spoken of the exeducation, behind none in the world. cellent school books of Mr. Tate.
The question here occurs,– with all These are chiefly scientific, as are the this array of schools, with all this Principles of Mechanical Philosophy, extension of the field of our mental Elements of Mechanism, Principles discipline, and these vast numbers of of Geometry, Mensuration, Trigoyouthful individuals which we em vometry, &c., &c.; Principles of the Differential and Integral Calculus, have given us a whole system. We Algebra made easy, Euclid, Out. have before us not merely a list of lines of Experimental Chemistry, their “Educational Course," but the &c. ; but they also include more ele- books themselves, presenting the mentary treatises. To these the Con- aspect of an actual library. They have gregational Board of Education offer already published no less than a you Mr. Tilleard's Training School hundred volumes, including atlases, Singing, Music for the use of Schools; copy-books, forms of book-keeping, and the publishers, his Church Music, drawing-books, mechanical, architecPeople's Chant Book, &c. The Rev. tural, and isometrical ; school diaC. H. Bennby's Teacher's History grams and school maps. This splendid and Grammar of the English Lan- Educational Course includes carefullyguage ought to be in every school. compiled introductory reading-books, The Reading Lesson Books, by progressional reading-books, gramMr. Hughes, of which we have mars English, German, and Latin ; elospoken in a former number, are ex- cution, history, geography, every syscellent books, as might be ex- tem of calculation, arithmetic, algebra, pected from the successful labours mathematics; the natural and meof the author in his own classes chanical sciences ; natural philosoin Greenwich Naval School. The phy, geology, animal and vegetable Drawing Book by Mr. J. Browne, philosophy ; a manual of music; welland the Training School Singing edited editions of the Latin classics, Method by Mr. Unwin, of Homer- &c., &c. The whole course already ton College, are of the first class. costs upwards of £20, and therefore, But Charles Bean's School List of as a set, is rather calculated for the 1856, the lists by Griffin of Glas- higher class of schools and wealthy gow, of Oliver and Boyd, &c., pre- families; but individually the volumes sent us with a whole library of ele- may be pronounced cheap, and each mentary works, which need only be student may select the works he rereferred to, to save us specific enu- quires. The publication of this inmeration. Charles Knight has pub- valuable course, which is not yet lished a very useful Course of In- completed, may be pronounced one of struction for Young Children. The the boldest in educational history. “ Lessons the Phenomena of At the same time, we know no set Industrial Life,” edited by the Dean of of school-books which present so plain Hereford, ought not to be forgotten ; and practical a course of instruction and we should like to see a cheaper calculated for people's schools, as those and more school-form edition of published by the Commissioners of Lovett's admirable School Anatomy National Education in this country, and Physiology. Black's Etymolo- commonly called “ The Irish Schoolgical Dictionary is a most valuable books." These, consisting of thirtywork for teachers; and Dr. Bremer's seven volumes, cost altogether only Guide to Science, in question and £2 6s. 10 d. They range, for the answer, has done good service, though most part, from threepence to a shilhe does give us this query and reply ling per volume, and include readingat p. 22.
books, Scripture readings, geography, Q. What is the safest thing a person
arithmetic, grammar, an excellent can do to avoid injury from lightning?
agricultural class book, and all the A. He should draw bis bedstead into plaiu elementary manuals of educathic middle of his room, commit himself to
tion. They are at once simple, lucid, the care of God, and go to bed!"
and attractive. In fact, their homely
canvass bindings give no idea of the The idea of the whole world, on the richness of their interiors. They are approach of a thunder-storm, hurry- instinct with that spirit which schooling into their bed-rooms, dragging books too commonly are lamentably their beds into the middle of the deficient in. The minds of children rooms, and going to bed, is suth- and young people beginning to inciently ludicrous, and more than suf- struct themselves require food for the ficiently absurd for a school lesson. imagination and the affections as well
But the Messrs. Chambers, with as for the intellect; and here it is their usual spirit, have not merely given them in selections, both in prose given ys a set of school-books; they and poetry,from a host of our most
fascinating writers. We no longer ments, and scientific enlargements wonder, on examining them, that they are Greek and Latin. How does Dr, have been adopted abroad, in America, Sullivan derive a majority of words and our own colonies, and translated from these two latter languages ? By into various languages, or that the ignoring in his Dictionary of DerivaCommissioners in 1854 sold them to tions such words as man, woman, child, the amount £16,318 !
house, dog, cow, pig, bird ; in fact, the To these Irish School-books, Dr. names of almost every material thing Sullivan may be said to have made a around us. The Bible and Shakemost valuable addition or accompani- speare will for ever beart estimony to ment. His books, seven in number, the true origin of our language. Dr. are distinguished by one great princi- Bosworth, while praising Dr. Sulple-that of simplifying the subject livan's classic derivations, recomtaught, and of bringing out in a few mends him now to turn his attention plain and striking rules the great lead- to the Anglo-Saxon and Teutonic part ing ideas of the science in hand. of our language. We trust Dr. SulSuch are his Geography Generalised, livan will adopt the suggestion, and his Spelling-book Superseded ; his At- render his dictionary complete. We tempt to simplify English Grammar ; sure he feels the importance and his Literary Class Book. In the of teaching only what is true; and introduction to this last book, Dr. nothing can be more delusive than his Sullivan has rendered an inestimable present theory. A little investigaservice to the students of elocution. tion would prove the correctness of Most of our school-books on the sub- Professor Trench's assertion, that of ject are loaded with artificial rules, a hundred parts of the English lanwhich will sufficiently bother a child's guage, sixty are Saxon, thirty Latin, brain, and end in making a very for- including the Latin derived through mal reader or speaker of him. Dr. the French ; five Greek, and five from Sullivan gives you, in three rules, the other sources. It is the great defect whole of the matter. First learn to of English education, that while Latin enunciate clearly, then to pronounce and Greek are made essential, there correctly, and then read or speak as is an almost total ignorance of the NATURE dictates to you. On this sub- very languages on which our own are ject he quotes Archbishop Whateley's based. Å dictionary of Anglo-Saxon admirable remarks, which result in derivations is absolutely necessary this : The practical rule is not only for our schools of all kinds, and we to pay no studied attention to the should rejoice to see Dr. Sullivan voice, but studiously to withdraw the produce it, in as masterly a style as thoughts from it, and to dwell as in- he had done the classical one. He tently as possible on the senses,trusting has got on the right track in the geoto nature to suggest spontaneously the graphical derivations, and has only to proper emphasis and tones.” If these simple rules were only followed by There is another set of educational teachers, what heaps of dry treatises works in progress which cannot be might be spared, what pangs to the omitted in this article, though they learner, and what a much more na- are not got up for the million, but for tural and attractive style we should schools and universities.
These are have in our public speakers !
the Scientific Manuals of Messrs. GalWith Dr. Sullivan's Dictionary of braith and Haughton, of our UniDerivations we are, however, at issue. versity, Mr. Galbraith being ProWhile admitting the service he has fessor of Natural and Experimental rendered by tracing our Latin and Philosophy, and Mr. Haughton, of Greck derivations, we totally dissent Geology. They have already issued from his theory that those languages seven of these admirable class-books, are the foundation of our own, orthat some of which are already in second they furnish us with the majority of and third editions. Those published our words.
We stand confidently are the manuals of mechanics, optics, on the ground opened by Selden, by hydrostatics, astronomy, arithmetic, Dr. Bosworth, and Mr. Trench, that plane trigonometry, and the first and the foundation and superstructure of second books of Euclid. They have our language are Anglo-Saxon and also announced manuals of algebra, Scandinavian. The fittings, orna- heat, electricity, magnetism, phy.
sical geology and stratigraphic geo- by his own exertions from that very logy. It would be difficult to speak class to ease and fortune, and had in too high terms of these works. sedulously cultivated his own intelThey display throughout the hand of lect, to perceive and to sympathise the master. Science is not attempted
with their condition. This man was to be popularized, but it is presented John Cassell. The moment that his in that succinct, lucid, yet accurate mind was fully cognizant of the style which is necessary for the whole mischief, he set energetically students of schools, where able pro- about remedying it. He had felt all fessors are at hand to add those illus- the wants, the temptations, and the trations and amplifications which be- intellectual privations of these multilong to a course of study of the pure tudes of thriving but bewildered sciences. Yet such is the perspicuous human beings ; he knew their needs, completeness of the elementary cor- .and therefore could supply them. pus in these manuals, that some of For eight or nine years he has now lathem might be adopted without any boured with all the energies of his difficulty by the solitary student and nature, and they are of no ordinary aspiring artizan. So far as they go, kind, to diffuse knowledge and sound they are unrivalled by any university principle amongst the working classes. course of natural philosophy in ex- It is not only to ignorance but to istence; and the uniformity of their scepticism that he has directed his excellence throughout guarantees remedial efforts. In a powerful ad· their successful completion. They dress to the working classes, prefixed cannot be too widely adopted in popu- to his edition of Dr. Beecher's Leclar schools.
tures on Atheism, he says, “The And now, before closing this article, doctrines to which my ears .we must say a few words on the accustomed long before I had reached - works of one who has most merito my teens, while sitting round the riously exerted himself to supply a work-shop stove, were dogmas of very numerous class with the means of atheistical propagandists.” Itoccurred self-education, which has been hitherto to him that it was possible to present almost wholly overlooked. Notwith- the means of self-culture, and thus standing the bountiful supply of open the way to higher tastes and schools, apparatus and books which we sounder views, to those of the humhave enumerated, there yet remained a blest means. With this idea he vast amount of the young who were started his Working Men's Friend; placed beyond the reach of these in- and a series of French lessons given Auences. We mean those who had ac- in it, which were afterwards reprinted quired the mere art of reading, and yet as a sixpenny volume, at once showed were already gone beyond their school- that there was a vast and thirsty field days, and were absorbed in daily ready to imbibe all the sound practi·labour, or were remote from schools cal information he could throw into and living aid. In districts which it. The success was immense, and have become largely populated he proceeded confidently to the pubthrough the introduction and rapid lication of his Popular Educator. growth of manufactures,
In this work, issued in penny numLancashire and Yorkshire, the iron bers, and illustrated with diagrams districts of Wales, Staffordshire Pot- and engravings, he called into action teries, &c. there existed an awful the services of men of first rate acmass of vice and ignorance. Multi- complishments and talents in art, tudes of rude men, suddenly thrown science, and literature. Lessons were together, as in the Australian dig- given in French, Latin, Greek, Gergings, contaminated each other with man, Italian, Spanish, English ; in fearful rapidity. Children, through Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Geothe extreme demand for labour, were logy, Botany, Architecture, Music, early plunged into this vortex of Natural History, Bookkeeping, Chedarkness and crime. In vain for mistry, Physical Education, &c., &c. them existed all the grand machinery The sensation excited amongst the of schools and books. It was for one working classes was inimense, and who had, like thousands of those the sale of the work was in proporpitiable beings, acquired the mere tion, something almost unexampled. power of reading, and who had risen We have gone over the pages of this
great work with sentiments of real few of his employers have received ; wonder. The execution of every por- such, as a few years ago, was as imtion of it is masterly. It is not pos- possible to one of his class, as it was sible for any but vivá voce instructions to travel at fifty miles an hour, or reto give the true living pronunciation ceive a telegraphic message from his of any language, but it is quite sur- son at Constantinople, in a few mi. prising how far even the attempt to nutes, The success has been enordo this on paper has succeeded,
mous; it has occupied and filled up The lessons by Dr. Beard of Man- a field of education vast and most chester, in Latin and English, are important to the community. Not most admirable, and of all the sys- only has it stimulated and informed tems of Geology that we have seen, the working class on the subject of there is none that can bear any com- their peculiar arts and trades, but parison with that of Dr. Jenkin in several young men, self-educated the Popular Educator, in point of fas- through the Popular Educator, have cination for the student. Instead of been allowed to matriculate at the openirg with a dry detail of stones London University. and strata, it describes the first glow- Besides this extraordinary work, ing mass of our planet, the formation Mr. Cassell has published a little liof its crust in cooling ; the process brary of others, all bearing on the of the formation of mountains, seas, same object--the cultivation and eleand volcanoes ; then, the deposition of vation of the working classes. He the sedimentary strata, the successive has offered premiums on literary exeappearance of vegetable and animal cution to those classes, and published life; and, finally, the present condi- two volumes of the productions of tion of the earth, with all its myriads working men, which would do honour of humanity. The whole of this to men of any class. He has added quarto encyclopædia of elementary to his Popular Educator an Histori. knowledge, (for such it is), in six vo- cal Educator and a Biblical Educalumes, is placed at the command of the tor; a shilling edition of Euclid, young workman, or the solitary pea- which has been extensively taken up sant, desirous of cultivating his fa- by the Council of Education ; and a culties, for seven and twenty shil- number of other works too well lings; and to make it universally at- known to require mention. He is now tainable, Mr. Cassell makes successive engaged on an Educational Course, penny issues of it.
We know no which bids fair to be invaluable. It work like it ; we confidently assert is a significant fact in popular educathat there never was one like it in cation, and one full of promise, that importance to the working man. By we can close our article on the subits aid, any one desirous to acquire ject with a striking example of one the keys of a vast world of know- who, having himself had education, ledge may, in his own room, do so. though in an imperfect manner, afThe artizan, by his evening fire, may forded him, has become in his turn a become the teacher of his children, popular teacher of the most effective and give them an education such as and extensive kind.