« 上一頁繼續 »
dishonest ? We may, it is true, di- Christianity is that it does, even for vert fortune from the virtuous; but children, what philosophy scarcely it is only as Satan's aid is fabled to succeeded in doing at its highest inbe won to the wicked, at the price of 'telligence ; it authoritatively excludes our souls, and then only by a tempo- the casual, the fitful, the aimless, rary pact.
from the scheme of cosmical existFor the discrepancies of fortune, ence, and vindicates for all its vast and if they prove anything, prove only complex action an ever-watchful that this life is not the whole cycle cause, all-seeing as to intelligence, allwhich the human soul has to travel. sufficient as to power. And, hence, In the great totality of existence, all · while the ancients placed themselves 'must resolve itself into order-the at its mercy, making skill, energy, moral no less than the physical. opportunity, at best but its instruWithout this great cosmical perfec- ments, believing that it sometimes tion there could be no such thing as a suggested the means, sometimes secosmical existence. When we are cured the end, but always demanded told, therefore, that the scheme of an abnegation of the judgment; the earthly order and progress has too Christian is taught to see in it but many conditions to fulfil to allow of the hand of an all-wise Deity, and a universal measure of justice, or to when even bending to the power as a secure men the convenience of a per- superstition, is led to bend to it but fect accord between their fruits and an instrumentality. Timoleon their labours -- between their needs turns his house into a Temple of and deserts, between their work and Chance, in grateful commemoration of their happiness, we say, so much the his good fortune. Lord Chatham, better : the ruder this shell of truth in a like case, declares that “ chance which often costs us a lifetime to is but another name for an unacbreak, of the purer essence will be the countable nothing, and that the kernel which we shall then attain to; more he became versed in affairs, the attainment carrying with it, by the more he found the direct agency the very nature of our souls, an en- of God in everything.” It would joyment perfect as it must be infi- seem that society in a great measure Dite.
is but coming back by science and Let us conclude, then, that in revelation, where it was first placed ascribing human events to chance or by nature ; for, just as, according to fortune, men have but avowed their Plutarch, the ancients went from ignorance while covering it under a God to Fortune in the
progress of specious term. Fortune is but an ill their deterioration, so do we gramanner of naming Providence, show- dually return from Fortune to God ing Paganism at default in her re- under better lights and a higher in- ligious knowledge. The merit of struction.
FOOTMARKS OF FAITH.
BY NORTIMER COLLINE.
No longer, where the mighty Temple's mystic
Arches and turrets made the city dark,
Glad minstrels dance before the wond'rous Ark,
No longer, where the high Olympian portals
Look widely forth upon the violet sea,
And list divine Apollo's songs of glee.
No longer, where the shadows dance and vary
From chestnut leafage by the sinuous shore. Rise in the moonlight plaintive hymns to Mary,
While rests the boatman on his glistening oar.
Ancient heroes leave their porphyry palace ;
Ancient godheads fade from role and rhyme. Who seemed divine must quaff from fatal chalico
The bitter waters of the sea of time,
THE BRIDGE OF THE BUSH.
Worn was he, lorn was he,
Ringing and singing
Were hazel and thrush ;
With daisies and dew,
Young was she, fair was she,
Dew-eyes, ard blue au
The bosom of space :
So rich as the soul-shine
Wan was he-warm was she,
Soothing and smoothing
His pillow sits she;
Till heart-whole and happy,
Sue did he-woo did he,
Her soul felt the crush :-
THE SERENADE OF TROILUS.
BY MORTIMER COLLINS,
This is the very song that Troilus
O love, sweet love, thou sleepest all the night-
Softly the blue sea wraps the island shores,
How shall I weary thee with song? Amid
A light step passed along the gallery,
POSITION AND PROSPECTS OF POPULAR EDUCATION IN THE BRITISH EMPIRE.
The late parliamentary discussion of Lord John Russell's scheme of National Education has demonstrated the certain fact, that we are as far off as ever from a state system of popular training. The whole grand vision of a Minister of Public Instruction, and a magnificent staff of inspectors, is dissipated to the winds. There appears to be a rooted and inveterate aversion in the British public to a government education. It may be a sign of our ignorance as much as of our independence, that we reject coercion ; but we refuse doggedly to be coerced. All the
old difficulties regarding compulsory and secular education are found to be just as insurmountable as ever. It is in vain that we are told that the question of accommodating the religious peculiarities of different sections of Christianity, though forinidable, is uot unanswerable-we decline to hear of it ; that it is conquered both in other empires and to some extent in parts of our own-we refuse to see it. There is but one way in which we can be persuaded to go on, that is, just as we are going on; and, therefore, right or wrong, we must stick to it.
Luckily for us, if this is not the
best of all ways, it is one in which 2,882 received certificates ; 283 of we are rapidly advancing towards a the first class, 1,027 of the second, better state of things. Whilst we are and 1,572 of the third class. No disputing on the best mode of edu- less than 417 teachers have thrown up cating the labouring classes, we do their vocation for other more profitnot stand still over our argument ; able occupations, and 241 have been we quote our statistics and nibble at withdrawn by sickness and death. our knotty points as we go along. The number of 9,788 pupil teachers The number of schools of different and stipendiary monitors were trainkinds increase, the number of scholars ed at the public expense to become rapidly multiply, the percentage teachers, but were not received into of those receiving an education of the normal schools between 1847 and some kind amongst us, as compared 1855. with the people of other countries, That does not betray a very inert continually augments. That at least state of things as regards education in is satisfactory.
England ; but the facts brought From financial and other tables forward by Messrs. Baines and Unrelating to education, it appears that win, and quoted by Sir James in the year 1854, £369,602 was ex- Graham in the debate on Lord John pended upon educational grants, ma- Russell's propositions, are still more king a grand total, since 1839, of indicative of the progress of this ac£2,002,586.
tivity. The day scholars in England, Last year, £71,287 was appro- in 1818, were 674,000, or one in sepriated to the building and enlar- venteen of the population ; in 1833 ging of elementary schools ; £2,455 they were 1,276,000, or one in eleven to books and maps ; £44,878 to of the population; in 1851 they were augmenting the wages of 2,144,000, or one in eight of the potiicated masters and mistresses; pulation. The Sunday scholars in £143,806 to the stipends of pupil 1818 were 477,000, or one in twentyteachers ; £39,960 to normal schools ; four ; in 1833, they were 1,548,000, and £30,241 to inspectors ; £239,977 or one in nine ; in 1851, they were was expended on Church of Eng- 2,407,000, or one in seven of the poland schools ; £14,975 on Wesleyan pulation. Now in Prussia the proschools ; £13,272 on Romanist schools portion is one in six ; in Holland, one in Great Britain ; and £9,802 on in seven ; in Bavaria, one in eight; workhouse schools.
in France and Belgium, one in ten; In Scotland, the Established Church in Sweden, one in eleven ; so that schools received £22,959, and Free England is equal, in point of popular Church schools, £20,963.
education, to all the countries where The number of children for whom state education prevails, except onenew schools were built from 1839 to Prussia. 1854, amounted to £438,980 : the By the late educational census, it number for whom schools were en- appears that we have in England and larged and improved, to 19,081 ; and Wales 46,042 day schools, educating the number for whom accommodation 2,144,378 children ; 23,514 Sunday was created, improved, or extended, schools, educating 2,407,642 children ; to 458,061.
and 1,545 evening schools, with Last year new schools were built 39,783 scholars. The total of schools for 33,460 children, and the number is, therefore, 71,101, with 4,591,802 of children for whom accommodation scholars. There are said to be was created, extended, or improved, 4,908,696 children between the ages was 36,918. The number of certifi- of three and fifteen requiring educacated teachers actually employed in tion. This would leave only 316,894 teaching amounts to 3,432 ; of these, children that are going without edu2,242 are men, and 1,190 women. cation ; but as the real number is adThe number of assistant teachers is mitted to be 968,557, a good many 221, of whom 48 are women ; and the of these children must attend differnumber of pupil teachers is 8,524. ent schools, day, evening, or Sunday.
The number of persons presented Let us now look hastily at one or for examination to her Majesty's in- two of these items. In 1818 the spectors, between 1841 and 1852, total number of children receiving amounted to 4,407; and of these education in day and Sunday schools
Newcastle-on-Tyne, in 1818. Mrs. Turner said to Robert Owen that she had often wished that the children of poor parents could be taken out of their hands and educated in their earlier years, and Mr. Owen immediately tried the experiment at his works at New Lanark. The real originator, however, of infant schools was Oberlin, the celebrated pastor of the Ban de la Roche, who introduced them into that district long before the end of the last century; and as early as 1802, there was one at Detmold, in Germany, founded by the Princess Pauline of Lippe Detmold. Lord Brougham actively promoted them after their introduction to this country; but the man who more than all others extended their existence, and who may be considered the inventor of the infant-school system of teaching, is Mr. Wilderspin. He spent the best portion of his life in perfecting and establishing these schools in various parts of the kingdom, and is now, we believe, living somewhere in the north of England upon a paltry pension allowed him a few years ago.
While these important organs of popular education were springing to life, Mechanics' Institutes were na scent in the mind of Dr. Birkbeck, who in 1800 suggested their plan to the trustees of the Anderson Institution at Glasgow, who treated the idea as utterly visionary. But the Doctor was one of the various instruments which Providence was raising up to give a new era to civilization. He clung to the idea, established a mechanics' class in Glasgow in 1802, and never ceased his exertions till he saw his scheme formally realized by the inauguration of the London Mechanics' Institute in 1823, and by another in Glasgow the same year.
Then came the schools of Bell and Lancaster, originating the National Society and the British and Foreign Society. These schools, demonstrating what vast numbers might be taught a large amount of useful knowledge in a cheap way, alarmed the educated public. Bell and Lancaster were assailed on all sides by cries that education would unfit the people for useful labour, would set them above their betters, and disqualify them for ever as servants, destroying every principle of reverence,
was 1,151,000; in 1851 they were 4,591,802. In 1840, government was only assisting education by a grant of £200,000: in 1851, it had increased its annual grants to £369,000; and in 1855, to £450,000!
Thus it is clear that we are taking a liberal and just view of the importance of general education; and while, by the advance of £150,000 per annum on the part of government, and by the -equally noble contributions of every religious body, we educate yearly four millions and a-half of children, we may surely console ourselves for the loss of a compulsory government system, which it is calculated could not cost us less than £6,324,000 per
But we shall obtain a more lively idea of what has been the educational progress in the British empire during the last half century, if we take a slight retrospective glance towards the year 1800. Darkness, ignorance, and crime are what meet our astonish·ed gaze. In George III.'s days, Wyndham and other statesmen contended in Parliament, that we must encourage not learning amongst the people, but bull-baiting, dog and cock-fighting, to keep up the true bull-dog English spirit! The consequence was, the crimes and bloody laws of that reign, when people were not merely hanged for stealing a sheep, but a woman having an unweaned child, was actually executed for purloining, in a state of - starvation, a yard and quarter of calico.
Sunday schools, founded in 1780, by the Rev. John Stock and Robert Raikes in Gloucester, were the first things which broke in on this Cimmerian darkness. Sunday schools had been introduced, indeed, as early as 1763, by the Rev. Theophilus Lindsay, incumbent of Catterick, in Yorkshire. This was imitated at Bedall by Mrs. Cappe, the wife of a clergyman at York; and afterwards, in 1769, by Miss Ball, at High Wycombe; but it was only by the exertions of Raikes that Sunday schools were made popular, through his paper, The Gloucester Journal.
Next came the Infant Schools, which were first suggested in this country, very naturally, by a woman- -Mrs. Turner, the wife of -the Reverend. William Turner, of