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The Editor of The DUBLIN UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE begs to notify that he will not undertake to return, or to be accountable for, any manuscripts forwarded to him for perusal.

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On the 15th of last month it was that parpose. I consequently encloso here. announced in London by magnetic with the passport given in such cases. telegraph, that the mail steamer I avail myself of this opportunity to renew Canada had arrived in the Mersey

to you, sir, the assurance of my respectful

consideration. from New York, bringing a number

W. L. MARcy. of passengers, amongst whom was Mr. John Fiennes Crampton, late

John F. Crampton, Esq., &c. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister

We learn, then, from these des Plenipotentiary of Her Majesty with patches, and from the arrival of Mr. the United States of America.

Crampton in England, that the minIn the journal which made this ister of Her Britannic Majesty with announcement appeared two des- the United States has been dismissed patches, which explained the cause from that country, as “unfit for the of Mr. Crampton's absence from the position he held,' and unworthy of scene of his mission, and his presence that confidence and consideration on British ground. Both were writ- which the representative of a friendly ten by Mr. Marcy, the American

power ought to command with the secretary of state-one to Mr. Dallas,

government to which he is accredited. the American minister in London ; It may not be thought amiss, on the other to Mr. Crampton himself. the occurrence of so strange and The latter was as follows:

startling an event, to enter upon a brief summary of the circumstances

which have led to this result. The Department of State, Washington, public mind, we are aware, has been

May 28th, 1856. for some time much occupied with SIR,_ The President of the United States

the question; and the public journals has directed me to announce to you the de

have entered, over and over again, termination to discontinue further intercourse into the details, presenting the matter with you as her Majesty's representative to under every conceivable aspect: still, the government of the United States. The notwithstanding all this—or rather, reasons which have compelled him to take because a constant and perplexing this step at this time have been communicated iteration of details may possibly have to your government.

interfered with and prevented a just I avail myself of this occasion to add that

view of the whole question, we are due attention will be cheerfully given to any communications addressed to this department

disposed to hope that we may supply

a want at this moment felt by some from her Majesty's government affecting the relations between Great Britain and the

of our readers, by giving, though at United States, which may be forwarded to

the risk of repetition, from authentic this government through any other channel. sources, and as plainly as we can, an Should it be your pleasure to retire from

historical resume of the double conthe United States, the President directs me troversy which has of late been ento furnish you with the usual facilities for gaging the attention and taxing the



A 2

world's gaze.

diplomatic intelligence of the two go- poration of new states into the vernments.

American Union, a western sea-board It is scarcely necessary to say that was obtained; and when a dependeney of the twofold difficulty in question, of Great Britain, almost equal to a one part relates to our possessions continent, and lying beyond the barand rights in Central America, and rier of the western world, had disthe other to the attempt made during closed a sudden store of wealth and the late war to procure recruits from invited the enterprize and cupidity of amongst the inhabitants of the United Englishmen to its shores, what had States. Upon each of these questions -been until then deemed a worthless a “ Blue Book” has been published. pass between the northern and southThe controversies, which raged for ern empires of America rose at once some time simultaneously, are thus into importance, as forming the kept separate, though their separa- line of communication between the tion in the parliamentary documents civilization of the two great dividoes not so completely isolate them sions of the British family and the from each other, as not to render a distant treasures of the Pacific. Cencomparison valuable for the purpose tral America, for the first time, of illustrating the characters of the became the centre of American inparties and the real objects they had terests. Every eye was turned upon in view. We propose to take up the her ; she began to be the focus of the Central American question first, both because it arose considerably earlier As a highway, use was made of her than the other, and because the lat- at once.

In default of other means ter will be dealt with more naturally of transit, men scrambled over her in connection with the concluding por- mountains, and forded or swam her tion of the present paper.

lakes and rivers, in order to get the Up to the period at which the dis- shortest way across from sea to sea. covery of gold in California took

This spontaneous selection of a route place, those vast regions of America pointed out its importance. The inwhich lie between Mexico on the terests of the world seemed to denorth, and New Granada on the mand that it should be opened up. south, had been little valued and Such was the state of things which very imperfectly explored. The an- originated the CLAYTON-BULWER tiquarian researches of Mr. Stephens, TREATY. indeed, had invested portions of theni The history of this treaty is shortly with a mysterious interest; but the as follows. In the year 1849 a prointerest which utility alone can pro- posal was discussed between the mi. duce had not been felt-it was not nisters of the two governments, Great any one's business to explore them. Britain and America, for guaranteeThis whole region had been originallying the safety of a company of capicolonized by Spain; and remained talists, to whom a charter should be under the dominion of that country granted by the republic of Nicarauntil the year 1821, when the pro- gua for the execution and mainvinces of which it was composed tenance of a ship-canal across a certhrew off the Spanish yoke, and con- tain portion of Central America, stituted themselves into a republic, principally if not altogether lying which they named Central America. within the territory of that state. In a few years this republic fell to This canal was to pass from the pieces, and was reformed into separate Caribbean Sea at San Juan del Norte states, which took their divisions in westward, following the course of the main from the boundaries of the the river San Juan until it reached old provinces. These republics are Lake Nicaragua, whence it was to (beginning from thenorth) Guatemala, pass into Lake Managua, having its Honduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, outlet either at the port of Realejo and Costa Rica. From an early period or at the Bay of Fonseca on the England had formed settlements on Pacific. This vast undertaking had the eastern shores of this region already been taken up by a company undisputed, whatever had been the of capitalists, and was deemed of original title to them-by the repub- sufficient importance to the inlics they bordered on.

terests of both nations to call for As soon, however, as by the incor- their formal protection, to guarantee


which was accordingly, as we have in writing to Lord Palmerston on the said, the object of the proposed 18th of February, 1850 :-“Both of convention. Sir Henry Lytton Bul- us (Mr. Clayton and myself) deemed wer was at that time the British that at the present time the treaty in Minister at Washington, with Mr. question did all that was necessary Crampton attached to the Legation ; by settling a basis on which the canal and Mr. Clayton was the Secretary could be constructed and protected.” of State of the United States. Nu- England having at last intimated merous communications took place, her willingness to satisfy America on both between these parties and be- the points she had raised, namely, tween Mr. Abbott Lawrence, the as to the Mosquito protectorate and American Minister in London, and the

occupancy of Greytown, the proLord Palmerston, then Minister for ject of a convention was drawn up. Foreign Affairs. The points under This, after much discussion and some discussion principally related to a modification, was finally embodied in claim by the British of a protectorate formal Articles, which were signed by over the territory of the king—or, as Sir Henry Bulwer on the part of he is sometimes termed, Chief of the England, and by Mr. Clayton on that Mosquito Indians, and to the occupa- of America, on the 19th day of April, tion by the English, under a title de- 1850, both parties being fully emrived from that nation, or tribe, of powered by their respective governthe town of San Juan del Norte, by ments for the purpose. them called Greytown, which com- Of this convention it will be ne. manded the eastern mouth of the cessary to quote one sentence, formproposed canal. A glance at a good ing part of Article I. It runs thus:map (such as that prefixed to the 1st The Governments of Great Britain and the volume of Squiers “Nicaragua") will United States hereby declare that neither the shew that the maintenance of either one nor the other will ever obtain or maintain the one or the other claim by Eng for itself any exclusive control over the said land might possibly have been fairly Ship-Canal; agreeing that neither will ever considered by America as giving her

erector maintain any fortifications commanding undue power over one of the outlets of the same, or in the vicinity thereof, or occupy, the contemplated canal ; for even the

or fortify, or colonize, or assume or exercise

any dominion over Nicaragua, Costa Rica, the Mosquito protectorate would, accor

Mosquito Coast, or any part of Central ding to her most recent pretensions,

America, have embraced the north shore of the San Juan for a considerable part of its

It seems to have struck Lord Palcourse. These points were assumed merston at the last moment, just as to be all that were likely to be in dis

he was sending out the ratification of pute—at least they were all that con

the Treaty, that someambiguity might cerned the subject-matter of the treaty;

possibly lurk under the words. They and as there was no intention or inti

might be wrested so as to include the mation of including in it any matter

British Honduras, and be interpreted not immediately bearing upon its

retrospectively, so as to involve a reavowed object, nothing else was

linquishment by England of that setbrought under discussion. Incident- tlement and its dependencies. Acally, indeed, Mr. Lawrence informed cordingly, on the 8th of June, he diLord Palmerston that his govern

rected Sir Henry Bulwer to make a ment considered “that no great mari

formal declaration, on the exchange time nation ought to desire or be per

of ratifications, to the effect that her mitted to have an exclusive foothold Majesty's government did not underon the Isthmus;" but this remark stand the engagements of the convenproduced no comment, and led to no

tion as applying to her Majesty's further discussion ; and it may fairly

settlement at Honduras, or to its debe assumed that the intention all pendencies. Sir Henry Bulwer did parties was understood to be to deal so; which drew from Mr. Clayton, in the proposed convention with the on the 4th of July, the following

letter : canal question, and with the canal question only. That this was the Department of State, Washington, meaning of both the negociators be

July 4, 1850. fore the treaty was ratified, is shewn Sir, by the words Sir Henry Bulwer uses I have received the declaration you were

instructed by your Gorernment to make to occupy “any part of Central Ameme respecting Honduras and its dependencies, rica," therefore she was to give up the a copy of which is herewith subjoined. territories in which she was settled. The language of Article I. of the Conven

She was not to “colonize," so she was tion concluded on the 19th day of April last,

to abandon the islands of Ruatan, between the United States and Great Britain,

Bonacca, and others, which, under describing the country not to be occupied, &c., by either of the parties, was, as you

the idea that they were dependencies know, twice approved by your Government,

of Honduras, she had recently constiand it was neither understood by them, nor

tuted into a separate colony. She by either of us (the negotiators), to include was not to protect the Mosquito the British Settlement in Honduras, com. coast, for that was to exercise domimonly called British Honduras, as distinct nion in contravention of the treaty. from the State of Honduras, nor the small In other words, for the chance of a islands in the neighbourhood of that Settle- canal across the Isthmus, she was to ment, which may be known as its dependen- evacuate the whole of what had been cies. To this Settlement and these islauds

hitherto hers in that part of the world. the Trcaty we have negotiated was not

The arguments on the American side intended by either of us to apply. The title to them it is now, and has been my intention

professed to be grounded on the throughout the whole negotiation, to leave,

wording of the instrument itself, and as the Treaty leaves it, without denying,

on the reason of the thing. As to affirming, or in any way meddling with the

the first, they asserted that " Central same, just as it stood previously.

America” was a geographical term, inThe Chairman of the Committee on cluding the whole of the tract we Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Hon. have described, between Mexico and William R. King, informs nie that “tho New Granada. Let us examine this Senate perfectly understood that the Treaty assertion. In point of fact, the term did not include British Honduras.” It was

Central America, which is modern, intended to apply to and does include all the

never having been heard of before Central American States of Guatemala, Hon.

1821, was applied originally as a poliduras, San Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, with their just limits and proper de

tical designation, and described a rependencies.

public exclusive of the British pos

sessions in its neighbourhood, to Upon receiving this letter, Sir which no claim whatever was set Henry Bulwer at once exchanged the up; and the term was made use of ratifications; and the Treaty was con- in a geographical sense only by cluded.

geographers, being found conveniNow it was scarcely possible to ently and appropriately to describe anticipate that out of words thus pen- the region we have indicated, lying ned, and thus explained, there should between those Northern and Southern be extracted the grounds of a claim limits. We challenge the supporters upon England for a cession and of the American interpretation of the abandonment of those valuable pos- Clayton-Bulwer Treaty to adduce a sessions on the coast of Central Ame- single instance in which the term rica, for which no advantage contem- “ Central America” has been emplated by the treaty could compen- ployed in any political transaction, sate hor, and which therefore could with the meaning sought to be atnot possibly have been voluntarily re- tached to it in this : and on the other linquished by her. Yet the treaty had hand, the instances are numerous in not been three years in existence, when which the designation has been formcertain individuals in the American Se- ally recognized as applying to the old nate, amongst whom was General Cass, republic of that name, and subsebegan to suggest an interpretation of quently to the cluster of states formed theirown, regardless of that of the Con- out of its fragments, and of which tracting Parties as signified by the for- the boundaries, unsettled though they mal statements of their ministers, and be, do not ass:ime to include the Brigrounded on the ambiguous meaning tish settlements. But the American of one term employed therein interpretation, however forced, would namely, Central America.

It was

have been inoperative, had not a fururged in the first place, that the ther violence been done to the lanwording was clear--England was guage of the Treaty. It was necessary, “not to occupy,” therefore she was to

according to the views of General withdraw from her occupation--not to Cass and his friends, not only to

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