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and of them, three-fourths are said management, and the difficulty of to be reformed. Finally, in 1848, obtaining a sufficient staff of proa deputation was despatched by the perly qualified superintendents, to Governor General of Canada, to in- train the children on the footing of quire and report concerning the small separate families, the domestic Reformatories in the United States ; principle was broken in upon, and it and they recommended the erection was resolved to concentrate the school, of one or two houses of refuge at and to associate the boys and girls Quebec or Montreal, or at Toronto or together respectively, in greater Hamilton.

numbers. The school was then Let us now see what has been done

removed to St. George's Fields, in the in these kingdoms for the treatment Borough of Southwark. Here, among of that large and daily increasing other measures of internal manageclass,--our juvenile delinquents. In ment, those boys who were of a cri. 1788 the earliest step seems to have minal character were separated from been taken in this direction, by several those who had been received on the earnest and enlightened men, whose ground of destitution, or thrown helpattention had been directed to the less and friendless on the world by great number of depraved and va- their parents' misconduct. On this grant children infesting London and footing the society continued its operits vicinity, living, and trained to ations till 1845, when it was resolved live, by mendicancy and theft. Thus to discontinue the girls' school altooriginated the Philanthropic Society. gether, and to limit the agency of the It is worthy of notice, that not only charity as much as possible to the did the Separate System of confine- “ Reformation of Penitent and Desment for adults, now so generally titute Offenders ;" and to retain these adopted, commence in Eugland, but only so long as seemed necessary for also the subsidiary plan of providing their improvement; apprenticing reformatory schools for the reception them out, or enabling ihem to emiof our youthful criminals bad its grate after two or three years' probabeginning there. No earlier example tion, instead of keeping them in the is upon record of the latter class of establishment (as had previously been establishments than the school of the usual) till near the age of manhood. Philanthropic Society, which may And now Mettray, which up to this justly be regarded as the parent and time might be regarded as the folmodel of all subsequent institutions lower of the Philinthropic Society, of that sort. “A single child,” says took, in its turn, the lead, and set to the one of the earliest Reports, “ was first latter the example which it has up to pat to nurse, to which several more this time very closely followed. It were soon added ; when the number was determined to remove the Phiamounted to twelve, small lanthropic from London altogether, house, at £10 per annum, was and transform its manufactory into a hired, in a situation where more farm, where, trained in the more could easily be obtained, healthful and active operation of agrithey might be wanted. A second cultural life, the boys would be prohouse was soon hired, and presently perly prepared for emigration : and, a third and fourth ; a small spot of lastly, to return to the society's origarden ground was also taken, in ginil system, of distributing the boys which the boys should assist the gar- into separate families or households, dener in their leisure hours. At the where more individual superintendend of the second year, the school ence, and more kindly domestic incontained about fifty children of both fluence, might be substituted for the sexes, divided into distinct families ; ordinary mechanical and formal diseach managed as much as possible on cipline. Accordingly, in January, the footing of a HOME, and each in. 1849, the committee obtained an elistructed in some branch of industry gible farmı of one hundred and thirtylikely to be useful to them in after three acres, in the immediate vicinity life.” This was the very system that of Redhill and Reigate Station, on was subsequently adopted at Met- the Brighton and South Eastern Rail. tray; but, unhappily, owing to a ways. Here then commenced the great increase of the mumber of the important experiment, for the result inmates, the desire of a less costly of which the United Kingdom is

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watching with the most earnest, anx- there. If he goes into the street, he iety, viz :“How far the discipline meets there with associates who and out-door occupations of a country ter'pt, corrupt, and els are him. It school, conducted on the footing of is not a mere peradventure, that the an agricultural colony, can be suc- child my fall ; it is a moral cercessfully applied to the reformation tainty that he will. No youth could and indus rial training of such youths pass unscathed through such a fearful as such an institution seeks to rescue.” ordeal as this. The best thing we The impulse is almost irresistible by can wish for the poor, neglected little which one fe: ls impelled to place creature is, that, ii he is doomed to Mettray and Redhill side by side, to fall, he may fall soon, and be brough“, compare them, to contrast them, to while bis disposition is more pliant mark the peculiar features that dis- and duc ile than it ever will be at any .tinguish them, to watch the effects fuiure siage of his life, under the beof the peculiar advantages by which neficent iniuence of a well ordered ineach is benetited, or of the peculiar siitution, in which he may be instructed ditliculties with which each has to in those duties and those doctrines contend. One great disadvan'age which it can never be too soon to teach attaches to Redhill—the majority of him. Whether such an establishment the elder boys are strictly vlunteers, as that at Redhill be suited to his admitted at their own application, on case, is a question which we will conthe expiration of their sentence, sider presently. We agree with the whom, therefore, the society has no able and zealous chaplain of that inlegal power to detain, or to compel to siitution in his opinion, that "reforreturn if they choose to abscond. mation, except iu rare and exceptional From the opening of the ins.itution cases, ought to be a word wholly inapin April, 1849, up to the date of the plicable to children of fourteen or last report, February, 1856, eight twelve,oras many are, even of ten years hundred and seventy-five boys had of age. Itat once proclainıs that obvi. been admitted. Of the number, one ousduties have been neglected, and the hundred and seventy-tive, admitted in simplest responsibilities forgotten, 1855, seventy-six had lost one parent, when minds and hearts so young are twenty-five both, one hundred and found so early tainted and deformed. four had not been regularly at school, Did we take more pains to FORU fifty-three had been exposed to the them rightly from the first, there evils of a vicious home and bad

paren- would be but a few, at least at eu h tal example; twenty-eight had been a tender age, to be reformed." True, once before in prison; eighteen, twice;

but not new. It is the old story over and sixty-eight, thrice and upwards. again; at least it is as old as the It is plain that from such a class as time of Solomon ; for he, too, had a this the ranks of adults in crime must notion, that there was some hope in be plentifully recruited. But there is a the early training of a child id the · question to which it is well worth our way he should go. We seem, however, while to seek for the true answer- to be disinclined to take him at his what are the causes that chiefly en- word, till we have made the experigender this loathsome and revolting ment for ourselves ; like the canny mass of premature depravity ? To Scotchman : “Honesty, my friend, is this inquiry we have obtained one the best policy : and I ought to know, uniform reply -- parental neglect. for I've tried baith.Either the parents are unable to The last Report of Re Thill states, superintend the child's early years- “Our discharges for the year 1855 to educate, control, and employ lim; have amounted to 108. Of these 18 or they set a bad example, which the deserted, or were discharged after child but too readily follows ; or give fair probation, as calcula ied to do evil counsel, which he but too readily more injury to their schoolmates than obeys. Even if we suppose the child benefit to themselves by the opportuto b3 the offspring of sober and in- nity afforded them. Of the iemaindustrious parents, who send him to ing 90,65 emigrated—46 to Australia, school, but whose occupations take and 19 to America. So far as we them from home, what is to become have heard of these, the large majority of him when school hours are over ? are likely to do well." But we are If he goes home, he finds no parent entitled to ask, of how many of those


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emigrants have you had tidings? in such a case economy. The waste
And from whom have you heard of is, failure in the reformatory pro-
the well-doing of those you refer to, cess.”
from thenuselves, or from trustworthy As compared with Mettray, Red-
witnesses? We hold it to be of the hill labours under certain disadvan-
last importance that a constant, watch- tages : it has not the military organ-
ful, and even anxious guardianship ization and discipline which are found
should, as far as possible, be exercised to be so efficacious in the former :
over the discharged boys; and that it has no legal power to detain the
throughout the whole of their school. greater number of its inmates, or to
ing they should be made to bear this enforce their return if they should
truth in mind. This would exercise choose to abscond. But the difficulties
a most salutary influence over them of its task it seeks to overcome by
during the period of their detention, enploying religious influence, per-
and save the time, trouble, and cost sonal kindness, exact justice, and
that are expended upon them. But constant ensployment, accompanied
to fling them back into the world by snall rewards in the nature of
without a care for their future welfare wages.
would be “ to throw the helve after The last Report states that out of
the hatchet,”—“post oninia perdere 636 who have left the school since it

was opened in 1849, 540 had stayed
The total number of boys at Red- in it willingly, and gone out to honest
hill is broken up, as at Mettray, employment in the colonies or in
and as at the Philanthropic at its England ; and that it nay fairly be
origiual constitution, into separate asserted of 70 per cent. of these, that
schools, of which there are at present they have been conducting themselvų:
sis, each under a master appropriated well.
to itself, and complete in all its ar- Similar institutions have been cs-
rangements and accommodations. tablished at Stretton-on-Dunsmore,
The different masters are independent in Warwickshire (recently given up
of each other, and responsible only for want of funds), at Durham, at
to the chief manager, who is also the Kingswood near Bristol, at Saitley
chaplain. In each school there is near Birmingham, at Hardwick in
put up monthly a Good Conduct List, the county of Gloucester, at Brighton,
on which is inscribed the names of such at Westminster, and at Parkhurst
of the boys as have passed through in the Isle of Wight-a government
the preceding month without any institution, in which the prisoners
complaint against them for negligence work in association !
or misbehaviour. The boys who When it is alleged, as an objection
keep their names on this list for three to na ional establishments for the
consecutive months receive a small maintenance and training, as well as
prize chosen by themselves. The for the punishnient, of young offend-
plan appears to work well. Half- ers, that this is holding out a pre-
yearly examinations in general and mium to crime, and giving to the off-
religious knowledge are henceforth spring of negligent, dishonest, and
to take place.

profligate parents an education and The Report for the year 1855 well nurture that the hardworking, upobserves, " The thing to be done in right labourer or artisan is unable, this institution is, to change a lad with all his self-denial, to provide for who, unreformed, is a continual an- his children, it is sufficient to annoyance and expense to the commu- swer, that the objection is groundnity, into one who shall not only be less. First, because we do not give barmless but useful, and, in his to the criminal child such an educahonest industry and labour, profitable tion as he ought to receive at home; -a producer, instead of a and we could not do this, if we would. spoiler, waster, and consumer of the Parental nurture and discipline are fruits of others' toil. If this be effec- God's own ordinance; and when they tually done, no ordinary rate of cost are neglected, nothing that the most is really expensive, for he steals and enlightened and earnest philanthropy consumes in his crimes and his punish- can substitute for them can be an equi. tuent ten times more than can be valent. Secondly, neither the young spent in his reformation. Expense is delinquent himself, nor his negligent


parents or guardians have any taste for such institutions: not the young urchin himself, for he there finds his freedom restrained, his inclinations curbed, and the whole system in antagonism to his settled habits: not the parents, for they are made to smart for the misconduct of the child, by being compelled to defray the cost of his maintenance. When the objector can bring forward an instance of a young scoundrel who has been decoyed from a penny theatre by the superior attractions of a properly regulated Reformatory School, or of a worthless parent who is desirous of being mulcted in the cost of his stripling's maintenance there, or of an honest labourer who is willing to have his virtuous child made the enforced associate of young thieves who bear the ineffaccable brand of criminality upon their brow, we shall then deem the objection a just one.

But we have an objection to Reformatory Schools, as at present constituted, which we believe it will be difficult to answer. We object to them on this ground, that in undertaking, as they do, the penal treatment of young culprits, they assume a function that pertains exclusively and inalienably to the State. We hold that, among the duties incumbent by an express divine ordinance upon the Executive, one is the punishment of its criminal members; and that duty it delegates to other hands AT ITS PERIL! Its responsibility in this case cannot be shifted, cannot be shared. The treatment of all delinquents, whether adult or juvenile, belongs solely to it. They fall by law into the hands of the law; and revelation, reason, universal usage, conspire in testifying that by the law they should be dealt with. No amount of accountability, or of sound judgment, or of unimpeachable philanthropy, can entitle an association of private individuals to take upon itself an obligation which no human power can transfer to it; or to absolve the Government from an obligation which is tied to it by a bond which cannot be sundered. The moment a criminal, no matter how venial his offence may be, passes

from the grasp of the law into that of a private society, he passes into hands that are unauthorized to detain and impotent to punish him.

But it is said in reply to this:"You cannot send a mere child to gaol; it is not a fit place for him." Then we answer-Let it be made fit. Let suitable accommodation, suitable education, suitable employment, suitable exercise, be provided in every gaol in this kingdom for such in mates; and let us incur, without a murmur, any amount of cost and trouble for the due treatment of such, rather than subvert the first principles of reason and justice, by delivering them over to hands that have no right to their custody. It is alleged that, by the self-denying, sympa thizing, truly Christian-minded per sons who establish and manage those "reformatories," good is done. Yes, but evil is done too. And we are bold to say that the good they do can be done as effectually, without any admixture of evil, in a properly constructed and properly managed gaol. We hold in as high estimation as any one can the priceless value of individual benevolence; but we believe that the kindly and parental influence which has been brought to operate upon the friendless objects of reformatory schools, may be much more effectually exercised by paid than by unpaid agency. "It is a

mistake to accredit effective philanthropy solely to voluntary effort, and to deny it to those who apply their hearts and devote their time and talent to the work, simply because they live by their labour, and make it their vocation. A labour of love is not necessarily unpaid, or beneficially uncontrolled."*

"But," say the advocates of 'Reformatory Schools,' "a gaol is not only unit for young children, but they are unfit for it. They are irresponsible beings; and therefore it is at once unfeeling and irrational to subject them to a discipline which is utterly unadapted to their capacity." This is begging the question-nay, it is worse:- it is a direct arraignment of the Divine wisdom ;-it is no less than an impeachment of His skill in

On Juvenile Crime, as it affects Commerce, and the best means of repressing it. By Jelinger Symous, Esq. 1835.

the construction of that wondrous fabric, a human creature, implying that against its innate and early tendency to act wrong he has not provided a needful check; and that the masterpiece of his handiwork is sur、 passed in this respect even by the production of the human artificer. Examine the mechanism of a watch: see there the contrivance by which the greater recoiling power of the spring at its utmost tension, is compensated by a simple contrivance which renders equable the motion of the whole machine. And will any one tell us that a child is less skilfully formed than a chronometer! No, as soon as the child is able to do what is wrong he is able to hear the voice of the inward monitor rebuking him for the deed. There is no appreciable interval between the committal of the act and the warning of the the avenger: conscience applies her Scourge to the transgressor as the thunder pursues the flash. If those who maintain that a very young lad can have no adequate notion of property will only take from him his playthings-his ball or his marblesperhaps they will see reason to think differently. The truth is, that a child of seven, aye, or five years of age, has as just a notion of the doctrine of meum and tuum as any student of Grotius or Puffendorf. For surely, if he can feel an instinctive sense of injustice at the invasion of his own rights, he must at the same time have some notion of his duty with respect to the rights of others. "From a child thou hast known the Scriptures." So says St. Paul to Timothy. But Timothy must have then known his Bible to little purpose, if he did not understand the eighth commandment. Those who stick le so stoutly for the irresponsibility of young pilferers must excuse us if we believe an Apostle rather than them.

Instead, therefore, of whining and whimpering when a young culprit is brought before us, and asking with a raeful look of perplexity, "What shall we do with such a mere child as this?" let us rejoice with exceeding joy that he has fallen into our hands at so tender an age, before his heart is rendered more corrupt by the force

of evil example, and his conscience more seared by further training in the path of vice. Let us regard this as an opportunity to be embraced with thankfulness, of rescuing from after-ruin a poor neglected outcast, and of timely arresting a career which, unchecked, must end either at the gibbet or the antipodes. Bear in mind the exceeding lubricity of crime, and that the trivial theft is father to the felony. Lose not a moment; eradicate evil habits, instil good principles, which are nothing else than reasons for being good; urge moral, religious, Christian motives; and do all this with the potency, we may say with the omnipotence of Christian love; and your task will be as facile as your success will be sure. Fear not, if you begin well, that you will ever fail for want of fit agents to carry on the good work: not mere hirelings, who, having no capacity for any other occupation,think themselves well qualified for the very highest occupetion of all-the educing and fostering of those "high, capacious powers that lie folded up in man," the implanting of religious principles, the communication of religious truths, the formation of religious habits, the cultivation of religious affections, and the setting of religious examples. Only throw open a field for such labourers, and they will eagerly proffer their priceless services; services that gold cannot purchase, any more than it can recompense them. This encouraging prospect lies before us. As for France, we are persuaded that she will look in vain for another Mettray, or another De Metz. We have seen in Recorder Hall's account of Petit Bourg, that the system has signally failed there. We are prepared, from the very nature of the case, to find other failures elsewhere in that kingdom. M. De Metz possesses peculiar aptitudes, which are very rarely to be met with, and not to be transmitted. We require in a matter of this sort not only an agent that shall be fit, but an establishment that shall be lasting. Founders must die: institutions should be immortal.

Even apart from every other consideration than their intellectual nurture, these poor uncared-for children

* 'Azù ẞpédous, “from an infant." The original makes still more strongly for us.

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