Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration

封面
Alan A. Desrochers
Springer Science & Business Media, 1992年2月29日 - 345 頁
Over the last twenty years, automation and robotics have played an increasingly important role in a variety of application domains including manufacturing, hazardous environments, defense, and service industries. Space is a unique environment where power, communications, atmospheric, gravitational, and sensing conditions impose harsh constraints on the ability of both man and machines to function productively.
In this environment, intelligent automation and robotics are essential complements to the capabilities of humans. In the development of the United States Space Program, robotic manipulation systems have increased in importance as the complexity of space missions has grown. Future missions will require the construction, maintenance, and repair of large structures, such as the space station. This volume presents the effords of several groups that are working on robotic solutions to this problem.
Much of the work in this book is related to assembly in space, and especially in-orbit assembly of large truss structures. Many of these so-called truss structures will be assembled in orbit. It is expected that robot manipulators will be used exclusively, or at least provide partial assistance to humans.
Intelligent Robotic Systems for Space Exploration provides detailed algorithms and analysis for assembly of truss structure in space. It reports on actual implementations to date done at NASA's Langley Research Center. The Johnson Space Center, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Other implementations and research done at Rensselaer are also reported. Analysis of robot control problems that are unique to a zero-gravity environment are presented.
 

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內容

Testbed for Cooperative Robotic Manipulators
5
12 Purposes of the CIRSSE Testbed
5
14 Issues and Results for SpaceBased Robotic Applications
5
142 ZeroGravity
6
144 Theory of Intelligent Machines
8
145 Task Planning Path Planning and Collision Avoidance
9
146 Control
10
147 Remote Control
11
437 Discussion on Path Planning
177
438 Configurations and Singularities
180
ThreeDimensional Vision
185
52 Active Techniques
186
53 Calibration of Fixed Cameras
187
531 Summary of Tsais Calibration Technique for Fixed Cameras
188
532 Refining Stage 1 of Tsais Calibration Technique
193
534 Sources of Camera Calibration Error
207

149 Sensing
12
1411 Visual and Force Servoing
13
151 Manipulator Subsystems
14
152 Sensor Subsystems Vision
16
153 Processor Subsystems
17
154 Mobile Robot
19
16 Design of the MCS for the CIRSSE Test bed
20
162 Functional Requirements
22
163 Manpower Requirements
27
171 Coordination Level of Intelligent Machines
28
172 Petri Net Implementation
29
173 Coordination Level Research
31
19 References
32
An Automated Assembly System for Large Space Structures
39
21 Introduction
40
22 Facility and Hardware Description
43
221 Robot and Motion Bases
46
223 EndEffector
49
224 Strut Storage
51
225 System Control and Communication
57
23 Assembly Operations
60
232 Strut Pickup From the Canister
61
233 Motion Base Moves
63
234 Robot Paths and Capture Sequence
64
235 EndEffector Installation Operations
66
236 Operator Pause and Reverse
67
238 Tray Transfer Operations
68
24 Software Structure
69
242 Robot Program
76
244 EndEffector Software
79
25 Tests
80
26 Current Test Observations and Results
82
262 Test Observation Results
86
27 Future Research Opportunities
90
272 Installation of Panels
95
273 Sequence Planning
96
275 Assembly of a Linear Truss Beam
97
276 Second Generation EndEffector
98
277 Graphics Simulation
99
28 Conclusions
100
29 Appendix A
101
210 APPENDIX B
104
211 References
109
Development of a Truss Joint for Robotic Assembly of Space Structures
111
31 SpaceBased Assembly
112
312 Robotic Structural Assembly
113
32 The RobotFriendly Structural Joint Study
115
321 Designing for Robotic Assembly
116
322 Design Requirements
117
33 Test Descriptions
126
332 Structural Tests
130
34 Test Results and Evaluation
131
342 Structural Testing Results
133
343 Evaluation
134
35 Conclusions
136
352 Real World Robotic Observations
137
353 Concluding Remarks
138
36 References
139
Hierarchical Planning for SpaceTruss Assembly
141
Assembly Sequence Planning
143
423 Assembly Sequence Planning in the SpaceTruss Domain
145
424 Case Studies
151
425 Discussion on Assembly Sequence Planning
152
Assembly Path Planning
155
433 Geometric Modeling
157
434 Robot Path Planning
159
436 Results
173
535 Summary of Refinements to Calibration for Fixed Cameras
210
54 Calibration of a Laser Scanner
211
541 The Mathematical Model of a Laser Scanner
212
542 Calibration of the Intrinsic Parameters
213
543 Calibration of the Extrinsic Parameters Using an LSE Method
214
544 Direct Geometric Method for Calibrating a Laser Scanner
216
545 Locating a Laser Spot in a Camera Image
221
55 ThreeDimensional Point Estimation Methods
223
552 Midpoint of the Common Normal Method
226
553 Comparison of Point Estimation Methods
232
554 Point Estimation Using More than Two Calibrated Cameras
233
56 Description of the CIRSSE 3D Vision System
234
561 Five Camera Vision System
235
564 Demonstration of the CIRSSE 3D Vision System
237
57 References
239
CIRSSE General Purpose Gripper and Controller System
241
61 Introduction
242
631 Sensors
243
641 Regulated Voltage Supplies
245
643 Light Beam Sensor
247
645 Position Sensor
248
653 Commands
250
656 Design Issues
253
67 References
255
Simulation of Space Manipulators
257
72 Notation
259
73 Single Manipulator Dynamics
263
731 Velocity and Acceleration Propagation
264
732 Simulation
268
733 A Simulation Case Study
269
735 Simulation Experiments
271
736 Discussion
273
74 Simulation of Cooperating Manipulators
276
742 ClosedForm Inverse Dynamics
279
743 Interaction with a Common Load
282
745 Motion on a Mobile Base
283
746 Case Study
285
75 Conclusion
286
76 References
290
Automated Assembly in the JPL Telerobot Testbed
297
81 Background of the NASAJPL Telerobot Testbed
298
82 System Description
300
822 Assembly Example
302
823 System Communication
303
825 Sensing and Perception
304
827 Task Planning and Reasoning
305
829 Monitoring and Diagnosis
306
832 Contact Motion Primitive
308
84 World Model System
310
843 Object Geometry and Properties
311
844 World Model Database Update
312
845 World Model and Calibration
313
846 Database Coordination
315
85 Collision Detector
316
853 Collision Detection Algorithm LowLevel
317
86 Path Planner
318
861 Cost Function
319
862 Convergence of the Cost Function Minimization
325
87 Task Primitives
326
871 Establish_Gripper_Approach Routine
332
873 Establish_Approach_Fine Routine
333
875 Establish_Grasp_Level Routine
335
876 Establish_Grasp_Close Routine
337
88 Conclusions
339
Index
343
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