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is loth to allow an heroic statue of a Roman citizen, but the Grimani Agrippa, a cotemporary almost, is heroic; and naked Roman figures were only very rare,
not absolutely forbidden. The face accords much better with the "hominum integrum et castum et gravem,"
I than with any of the busts of Augustus, and is too stèrn for him who was beautiful, says Suetonius, at all periods of his life.
The pretended likeness to Alexander the Great cannot be discerned, but the traits resemble the medal of Pompey. 2 The objectionable globe may not have been an ill applied flattery to him who found Asia Minor the boundary, and left it the centre of the Roman empire. It seems that Winkelmann has made a mistake in thinking that no proof of the identity of this statue, with that which received the bloody sacrifice, can be derived from the spot where it was discovered. 3 Flaminius Vacca says sotto una cantina, and this cantina is known to have been in the Vicolo de' Leutari near the Cancellaria, a position corresponding exactly to that of the Janus before the basilica of Pompey's theatre, to which Augustus transferred the statue after the curia was either burnt, or taken down. 4 Part of the Pompeian shade, s the portico, existed in the begining of the XVth century, and the atrium was still called Satrum.
1 Cicer epist. ad Atticum, si. 6.
9 Storia delle arti, etc. ibid. - 4 Sueton. in vit. August. cap. 31, and in vit. C. J. Cae
cap. 88. Appian says it was burnt down. See a note of Pitiscus to Suetonius, pag. 224. S“Tu modo Pompeia lenta spatiare sub umbra.”
Ovid, ar. aman.
So says Blondus. I At all events, do imposing is the stern majesty of the statue, and so memorable is the story, that the play of the imagination leaves no room for the exercise of the judgment, and the fiction, if fiction it is, operates on the spectator with an effect not less powerful than truth.
Note 46, page 137, line 1, And thou, the thunder-stricken nurse of Rome! Ancient Rome, like modern Sienna, abounded most probably with images of the foster-mother of her founder: but there were two she – wolves of whom history makes particular mention. One of these, of brass in ancient work, was seen by Dionysius ? at the temple of Romulus, under the Palatine, and is universally believed to be that mentioned by the Latin historian, as having been made from the money collected by a fine on usurers, and as standing under the Ruminal fig - tree. 3 The other was that which Cicero 4 has celebrated both in prose and
† Roma instaurata , lib. ii. fo. 31.
Antiq, Rom, lib. i.
“Ad ficnm Ruiminalem simulacra infantium conditorum urbis sub uberibus lupae posuerunt.
Liv. Hist. lib. I. cap, lxix. This was in the year U. C. 455, or 457.
* “Tum statua Nattae, tuin simulacra Deorum, Romulusque et Remus cum altrice bellua vi fulminis icti conciderunt.' De Divinat. ii, 20. “Tactus est ille etiam qui hanc urbem condidit Romulus, quem inauratum in Capitolio paryum atque lactantem, uberibus lupinis inhiantem fuisse meministis.In Catilin. iii, 8.
“His silvestris erat Romani nominis altrix
verse, and which the historian Dion also records as having suffered the same accident as is alluded to by the orător. I
The question agitated by the antiquaries is whether the wolf now in the conservators palace is that of Livy and Dionysius, or that of Cicero, or whether it is neither one or the other. The earlier writers differ as much as the moderns : Lucius Faunus 2
Uberibus gravidis vitali rore rigebat
De Consulatu. lib. ii. (lib. ii. de Divinat. cap. ii.) Σ 'Εν γαρ τα καπητωλίω ανδριάντες τε πολλοί υπο κεραυνών συνεχωνεύθησαν, και αγάλματα άλλα τε, και διος επί κίονος ιδρυμένον, εικών τε τις λυκάνης συν τε το ρώμα και
συν τω βωμύλω ιδρυμένη έπεση. Dion. Hist. lib. xxxvii. p. 37. edit. Rob. Steph. 1548. He goes on to mention ihat the letters of the columns on which the laws were written were liquifiéd and become ouvdvd. All that the Romans did was to erect a large statue to Jupiter, · looking towards tho east: no mention is afterwards made of the wolf. This happened in A. U. C. 689. The Abate Fea, in noticing this passage of Dion, (Storia delle arti, etc. tom. i. pag. 202. note x.), says, Non ostante, aggiunge. Dione, che fosse ben fermata, (the wolf), by which it is clear the Abate translated the Xylandro -Leuclavian version, which puts quamvis stabilita for the original idovuévn, a word that does not mean ben-fermota, but only raised, as may be distinctly seen from another passage of the same Dion: 'Hβουλήθη μεν ουν ο 'Αγρίππας και τον Αύγουστον ενταύθα ιδρύσαι. Ηist. lib. Ivi. Dion says that Agrippa “wished to raise a statue of Auguştuis in the Pantheon."
? “In eadem porticu oenea lupa, cujus uberibus Romulus ac Remus lactantes inhiant, conspicitur: de hac Cicero et Virgilius semper intellexere. Livius hoc signum ab Aedilibus ex pecuniis quibus mulctati essent foeneratores, positum
that it is the one alluded to by both, which is impossible, and also by Virgil, which may be. Fulvius Ursinus ' calls it the wolf of Dionysius, and Marlianus 2 talks of it as the one mentioned by Cicero. To him Ryegnius tremblingly assents. Nardini is inclined to suppose it may be one of the many wolves preserved in ancient Rome; but of the two rather bends to the Ciceronian statue, Montfaucon mentions it as a point without doubt. Of the latter writers the decisive Winkelmann o proclaims it as having been found at the church of Saint Theodore, where, or near where, was the temple of Romulus, and consequently makes it the wolf of Dionysius. His authority is Lucius Faunus, who, however, only says that it was placed, not found, at the
innuit. Antea in Comitiis ad Ficum Rumiņalem, quo loco pueri fuerant expositi locatum pro certo est.” Luc. Fauni. de Antiq. Urb. Rom. lib. ii. cap. vii. ap. Sallengre, tom. i. p. 217. In his XVIIth chapter he repeats that the statues were there, but not that they were found there.
I Ap. Nardini. Roma Vetus. lib. v. cap. iv.
2 Marliani. Urb. Rom. topograph. lib. ii. cap. ix. Ho mentions another wolf and twins in the Vatican. lib. v.
's “Non desunt qui hanc ipsam esse putent, quam adpinximus, quae è comitio in Basilicam Lateranam, cum nonnullis aliis antiquitatum reliquiis, atque hinc in Capitoliium postea relata sit, quamvis Marlianus antiquam Capitolinam esse maluit a Tullio descriptam, cui ut in re nimis dubia, trepide adsentimur.” Just. Rycquii de Capit. Roman. Comm. cap. xxiv. pag. 250. edit. Lugd. Bat. 1696.
4 Nardini Roma Vetus. lib. v. cap. iv.
15 “Lupa hodieque in capitolinis prostat aedibus, cum vestigio fulminis quo ictam narrat Cicero." Diarium. Italic. tom i. p. 174.
o Storia delle arti, etc. lib. iii. cap. iii. G. ii. not. 10.
Ficus Ruminalis by the Comitium, by which he does
to allude to the church of Saint Theodore. Rycquius was the first to make the mistake, and Winkelmann followed Rycquius.
Flaminius Vacca tells quite a different story, and says he had heard the wolf with the twins was found 5 near the arch of Septimius Severus. The commentator on Winkelmann is of the same opinion with that learned person, and is incensed at Nardini for not having remarked that Cicero, in speaking of the wolf struck with lightning in the Capitol, makes use of the past tense, But, with the Abate's leave, Nardini does not positively assert the statue to be that mentioned by Cicero, and, if he had, the assumption would not perhaps have been so exceedingly indiscreet. The Abate himself is obliged to own that there are marks very like the scathing of lightning in the hinder legs of the present wolf; and, to get rid of this, adds, that the wolf seen by Dionysius might have been also struck by lightning, or otherwise injured.
Let us examine the subject by a reference to the words of Cicero. The orator in two places seems to particularize the Romulus and the Remus, especially the
Winkelmann has made a strange blunder in the note, by saying the Ciceronian wolf was not in the Capitol, and that Dion was wrong in saying so.
1 “Intesi dire, che l'Ercolo di bronzo, che nggi si trova nella sala di Campidoglio, fu trovato nel foro Romano appresso l'arco di Settimio; e vi fu trovata anche la lupa di bronzo che allata Romolo e Remo, e stà nella Loggia de conservatori.” Flam. Vacca. Memorie. num. iii. p. 1. ap. Montfaucon diar. Ital. tom. i.