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the gr. keles, equus celer, and elō, ellō, illō, Tirra lirra, fanciful sounds to imitate the lark. WT. 4, 2. S. also Douce's III. of Sh. I, 853.

lat. volvo.

to Tilt, to fight in knightly combat, or tournament; to fight, strive. aHd. 2, 8. RJ. 3, 1. CE. 4, 2. LL.5, 2.

Tilter, one who tilts, or fights. AL. 3, 4. Tilth, land prepared for sowing; crop, harvest. MM. 4, 1. with Malone.

Timber, wood for building. Hh. 1, 2. The first fol. and Voss substitutes it MV. 2, 7. for tomb. Rightly!

Tirrit, terror, trouble. A comical word. bHd. 2, 4.

Tithe, tenth part of fruits. aHd. 3, 3. Sax. tethoa. Tithepig, tithehog. RJ. 1, 4. Tithing, tything, ten families, every one of whom was answerable to the king for the good countenance of the others. Their presi lent was called toothing, or tithing man, now cɔnstable. KL. 3, 4. S. Dufresne.

to Timber, to furnish with timbers. Sax, tim-To, compared with. TG. 2, 4. Omitted JC. 1, 1. brian, goth. timrjan, germ. zimmern, kin to the gr. demein, to build, lat. domus, engl.

wh. S.

to teem, Time. 'Tis more than time, it is the utmost time. bld. 1, 1. Not worth the time of day, not worth a good day, or morrow, undeserving the most common and usual salutation. P. 4, 4. Confounded with line, wh. s.

to Time, to fix by time, to measure. Co. 2, 2. Timeless, untimely. Rb. 4, 1. RJ. 5, 5. Timely, early, recently, newly. bf. 3, 2. Douce's Ill. of Sh. II, 15.

Tinct, tincture, blot, stain, dye. H. 3, 4; elixir, a chemical preparation capable of transmuting metals. AW. 5, 3. From tingere. Tinder, inflammable thing, touchwood. MIV. 1, 3. Co. 2, 1. From to tind, or tine, to kindle, burn; kin to cinder, pers. zend, germ. Zunder, zünden, engl. to singe, ungar. gyantar, amber, franc. kenten, ankenten, wheuce Kentelstab with Otfr. for candlestick, engl. kindle, germ. Kien, engl. candle, lat. candela, cundere. Tiny, slender, wee (wh. s.) TN. 5, end. bHd.

5, 1. KL. 3, 2. From thin, germ. dünn, properly extended, stretched.

Tip, point, top, end, extremity. TC.3, 1. Kin to the germ. Schopf, Kopf, fr. coiffe, germ. Kopf, Zopf, Zipfel, it. scuffia, gr. keble, kephale, engl. cap, tuft.

to Tip, to lace the end, to seam. RJ. 2, 2. to Tipple, to make practice of toping, or drawing by the tap, or tappe, which stops the cask, or causing it to be done by a tapster; to drink excessively, to carouse, wh. s. AC. 1, 4. Kin to tiff, germ. zippen, sippeln, zippeln, sax. sipan, sypan, lowsax. supen, germ. saufen, Suppe, Saft, gr. opos, cf. to tap. Tipsy, well carous'd, well drunk. MD. 5, 1. Gifford's Ben Jons. VI, 137. VII, 386. Tiptoe, a tiptoe, on the end of the toes. RJ. 3. 5. He. 4, 3.

Tire headdress. Shiptire, an open headdress of women with a kind of scarf depending from behind. Tire vailant, valiant, or volant, a close one, covering head and breast with a veil. MW. 3, 3. MA. 3, 4. AC. 2, 5. From tiara, hebr. tor. Hence

Tired adorned with ribbands, scarfs. LL. 4, 2. with an allusion at Bankes' horse.

in you ought not walk, and 4, 2. in listen great things. Prefixed it has an augmentative sense, as in to pinch the unclean knight. MW. 4, 4. To and fro, up and down. biƒ. 1, 1. KL. 3, 1. MW. 2, 1.

i. e.

Toad was supposed to have a stone in its head, as sovereign remedy for many disorders. AL. 2, 1. Spiders and toads were believed to be venomous. Rb.3, 2. Cy. 4, 2. Drake's Sh. I, 367. Toadstool, a plant like mushroom. TC. 2, 1. Tod of wool, a certain quantity, viz 23 pounds, or two stone. WT. 4, 2. Kin to the germ. Zotte, gr. thōs, engl. to towze, wh. s. to Toe, to tread down. KL. 1, 2. Tofore, before. TAn. 3, 1. LL. 3, 1. Toged, gowned. O. 1, 1. in the folios tongued. Toil, net, snare woven, or meshed. JC. 2, 1. AC. 5. end. II. 3, 2. From toile, lat. tela. Token, a spot on the body, denoting the infection of the plague. LL. 5, 2. Hence the token'd pestilence AC, 3, 8. when the house of infected was shut up and Lord have mercy upon us was written, or printed upon the door. to Toll, toule, tole. The significations of this word offered by the lexicographers and commentators are: to pay, or to take toll, or tallage, to collect; to enter (a sale) in the tollbook, to draw, or pull, also a bell, to ring, sound, chiefly in metaphorical sense of drawing on by enticement; to take away. It is most evident, that these significations partly unconnected are by no ways reducible to one general and common notion, nor to the same etymon, unless the interpretation be either artificial, or imaginary; for the lifting up of a bell on itself causes not the sound we call toll, as Horne Tooke will Div. of P. II, 180. With Sh. it occurs in two passages bHd. 4, 4. and AW. 5, 3. In the first it is said of a bee, taking away, or sucking, or levying from every flower the virtuous sweets. Here the sense is clearer, than the signification, and might allow to find and hearken an analogy of the gr. telein, telōnein, as well as of thēlē, teat, from thaō, to suck, or even of the lat. tollere. The second passage has much vexed the commentators, as it is differently read and pointed. The folios have I will buy me a son in law in a fair and toule him for this. I'll none of him. Steevens and Malone read: and toll for this. I'll none of him, explaining 'get rid of this worthless fellow, by tolling him out of it,' that is said to be a phrase of the time, meaning somewhat like to exile, to drive away for it is not clearly expressed; or 'Ill sell him, as I would a horse, publicly entering in the tollbook the particulars of the sale;' or 'toll the bell for this, i. e. look upon him as a dead man.' To us all these explications seem as farfetched and incongruous, as on the other hand simplicity

to Tire, a term in falconry, to peak eagerly, to feed, pray on, to pull and tear, as a hawk does on the quarry or game, which is thrown to her. cHf. 1, 1. Malone to TA.3, 6. Gifford's Ben Jons. II, 470. IIII, 256; to be eagerly engaged upon an object. Cy. 3, 4. The word itself assonates partly to tear, tarre, tur, wh. s., partly the provincial germ. thieren, to pursue eagerly, kin to the gr. thereucin, therein, theran, to hunt, chase.

Tiring house, warderob. M. 3, 1. S. tire.

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Toward, in a state of preparation, going towards a conclusion. H. 1, 1. RJ. 1, 5; audacious, bold, stout. cHf. 2, 2.

would recommend to read I will b. me a son in law in a fair, and toll him; for this, I'l none of him, and to explain I'll pay even duty, or tax for him; I'll not spare expences; what belongs to this, I don't like him. Besides, if there needed an emendation, one might perhaps propose I'll-truck him for this, i. e. change.

Tomb. S. timber.

Tomboy, a romp, a drab, that rambles about, like a boy. Cy. 1, 7.

Tongue, language. aHd. 3, 1. Woolvish tongue is the reading of the first folio Co. 2, 3; the second has gown, Malone substituted toge, as toged is for gowned 0. 1, 1. although even there all old folios have tongued. The error and ignorance seems therefore as evident, as it is clear, that here is required the napless vesture of humility (sc. 2.) the gown of humility (sc. 3.) humble weeds (ib.), that were put on by those, who would recommend themselves to the crowd. Standing in, says further Nares, seems to imply, that it was something worn. This, however, is not altogether true, as appears from to stand in need, in fear, in hope, in defence; and even wolvish tongue with an inversion might be howling speech; nay wolvish throng would not be too absonously conjectured. Meanwhile w. toge is rather exquisite. Too blame. aHd. 3, 1. Read to. Tool, instrument. TAn. 4, 3. Cy. 5, 1; sword. RJ. 1, 1; instrument of begetting, yard. Hh. 5, S. From the gr. tylos.

Toothpicks brought into use in Italy and worn by travellers KJ. 1, 1. also as an ornament in the hat. AW. 1, 1.

to Top, to climb, reach, or ascend the summit; KL. 5, 3.

Topful, brimful. KJ. 3, 4.

Topgallant, the highest mast, the highest top RJ. 2, 4.

Topless, supreme, having no superior. TC. 1, 8.

to Topple, to fall forward, by being top heavy. MD. 2, 1. KL. 4, 6. M. 4, 1; to throw down head foremost. aHd. 3, 1. Kin to tumble, wh. s.

Topsy turvy, upside down. aHd. 4, 1. Torchbearers were attendants upon night maskings. MV. 2, 4. 2, 6.

Tortive, tortile, twisted, turned aside. TC. 1, 3. From the lat. torqueo, tortus.

to Toss, to shake, push, waver, reel, totter, waggle. Rc. 2, 4. TɅn. 4, 1. Rb. 3, 2. alld. 2, 3. bHd. 2, 4. cHf. 1, 1. Germ. stossen. Tosspot, a sort of measure, a quarter. TN. 5. end.

to Totter for tatter, wh. s. KJ. 5, 5; to shake, to reel. Rc. 3, 2. From the germ. schüttern, fr. secouer, it. scuotere.

Touch, feeling, sensation. Cy. 1, 2; tincture, temper. TN. 2, 1. TG. 2, 7. M. 4, 2. TC. 4, 2. MD. 3, 2. feature, line, mien, air. AL. 3, 2; test; whence to stand the touch, to undergo or abide the test. aHd. 4, 4. Fr. touche, from the gr. thigō, thagō, lat. tango. Tough, viscous, clammy, clergy. KL. 2, 4; stiff, not easily flexible. cHf. 2, 6. Gifford's Ben Jons. VI, 185. Germ. zäh, from ziehen. to Tow, to draw by a rope, or tow. AC. 3, 9. From the sax. tow, germ. Tau, kin to tail, tackle, wh. s. by ziehen, to draw.

Towardly, tractable, docile. TA. 3, 1. Towerhill. There was a house of devotion for Puritans. Hh. 5, 1.

to Towr, or tower, to soar high, to stand like
a tower. M.2, 4. KJ. 2, 2. bHƒ. 2, 1. H. 5, 2.
to Toze, teaze, towse, tose, to pull, pluck,
disentangle, draw out wool, or flax. WT. 4, 3.
Sax. taesan, it. tozzare, germ. zausen, hebr.
aHf. 4, 1; humour,
Kin to the gr. teuchos,

Toy, trifle, silly thing.
whim. 0. 3, 4. RJ. 4, 1.
germ. Zeug.
Track, footprint, trace.
variety of

Rb. 3, 3;

Kin or

Trace, harness, geer, trapping for horses. RJ. 1,4. In the first sense it is french, ital. traccia, kin to the germ. treten, hebr. derech, way; in the latter it assonates traire, tirer, and tiar. to Trace. S. to trash.

Tract, history, course, event. Hh. 1, 1. Trade, current use, frequency of resort. Rb. 3, 8. From the lat. tradere, and tractare, perhaps the gr. draō, germ. treten, as the gr. peran, perein, poreuein, pipraskein properly is to go, chiefly in sea, then to traffic, deal in, negociate.

Traded, tried, expert, skilled, versed. TC. 2, 2.

Tradefallen, bankrupted. aHd. 4, 2. Traditional, delivered, handed down by tradition, adhering to tradition, or old customs. Rb. 3, 1.

to Traduce, to rebuke, defame, tax, discredit. He. 1, 4. 0. tow. end.

Traducement, rebuke, upbraiding. Co. 1, 9. Trail, scent left by the passage of the game

venison, trace, track. MW. 4, 2. H. 2, 2. 4,5. AC. tow. end. Kin to traire, tirer, and to trace, track.

Train, artifice, stratagem. M. 3, 4. Traitress, a term of endearment. AW. 1, 1. Training, breeding, culture. Hh. 1, 2. to Trammel, to confine and tie up. M. 1, 7. where it is joined to catch. From trammel, a contrivance, by which horses are taught to pace or amble, that is to move the legs on the same side together; kin to the ital. tramaglio, trappola, fr. tramail, trame, it. trama, eugl. trap, gr. strabō, strebō, strephō, strangō, germ. Strang, treffen, trappen, fr. attraper, gr. strabe, streble, perhaps rhaptō. Trance, transe, traunce (Lily's Euph. p. 61.) trauns, extasy, ecstatic motion of any kind, as sorrow, delight. TS. 1, 1.

Tranced, lying in extasy, or agony. KL. 5, 3. French transir, from the lat. transire, to die. S. Dufresne in transire. An euphemism common in more languages, as in the gr. oichesthai.

Tranect, ford, wh. s. MV. 3, 4. between Padua and Venice. Rowe substituted needlessly traject, the word being no doubt from the lat. tranare, transnatare, kin to the gr. nechesthai, whence also the form nektos, něktēs. Nares derives it from traino, or tranetto, (trainetto), a machine to draw the boat through the pass. But besides, that there is no notice of such a machine, it is distinguished from the ferry. Transit, or trancit seems likewise to be a glossem.

to Translate, to transform, change. MD. 1, 1.
3, 1. 3, 2. AL. 2, 1. 5, 1. KJ, 2, 2. bHd. 4, 1.
Co. 2, 3.

to Trap, to set out with trappings. TS. ind. 2.
Trappings, trappers ornaments appending to
the saddle; ornaments in general. TN. 5, 1. H.
1, 2. Kin to the fr. trippes, drap, middlelat.
trapus. S. Dufresne.
Trash, trumpery, pitiful stuff. TC. 2, 1. JC.
4, s. 1, 8. bHf. 1, 4. O. 2, 1. In this sense
it is kin to drazel, drab, draff, dregs, gr.
tryx, germ. Traber, Trester, assonating drepō,
to pluck, peel, derō, to flay, of course terō,
teirō, triō, tribō, to rub, thryptō, trypha.
With the hunters it is a piece of leather, couple
or strap fastened round the neck of a dog,
too forward, to restrain him, when his speed
is superior to the rest of the pack, when he
overtops them, or hunts too quickly. S. Dufresne:

canis trassans. Hence


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Trill, to trickle. wh. s. KL. 4, 3. Trim, neat, elegant. Hh. 1, 3; neatly. RJ. 2, 1. (so for true reads Percy Rel. of anc. p. I, 202.) dress, ornaments. CE. 4, 1. aHd. 4, 1. Co. 1, 9. AC. 4, 4.


Trim, to decorate, dress ap. RJ. 4, 4. TC. 5, 1. TG. 4, 3. aHd. 5, 2. TA. 5, 1; in erotic sense like the germ. zurecht machen. S. untrimmed. Sax. tryman, ordinare, disponere. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 309.

Trinkets, toys, baubles, play things. bHf. 1, 4. From tricae, in the same sense with Plaut. Rud. 5, 2. 86.

Trip, to pervert, distort. bHd. 5, 2; to overthrow, overturn, supplant. KL. 1, 4; to catch by supplanting. AL. 3, 2; to overreach, entrap (s. trammel) ensnare. Cy. 5, 5. (where Voss falsely has einhelfen.) H. 3, 3. It is the gr. trepein, strephein, straphein.

Tripe visaged bhd. 5, 4. having the air of a tripewoman. From the fr. tripe, ital. trippa, Triple, a third, or one of three. AW. 2, 1.

to Trash, to restrain, check, stop. T. 1, 2.
where it is opposed to advance. 0. 2, 1.
where it is probably, indeed, conjectured by to
Warton for the d readings crush of the
quarto 1622, and trace, of the folio, which
nevertheless furnishes also a good sense of
following by footing, that is very apposite to
the catching on the hip, wh. s. Trash would
be then but a variety of trace. S. Malone.
Monster of conjecture is Warburton's
brach-whom I cherish. In all events this mongrel
is so changeable, that it reminds the gr. terō,
fr. tirer, lat. trahere, tractare, germ. drehen,
treten, fr. trace, it. traccia, gr. trechō, to
run, even perhaps deraion, collar. Meanwhile
the notions of drawing, treading seem to be
the chief ones, as following is a treading, or
stepping after, and drawing with a leather
strap, rope, or collar is withdrawing, stopping,

Traversed, crossed. TA. 5, 5.

Traytrip, an old game played with dice in
the tables. TN. 2, 5. Success in it depended
upon throwing a trois.
Treacher, traitor. KL. 1, 2.

to Trenck, to cut, carve. TG. 3, 2. M. 3, 4.
Fr. trancher, kin to rend,
and the germ.


Trenchant, cutting, sharp. TA. 4, 3.
Tribulation, name of a puritanical society
meeting on Towerhill. Hh. 5, 3.
Trice, short time, instant. Cy. 5, 4. KL. 1, 1.
Gifford's Ben Jons. V, 10. VI. 288. VII, 417.
No doubt from the gr. thrix, a hair, as a small,
slight thing.

Trick, device, stratagem, intrigue. MV. 3, 4.
TS. 4, 2; feature, colouring, character, pe-
culiarity. AW.1, 1. where line and t. of his
sweet favour. KJ. 1, 1. aHd. 2, 4. WT. 2, 3.
H. 4, 7. Germ. Strich, Streich. Cf. tricksey.
to Trick, to deck, dress. H. 2, 2.
Tricking, dress, ornament. MW. 4, 4. A
heraldic term signifying those delineations of
arms, in which the colours are distinguished
by their technical marks of drawing out with
pen and ink. S. Gifford's Ben Jons. II, 101.
to Trickle, to fall in drops, to rill, drip, drop.
aHd. 2, 4. Kin to rheō, rhezō, to wet, lat.
rigare, gr. brechein, to rain, and to trill.
Tricksey, clever, adroit, neat, elegant. T.
5, 1. MV. 3, 5. Kin to the above to trick,
perhaps said originally of hairs (gr. triches)
well plighted; whence allied to tricae, tricari,

AC. 1, 1.

Trippingly, with agility, quickly. H. 3, 2.
From the germ. trippeln, to make short steps.
Triumph, trump at cards. AC. 4, 12; a public
show, or exhibition, as masque, pageant, revel.
MD. 1, 1. aHf. 5, 5. P. 2, 2.

Trojan, cant term for a thief. Steevens to LL.
5, 2. aHd. 2, 1. where there is some catalogue.
The notion of craft, cunning, seems to have
given occasion to this term as well, as to Greek,
wh. s.


Trol-my-dames, troll madam,
a game
also pigeonholes, fr. troumadame, played with
a board, at one end of which are a number of
arches, like pigeonholes, into which small
balls are to be bowled. WT. 4, 2.

to Troll, troul, to lead, draw, drag; to put
about a song, catch. T. 3, 2. Douce's Ill. of
Sh. I, 20.

Trossers, trousers, trowsers, long breeches, close drawers, over which the hose or stops, loose breeches were drawn. He. 3, 7. From the gaelic trusa, to truss up. Gifford's Ben Jons. V, 171. S. to truss.

Trot, old, a name of ridicule and contempt for a decrepit old woman. TS. 1, 2. From the germ. trotten.

Troth, truth. LL. 1, 1.

Troth plight, passing of a solemn vow, whether of marriage, or friendship. WT. 1,2; trothplighted. WT. 5, 8. He. 2, 1. Kin to truce, true, trust, anciently trewe, trewse, from the sax. triwsian, fidem dare, to pledge one's faith. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 293. whence the middlelat. treuga, it. tregua, fr. trève, germ. trauen, trauwen, Treu, gr. tharrhein.

Troublous, troublesome, full of troubles. Rc. 2, 8. From the sax. tribulan, tundere, conterere, to bruise, pound, vex. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 247.

Trough, tray. Rc. 5, 1. Kin to tray, trunk, Tucket, flourish, or particular set of notes lat. trua, truca, germ. Truhe, Trog, gr. on the trumpet, used as a signal for a march, trōglos. called tucketsonance He. 4, 2. From the ital. Trout, the fish salmo fario. TN. 2, 5. From the gr. trōktēs, lat. trocta, truta, trutta, fr. truite, it. trotta.

to Trow, to think, to trust. bHf. 2,4. RJ.1, 3; to know. KL. 1, 4. MA. 3, 4. Trowel, tool to take up the mortar with, and to spread it on the bricks. To lay on with a tr. AL. 1, 2. to do strongly and without judgment and delicacy, to blurt out. From the gr. tryēlēs, tryēlis, tryllion, lat. trua, trulla. Truant, sluggard, loiterer. TG. 2, 4. H. 1, 2.. Anciently truand, trewan, trivant, middlelat. trutanicus, trutanus, trudanus, according to Dufresne from the fr. treu, i. e. tributum, the exactor of duties going from house to house, whence trouver, kin to truffer, tromper. Trucklebed, trundlebed, a rolling bed, small bed made to roll under a larger, that is called standing bed. MW. 4, 5. The former from the gr. trochos, trochalia, the latter kin to trendel, lows. tröndeln, to roll, from the gr. treō, germ. drehen.

to Trudge, to toil and moil; to trot on. RJ. 1, 2. MW. 1, §. 3, 3. CE. 3, 2. A mongrel of the gr. tryō, teryō, teryskō, tryzō, trycho, tryskō, trygō, from tero, to rub up, to destroy, and of tread; s. to trash. The notion of a heavy and sauntering, drawling gait seems rather inferred falsely from the first signification, than confirmed by the cited passages, where in the most part there is question of haste.

True, honest, opp. to a thief. LL. 4, 3. aHd. 2, 2. 3, 3. AC. 2, 6.

Truepenny, a brave fellow. H. 1, 4. Trull, vagrant strumpet. AC. 3, 6. TAn. 2, 3. Germ. Trulle, kin to troll, trill, thrill, sax. thyrel, perforate. Horne Tooke Div. of P. II, 153. germ. drillen.

Trumpery, trash, old pitiful stuff. WT. 4. Fr. tromperie.

Trumpet, herald, cryer. WT. 1, 2. MA. 5, 2. KJ. 1, 1. O. 4, 2. KL. 2, 4.

Truncheon, short club, or staff. O. 2, 1; staff
of a commander. H. 1, 2. TC. 5, 3.
to Truncheon, to cudgel. bHd. 2, 4.
Truncheoneer, one armed with a truncheon.
Hh. 5, 3.

Trundletail, a kind of dog with a curling tail.
KL. 3, 6. Cf. trucklehed.
Trunk, chest. aHd. 2, 4. TN. 3, 4. WT. 1, 2.
Kin to trough, wh. s., tray.

to Truss into, to pack in, to tie in a fardel. Kin to the fr. trousser, gr. rhyō, rhystazō, to draw, drag; engl. truss, trossers, wh. s.; lat. trahere, gr. strazein, strangein', lat. stringere, germ. Strang.

Trust, confider.ce. T. 1, 2. AW. 3, 7. TN.4,2. M. 1, 7. aHd. 5, 1. KL. 3, 5. Tub. Sweating in a heated tub, for a considerable time, accompanied with strict abstinence, was formerly cure of the venereal taint. MM. 3, 2. Kin to chopin, cup, coop, germ. Kiepe, Kober, Zober, Zuber, Kübel. Tubfast, fast in a tub, as physic for french pox. TA. 4, s.

Tuck, rapier, small sword. aHd. 2, 4. H. 4, 7. Germ. Stock, fr. estoc, it. stocco, engl. stick, sticks, goth, stiggan, germ. stechen, gr. stizein.


Tuft, tuffet, bush, bunch. AL. 3,5. WT. 2, 1; nosegay. MW. 5, 5. Kin to the germ. Zopf, engl. tip, wh. s., top.


to Tug, to pull, draw, tonze, toze (wh. s.) M. 3, 1. KJ. 4, 3. where it is joined with scamble; to labour, toil, strive. cHf. 2, 5. Kin to tuck, germ. zucken, lowsax. tokken, tucken, draw. Tumbler, who shows postures by various contortions of body, or feats of activity, as ropedancer. A tumbler's hoop coloured LL.3, tow. end is dressed with coloured ribbands. From to Tumble, to wallow, roll, welter. AC. 1, 4; to make fall, metaph. to debauch, seduce, deflour. H. 4, 5. Kin to topple, germ. tummeln, taumeln, it. tombolare, fc. tomber; further to temulent, arab. tamala, to be drunk, tamala, drunkness, tumalon, bane, poison, and to dim.

to Tup, to butt as a ram; to cover, line, horse. 0. 1, 1. 3, 8. 5, 2. It seems kin to the gr. typo, typto, depso, depseō, lat. depsere. Turf, green sod, clod, green grassed plot. Cy. 5, S. Ile. 4, 1. Middlelat. turba. S. Dufresne; icel. torf, torfa, germ. Zurb, Zurba, Zurf, Zurufft, Torft, that imply the notion of combustibleness; whence no doubt they assonate the hebr. saraph, zarab, to burn, metathetically gr. tephra, ashes.

Turkey cock was a symbol of haughtiness. bHd. 2, 4. He. 5, 2.

Turlygood, seemingly a bedlambeggar's name. KL. 2, 3. Douce III. of Sh. II, 143. thinks it the corrupted word for Turlupin, a beghard, and a madman.

Turmoil, tumult, trouble, disturbance, confusion. TG. 2, 7. Kin to the gr. tyrbē, lat. turba, turbulentus.

to Turmoile, to plague, vex, torment. bHf. 4, 10.

Turn. To serve one's turn, to satisfy, to be business, or of matter for, to be profitable, of use, or expedient. Co. 4, 5. H. 3, 3. MW. 5, 5; to turn in one's profit, to draw profit. 0.1, 1.

Turnbullstreet, Turnmillstreet, near Clerkenwell, anciently the resort of bullies, rogues, and other dissolute persons. bld. 3, 2. Turncoat, temporizer, timeserver, MA. 1, 1. timepleaser. TN. 2, 3.

Turning, corner. MV. 2, 1. Tush, peace, be silent. O. 1, 1. MA. 3, 3. 5, 1. Germ. vertuschen, to conceal, lows. tüssen, to silence, dan. düssen, goth. thahan, to grow dumb.

to Tutor, to school, instruct. TA. 1, 1. AL. 5, 4.

to Twang, to sound like a string; to utter with impetuosity. TN. 3, 4. Kin to tongue. Twangling, noisy, jingling. T. 3, 2. TS.2, 1. Twelvescore, a common length for a shot in archery, and hence a measure often alluded to. Suba. yards. aHd. 2, 4.


Twenty, augmentative for much. MV. 2, 6.
TS. ind. 2. bHd. 2, 2. Rb. 2, 2. MW. 2, 1.
TN. 2, 3. S. sweet.
Twiggen, covered with twigs, made of or
encompassed with wicker work. O. 2, 3.

Va ( 184 ) Twilled, in weaving, when the woof is twisted | obliquely with the warp, instead of crossing each other at right angles; hence matted and interwoven, said of a flowery brim. T. 4, 1. where Holt's tilled, and Steevens' lillied are unnecessary conjectures.

Twink, wink, sudden motion of an eye, or eyelid. TS. 2, 1.

to Twinkle, to wink, blink with the eyes. TG. 2, 6; to sparkle as stars. RJ. 2, 2. Gr. den


to Twire, tweer, is generally to move tremblingly, and a thwart; whence it is to warble, said of song with Chaucer, and to glance at obliquely and surreptitiously at intervals. S.

loveletter, or verse may be a roll, or volume. H. 4, 5. S. Gifford's Ben Jons. VI, 135. Douce's Ill. of Sh. II, 252. Drake's Sh. I, 524. Validity, value. AW. 5, 3. TN. 1, 1. Vanity the puppet, perhaps an allegorical person in the old mysteries. KL. 2, 2. Vant, vaunt, van, forepart. AC. 4, 6. beginning, firstling, whereto it is joined. TC. prol.; boasting. bHf. 3, 1. From the fr. avant. Vantage, overplus, excess, addition. O. 4, 3. profit. aHf 4, 6. Theobald and Voss read out on that vantage. But the common reading on that advantage, means on the condition of that advantage, provided that this be all my advantage. French avantage.

Gifford's Ben Jons. VI, 280.; transferred to stars to Vantage, to benefit. S. 88. peeping, twinkling. S. 28. It is kin to the Vantbrace, vambrace, armour for the arm. goth. quairban, germ, werben, to turn, to TC. 1, 8. From avant and bras. twirl, querne, whirl, warble, world, germ. zwerch, engl. thwart, germ. queer, gr. gyros, kyros, kyrtos, lat. curvus, celt. gwyr, lows.


Two fools, two knaves, doubly foolish, knavish. TG. 3, 1.

Twohand, twohanded sword, wielded with twohands. bHf. 2, 1.

V and U.

to Vail, to put or let down, to lower, or let fall, as a bonnet, cap, top, flag (Old. Pl. III, 28.) generally in token of submission. bHd. 1, 1. MV. 1, 1; to dispell, to sink. LL. 5, 2; to how, bend submissively. TS. 5. tow. end. Co. 3, 1. Gifford's Ben Jons. II, 188. To vail, or vale from the it. avvallare, from vallis, olds. Dal, kin to Telle, Tölle, Dille, therefore to let downward, zuthal, as in old german poets. Vailful, availful, useful, advantageous. MM. 4. 6.

to Valance, to fringe, adorn with drapery, applied to the decoration of a man's face with a beard. H. 2, 2. Kin to the gr. helix, heilix, from helissō, helō, ellō, eileō, to roll, wind; | of course a wound fringe. The derivation from Valentia is a dream.

Vantcurrier, advanced guard, KL. 3, 2.
Varlet, servant to a knight, knight's follower.
TC. 1, 1. No doubt originally a mongrel of
harlot, carl, cherl, sax. ceorl, goth, and icel.
Karl, engl. whore, dor. kōrē, ion. kure, att.
kore, and of valet, vassalet, from vassal,
a young noble man till to the eighteenth year.
S. Gifford's Ben Jons. I, 136. III, 311.
Varletry, rabble, populace. AC. 5, 3.
Vary, variation. KL. 2, 2.

Vast, empty and deserted. T. 1, 2. WT. 1, 1.
H. 1, 2. where waste is the same. From the
lat. vastus.

Vastidity, vastness, immensity. MM. 3, 1.
Vasty, vast. aHd. 3, 1.
Vaward, vanward, vanguard, forepart, first
line, or front of army. He. 4, 3. MD. 4, 1.
bHd. 1, 2. aHf. 1, 1.

Vein, disposition, humour, temper. Rc. 4, 2.
aHd. 2, 4; hit, proper place, fit or favourable
moment. MM. 2, 2. Lat. vena.

Velvet guards, trimmings of velvet; a city
fashion; persons who wore such ornaments.
alld. 3, 1. Velvet, anciently vellet, vellute,
velure, vellure. TS. 3, 2. it. velluto, fr. ve-
lours, kin to the lat. vellus, villus, germ. Vlaus.
Guard is kin to gird. MM. 3, 1.

Veney, veny, venue, venew, stoccata, assault
or attack in fencing, a bout, hit. MW. 1, 1.
LL. 5, 1. From the fr. venue. Douce's Ill. of
Sh. 1, 233.

Valentine St., was a martyr under Claudius, on whose day (Feb 14.) it was custom, to choose knights serving for a year, or, in later times, to Venge, to avenge. He. 1, 2. Cy. 1,7. Rb. mates, both male and female, called also Va-_1, 2. RJ. 3, 5.

lentines, by lots thrown into a box. This feast Vengeance. S. entrance, where the doubtis said to be a christian metamorphosis of the ful passage is aHd. 1, 1. and entrance for roman Lupercalia, in honour of Pan and Juno, gulph, abyss would be at least a little licenthere being in the feasts of all nations of the tious. world a coeval likeness, so that the originally physical type of the double equinox, implying sadness, when it was autumnal, or joy, when it was vernal, gets gradually an intellectual signification. S. Hammer in Wien. Jahrb. 1818. III, 183. ff. No wonder therefore, that some scholars, fixing a physical moment of this time, derived the origin of St. Valentine's day from the circumstance alluded to by poets, that at this season birds choose their mates; nor that the celebration of this feast was diverse, according to the character of the different nations, and that for

Vent, passage, issue. bHd. 1, 1. Mongrel of
ventus, and the fr. fente.

to Fent, to utter. Cy. 1, 3.
Vent age, the holes, or stops in a flute. H.
3, 2.

instance in France verses full of tenderness were written by knights, verses that got also the name of Valentines. Likewise Nares' interpretation of Valant for gallant, valiant, might be no less admissible, than an other one, deriving the word from helō (s. Valance), as a

Venture, hazard, risk, exposure. M. 1,


freight, goods that a man ventures on the sea.
MV. 1, 1. bHd. 2, 4; for venturer. Cy. 1, 7.
(unless this word should be restored), from
the fr. aventurière, strumpet
Verbal, verbose. Cy. 2, 3.
Verdict, vardy, judgment, doom, sentence.
aHf. 3, 1. 2, 4. Hh. 5, 1. Rc. 1, 4. Lat. vere-
dictum. S. Dufresne.

Verge, border, seam, rigol. Rc. 1, 1.2, 1.
4, 1. compass, reach. bHf. 1, 4. KL. 2, 4.
TA. 5, 2. From the lat. vergere. Gifford's
Ben Jons. II, 296. VI, 92. VII, 78. 215.

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