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FIGURE 1. Evening dress.—The coiffure here is extremely pretty and very simple. It consists of a small ostrich feather on each side, connected by a wreath of foliage of green velvet, each leaf being edged with silver. Hair in plain bandeaux. Robe of tulle with two skirts, the lower
FIG. 2. of tulle de Lyons, trimmed with nine rows of narrow blonde; the second skirt is of tulle-illusion, cut in waves
EVENING DRESS. around the edge, and trimmed with seven rows of blonde, set on very full and following the outline. The bouquet only to a little more than one half the length of the face, de jupe placed at the side is composed of foliage like that and finished out with a band of black frizzed feathers. of the coiffure. Corsage with berthe-châle and covered with Upon the left side of the bonnet is a crescent, formed of narrow blondes. Four rows of similar blonde form the black satin riband arranged in numerous small folds sleeves.
placed close one over the other. The crown is rounded FIGURE 2. Evening dress.-Cap of rich lace ornamented behind. The cape is of black satin lined with white; the with flowers and enveloping the back part of the head. brides also are white. Redingote of green satin dépoli. Rose of taffetas broché, rose, white, and in the foliage Corsage high and close-fitting, and trimmed with eleven green. Skirt without trimming. Corsage high behind rows of lace de laine forming a V. The upper four rows and upon the shoulders, and cut low and square in front. extend to the seam upon the shoulder, but the others, The general tendency of dress is very much toward this seven in number, diminish in length gradually to the style of corsage. Trimmed around the edge with rather waist. Round the neck is a narrow edging of white lace. wide lace. Sleeves demi-long, and finished with two rows Upon the skirt is an apron-like trimming of the same of lace similar to that on the coreage.
material, narrow at the top, but quite wide at the bottom. FIGURE 3. Toilette de ville.-Bonnet of black beaver, lined The arrangement of the lace in this trimming is zigzag, with white satin disposed in folds, and extending forward something in the shape of an M. All these laces are a
TOILETTE DE VILLE.
left, at an oblique angle with each other, one being much
the longer. They are arranged so that the longer of these little gathered, and extend one over the other. Sleeves a
branches alternately extends towards the right and left, little short, and finished with five rows of the lace de
following the course of a hem. These ornaments are very laine. White puffing under-sleeves.
beautiful and tasteful, the light, flowing, and delicate FIGURE 4. Ball Toilette.-Front hair in rounded puffing
character of the foliage and flowers counteracting the bandeaux. Upon the head, a little in the Marie Stuart
effect of their profusion. style, is a fillet of foliage, and at the side, pink flowers, in velvet, with long branches, slender and flexible, falling The prevailing fancy for rich fabrics causes stuffs broupon the shoulders. The back hair is enclosed in a little chées to be worn later than usual this spring. Many coif composed of foliage, arranged upon purl. This coif robes prepared in Paris, and intended to be worn very or cap has the form of a crown with the several crossings late in the season, are of taffetas lightly broché, some on of the foliage.
turtle-coloured ground with white figures, some gray Dress of white taffetas. Corsage cut lower in front than with white figures, some blue with black figures, and at the shoulders, trimmed with a berthe of white blonde, | others with blended blue and green ground with figures in dents. This berthe is formed thus:--starting from the
green and white. right shoulder, a row of the blonde passes round behind to For trimming on robes in the spring, narrow lace the left shoulder, where it underlies a similar row starting matching the stuff is much in vogue, placed before in thence, and, diminishing gradually in width across the
many rows and much gathered or turned in spirals. front, comes to a point at the right shoulder. This berthe
Dresses are made shorter in front than formerly, and, has very little fulness elsewhere than at the shoulders: it
consequently, slippers take the place of boots. is trimmed at the top with flowers, like those of the For full evening dress of young persons the following coiffure, forming little bouquets at the shoulders, and a l are admired. First: Wreath row diminishing thence to the front.
able foliage, falling almost to the shoulders. Robe of The three very light overskirts of white tulle have each white taffetas with two plain jupes; berthe cut sloping a heavy hem. The first starting from the waist, descends upon the shoulders and bordered before with a ruche of en biais, and, passing entirely round, comes up on the riband. Corsage bouquet like the coiffure, with long light other side near the starting point. The second and third foliage falling even to the waist. Second: Coiffure of follow the same arrangement. Being transparent, they heath-flowers disposed in a little puff, placed upon the top are seen one over the other. Upon the right side are five of the head; front hair turned back à la Valois. Robe of bouquets corresponding in character with the other flowers. rose tulle with two skirts upon an underskirt of satin, The form of these bouquets is peculiar; each has a head each skirt with five or six rather wide plaits. Corsage of flowers, and two branches of foliage placed right and bouquet of heath with large loose branches.
| truth than the poor carper, who, incapable of the effort of
appreciation, lazily catches at real or imagined blemishes, and cries, It is nothing ! »
The fault-finder sees nothing-knows nothing beyond his own limited range. His pudale is always the oceanhis sty the universe. But the admirer, the appreciator, includes him, with all his knowledge—all his philosophy
-in a very small corner of his own sphere, and even admits as useful truth all of his remarks and all his ob servations—barring only the conclusion and application.
This is the inevitable classification to which we are led, if we adopt with Quatremère de Quincy the principle of excellence in lind, as the true standard of every work of art, which is, in fact, simply a requisition that the work be judged, not according to our tastes or distastesto our fondness for the romantic, material, or spiritualbut that it be executed according to the subject, with all the perfection of which the artist is capable.
But it may be asked,-“ Are we then to shut our eyes BRACKETT'S WRECK.
to every defect, however glaring, and blindly open the
path to conceited ignorance of every description, condiBY CHARLES G. LELAND.
tioning only that it bring a few pearls in its pack of trash ?"
By no means certainly not. There are two descriptions We believe that all arbitrary divisions of mankind ac- l of fault (apart from understood offences against morals cording to their intellectual characteristics, are generally and religion), against which the critic is bound to declare conceded to be absurdities. The political utilitarian, who war to the knife-to follow with the fire of ridicule and sees in his fellow-beings merely the productive and non- the sword of severity, and to give, as he would assuredly productive, or who balances the growers of corn and wool receive, no quarter. And these faults may all be summed against the fruges consumere nati, would be at issue with nere nati, would be at issue with an in
up in three words:-Mannerism, and Mechanical defithe scholar, who confidently classifies them as the ignorant ciency. The latter of these may always be cured by or the enlightened. The advocates of faith and morals
industry; the former, when not proceeding from absolute would be prone to adopt a very different standard from
idiocy, insanity, or incurable narrow-mindedness, by a that of the Mephistophelian cosmopolite, whose analysis change of style, subject, or thought. If the reader be of human nature simply results in the comparison of disposed to consider these remedies as in some wise idenanvil to hammer, wolf to lamb, or cheater to cheated, the tical, we for one are in no ways inclined to differ with him. latter, indeed, being akin in absurdity to the unfortunate But a work of art is not to be absolutely condemnedbeing who, struck by the hypocrisy of this world, divided as very many are inclined to think-even when disgraced its inhabitants into "the found out” and the “ not found
by mechanical defects, or even by mannerism, provided out;" or the Lynn sutor who recognised only the shoe always that these do not predominate. There are gross making and non-shoemaking units of humanity.
defects in the anatomy and drapery of the early Gothic But though such classifications can never be established masters—there are mannerism and affectation, even to the for mankind at large, we must yet assert that they are top of the measure, in the paintings of Vanderwerff and absolutely true and necessary when applied to those sub Greuze, or the sculptures of Bernini; and yet these will divisions of actors or thinkers created by their mental always find places in galleries, or admirers—and justly so, tastes or necessities. In a one-sided point of view, the as long as Genius, in spite of the trammels with which divisions of the utilitarian or scholar are founded in sense ignorance and circumstances have loaded it, can make and justice, and no rational mind will cavil at them. itself felt. But for their IMITATORS—those who, in spite
And if there be a branch of intellectual effort eminently of better lights, blindly persist in copying even their capable of such a separation, it is that of criticism, or the defects, our only cry should be—“ Away with them!”-if appreciation and judgment of excellence in literature and not into outer darkness, at least back to the school, the art. As long as Nature shall abstain from creating men lecture-room, and the atelier, until they are capable, in entirely free from prejudice, or equal in mental abilities, some way, of feeling God and appreciating nature. so long will there exist in criticism those positive and it is chiefly to modern works of art that the principle negative divisions of judges, whose appreciation of merit of excellence in kind should be applied in all its rigour. is determined on the one hand, by the existence or non- We know the earlier masters, we understand or feel the existence of faults and defects, and on the other, by the influences and circumstances which inspired them. Hisexcellencies which a work presents.
tory and biography have made them, with their times, To this classification the reader, whose eclecticism has clear to us. But how are we to judge of the productions not been pushed to extremes, will probably assent, adding of this complex and confused age, which understands all in his own mind,-“ And the part of a truly wise man is things save itself? How are we to know whether a Greek to side with neither, but to strive to find the juste milieu Slave is the genuine result of the naturalism of the nine between !" To which we reply," By no means : examine teenth century, or a subject masked in imitations of the the system more closely, and you will be convinced that classic day? To which we reply, that we know of no better he whose judgment is influenced rather by the excellen- criterion than that already given. cies than the defects of a work, and who criticises that It may be objected by the ignorant and unreflecting, which was created expressly for admiration by the degree this is a principle easier of enunciation than of applicaof admiration which it excites, is infinitely nearer the tion. To which we reply that we are acquainted with no
rule which will enable those unfamiliar with art to appre- | even good critics have been blinded by prejudice, or led ciate it in all its details. He who would know Homer or | away by popular opinion into views which their better Dante must study them in the original, and not by means I judgment would assuredly have condemned. That this of translations or garbled extracts. He who would fully | is natural no one will deny, but it is also true, as has understand the romance and beauty of a Doric temple or of been remarked, that all which is natural is not in every a Gothic cathedral, would not act unwisely in first learn instance equally creditable. Objects which recall touching, not only a little architecture, but somewhat of history | ing associations, or, as Kugler remarks, suggest those and romantic literature to boot. To which some one ideas which we would not willingly impart to every one, cries, -"But must we then turn our brains to encyclopæ will naturally interest even the strictest critic, and induce dias, before we can be permitted to admire aught in art or him to gaze with a lenient eye upon the worst faults of literature po By no means;-admire-feet-live in the execution. The true ground upon which this rests is the beautiful as much-as far as you can. It was chiefly to abuse of the romantic principle, and it has occasionally gratify this sense that such works were produced. But if | done quite as much to retard the progress of art as the you will criticise-teach-FIND FAULT-then I say, first govilest learn your trade.
But to return to Mr. Brackett's Group. We have reThere is a certain old-fashioned style of French and marked that it embodies a subject capable of a great English criticism-would that it were in every sense old variety of development, a subject, indeed, which may be fashioned and extinctwhich regards the employment of treated according to the tendency of the artist, in every certain vapid words and phrases, as the Shibboleth, by | method, and involving every characteristic from the lowwhich a knowledge of Art was established among the ele est materialism to the most refined and elevating spirigant initiated. This was the dialect of the Dilettanti-a tuality. Yet as a subject of art in itself, divested as far sect which we are happy to say has partially died off in as possible of extraneous attribute, we are convinced that France--almost entirely so in Germany,-but which un. the pathetic, as far as compatible with the awful dreamfortunately still exhibits a tenacious vitality in certain like mystery of death, should be its leading characteristic other parts of the world. The following sentence, inspired or predominant motive. And in insisting upon an absence by a Venus of Titian, and uttered, we presume, by one of of varied attribute and detail, the reader will understand its adepti, was recently furnished us by a friend.
that by pathetic we by no means imply that theatrical, sen“Titian! Titian!!-truly TITIAN!!! The face is beau- timental quality which obtains so largely in the French tiful-the form majestic,--and the embonpoint sufficiently school, and which has transmuted into trash numbers of recherché, to satisfy the most fastidious connoisseur!” otherwise excellent productions of French art. We will appeal to those familiar with the literature of
But simple as the correct and natural mode of carrying the present day, and demand if this be not fairly in the out this idea appears, we doubt whether one artist in vein and style of nine tenths of the criticism with which twenty would hit upon it. We have heard a celebrated we are deluged by foreign tourists, and many others who, Professor of Natural Philosophy remark, that as long as ignorant of the principles, and unstudied in the theory or
& road to false theory and error remained open, though history of Art, strive, hy words and cant phrases, to
never so carefully hidden, men never failed to follow it impose upon others their knowledge, or rather igno- in preference to the right way, which (unaccountably rance of all thereto relating. Truth is great and must
enough) is generally the very last discovered, though prevail, but would that this rubbish were cleared from
staring them all the while in full view. Goëthe has in. her track!
deed remarked on this very subject of the Pathetic in Art, There is at present in Philadelphia a group entitled
| that “It has been the usual fate of artists to blunder in “THE WRECK," by Mr. E. A. BRACKETT of Boston, now in their choice of subjects of this sort;" and Goëthe might plaster, but shortly to be immortalized in marble
have added, that, even when the subject is well chosen, it all work, we venture to assert, so remarkable in its has been quite as usual for them to blunder (as not unoriginality, that were it even bristling with defects, we
frequently happens even with very skilful operators) in should deem it worthy of comment and preservation, as a the after-treatment. memorial of that which future ages will probably regard
We have remarked that the subject of a dead mother as a very peculiar a moment” in the history of intellectual
and infant, may be treated in a spirit of the vilest mateprogress-we mean the American and English art of our rialism, which is the literal imitation of Nature in her present century. And we have deemed the preceding re lowest and most revolting forms. Those who have seen marks no inappropriate introduction to a notice of this at Florence, in the Museo di Storia Naturale, the infamous group, as we desire to apply to it with all possible strict.
statuettes of the Sicilian monk Zumbo, in which human ness, the test of excellence in kind.
ingenuity appears to have exhausted every resource The Wreck represents the dead bodies of a young I which
g the dead bodies of a young “which could render death terrible and the grave loathmother and her infant, as they may be supposed to ap some,” will recall the mother just dead of the plague, pear immediately after the extinction of the vital spark- holding in her arms a bloated little corpse, which has a subject, be it borne in mind, capable of a wide range of already attracted the fly and tarantula. And yet these thought-of stirring up in different minds extremely preparations of Zumbo are executed with an almost invaried trains of thought-of gentle melancholy, intensely credible degree of artistic skill, in the mere mechanical painful, or highly beautiful associations, and consequent branches. This is undoubtedly the worst perversion ly permitting a wide range in the sphere of representation known in Art, of this subject, though in “ Fire, Famine, -a subject, moreover, which could not fail to interest the and Slaughter," a sketch somewhat allied to it, may be majority, though ever so lamely treated, and against found whose first impression we should, in a certain sense, care
“A baby beat its dying mother; fully guard, lest the “idea," or "motive," should obscure
I had starved one, and was starving the other." our appreciation and judgment.
We may be permitted to remark, en passant, that the A faint excuse for the statuettes of Zumbo may be found amateur in art cannot guard too strictly against the in- in the fact that they were intended to perpetuate, for refluence which an attractive idea or subject is apt to exert, ligious purposes, the sufferings which Florence had enwhen ever so wretchedly handled. We have more than dured during the Great Plague. A far better justification once seen works of the least possible merit acquire both for of the poem rests on the ground that it is intended to set themselves and their manufacturer a high reputation, forth, like Callot's inimitable series of engravings, " The simply because an attractive or popular subject formed | Horrors of War.” their theme. More than one opera owes its success with In the "Murder of the Innocents," and West's “Death on the multitude quite as much to the plot and other melo-dra- the Pale Horse," we have this subject again, elevated, it is matic associations, as to the merit of the music; and the true, to the higher region of “the romantic," whose pecuentire history of art is lamentably full of instances where liar property is that it induces the observer to continue
or develope in his own mind, impressions which the work than the German, that we cannot too strongly insist upon of art merely awakens, or but partially concludes; but it its publicity.. is almost exclusively the romantic, for the scenes of We cannot by any means condemn those minds who, slaughter and terror by which they are in both instances incapable of forming an original style, have bent all their surrounded, naturally awake in the mind associations energies to acquire the style of some great master. Of widely remote from the calm and majesty of death. View. such was BERNARDO LUINI, whose paintings are not unfreed by themselves-each as a whole we admit that we quently confounded with those of his master, Leonardo should regard them in an extremely different light. But da Vinci, and JORIS VAN VLIET, & successful imitator of as this evidently formed no part of the original design of Rembrandt. But we have still always been inclined to the artists as they have pressed them upon us as acces- believe with Saint Meurice, that it is generally easier to sories to another idea, we can by no means judge of them make a good original than a bad copy, out of minds which according to the ideal which such a subject by itself show extraordinary talent even in imitating. requires.
It may be groundless theory-it may be a vain misleadBut when a work of art lifts us, even above the highest ing, but judging from our kno
ing, but judging from our knowledge of the past and romantic associations, into the sphere of absolute purity
I present state of American art, we are strongly inclined to
present state o and goodness—when the discords inseparable from every.
surmise that in the elevated naturalism of this work, thing worldly are as far as possible softened down or
which is of a much higher grade than the average type of banished-when we rise as far as we can above the objec
the English school, we see the presentiment of a coming tive necessities of shadow, darkness, and relief, into the
school of American art, which shall be something new, pure life of light and feeling, or in default thereof, advance
glorious, and beautiful. We confess that we were at one as far as possible into those ideas which conduce thereto,
time slightly fearful that if in these eclectic times it were then we approach, be it in life or art, to the SPIRITUAL
possible for any one type to predominate, it would be that This is indeed done whenever we indulge in the better
of a literal reproduction of nature-in a beautiful for it emotions of our nature; and what emotion, would we might be as in the Greek Slave, but wanting both in the ask, is better, purer, or holier than the love of a mother
truly romantic and spiritual. But we are now firmly for her child ? So generally understood, is this, -80 deeply
convinced that the ercess of the practical in our country is it impressed by instinct and every imaginable associa
has met with its necessary consequence, and & reaction tion, that there is no question, in beholding this subject,
has of late years manifested itself in art and literature as to its existence. As truly as the mother lived, even so
(more particularly the latter), which only within a comtruly do we know that her last effort and thought was for
paratively recent period has begun to assume form and her infant.
stability. The present tendency of literature in our Mr. Brackett's subject is ensnaring and fascinating-it
country is decidedly more towards the ideal than in Engis highly spiritual. Divested of all unnecessary attribute,
land, and if we judge by the general sense of the people, our attention is directed simply to the mother and child.
in spite of an array of great and powerful names, we But the entire history of religious art abounds in proofs
might add, than in France. There is, in fact, no reason that the highest possible degree of spiritualism may be
why a new school of art should not (we speak with every found united with defects of so grave a nature as to mar
possible allowance and qualification) spring up and flourish its excellence and even defeat its aim. The question
After such an admission, with such a reference to the therefore now is,-"Granting the spiritual beauty of the conception, is it in any degree amenable to the charges of
group in question, the reader will not be surprised if we mechanical deficiency, or mannerism ?”
assert that we consider this work as remarkably free from As regards the anatomy of the figures, in which we in
mannerism of any description whatever. And we ground clude the position and expression which bodies may
our opinion, not upon a vague impression of originality
or force, but from the evident manifestation therein of assume subsequent to death, we believe the work to be
two elements, either of which would be sufficient to refaultless. Mr. Brackett is himself an excellent anatomist,
deem any work whatever from such a charge. having, as we are informed, carried his studies in this branch to a degree seldom attained by American artists
The first of these is the evident confidence of the artist at the present day. We have further learned that the
in every effect which he produces. Those who have care principal anatomists and medical men in Boston have
fully compared the best landscapes of the Munich school more than admired it as a singular specimen of accuracy
with similar French and English productions, must have in this particular--they have recommended it as a study,
noticed the great reliance which the latter place, in fortuA writer in the Boston Medical Journal, in
nate self-suggesting accidents. This is particularly mania long
fested in their treatment of clouds or light, and in atmoarticle, in which this group is treated solely in a physical point of view, advises his readers to pay attention to it,
spheric effects generally. But the German artist never as a work capable of imparting, in this particular, valuable
wing his game by scratching. In his most mysterious information.
shades, his dimmest clouds, his most impalpable halos and
reflexes, we can always feel that everything existed legibly MECHANICAL DEFECTS may be in painting almost infinito
in the mind of the painter before he transferred it to in their number. But in sculpture we are inclined to canvase. He never hurls his sponge at the picture, that it think that they may all be reduced to infringements of the
may create for him an idea. And taken in detail, this laws of anatomy, that is, when the human body alone,
work of Brackett's presents in every part (we refer more devoid of all attribute, forms the subject. But even when
particularly to the figure of the mother) an incredible attributes are concerned, our theory still holds good. A
assemblage of bold and beautiful lines, every one of which different wound would undoubtedly have been the occasion
was the effect of deliberate study. of different attitudes, both in the Laocoon and the Dying
The other element to which we refer is, indeed, of a more Gladiator; but is it not within the province of the anato
vague description, but not less real and palpable to mist to decide the position which the irritation of certain
the true critic. We refer to the principle of progressivenerves would induce ?
ness, which is the unfailing indication of every mind, MANNERISM is a charge not only graver in its nature, but which to subjective and ideal tendencies joins the faculty also more uncertain of application. We have generally of labour, and a full appreciation of the importance of the considered that artist as a mannerist who blindly follows real or material. There are certain artists who form for a certain style or school, or is slavishly influenced by the themselves an ideal-perhaps the literal imitation of opinions of others. Goëthe has well said, that the man | nature. They work on until the crowd cry “ Natural as who copies even nature without thoroughness, endea- life!" or perhaps until birds peck at their fruit, and then vouring to give only the striking and brilliant, will soon retire, satisfied with having fulfilled their mission. But pass into mannerism--a remark so much more applicable | we find in this work indications of a different nature. Mr. to the American and English paintings of the present day Brackett's genius is, we conceive, of that order whose