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on his own way, apart from the teacher. But they had drunk deep of the wells of life, and went forth with a yet deeper consciousness of their own vocation and power. They had been breathed upon by a creative spirit, and they now went forth themselves as creators. And the day rose gloriously over the North.
Perfect, fully armed—like Minerva from the head of Jupiter—was born the Northern Tragedy, not Grecian, not Shakesperian, but Scandinavian; with its ground in the northern popular tradition and history; the northern heroic life, with its peculiar colouring in hatred and love; its lyrical inspirations; its powerful every-day mode of thought, and the great moral purport which it discovers in the life and the combat of its gods and its giants. In transfigured glory stood forward on the stage, before the eyes of the people, its heroes and heroines of old, its antique saga and song. And even to this day the happy poet, the father of northern tragedy—need we indeed name Adam Ochlenschlager ?—still youthful and strong, with creative energy gathers up new laurels to those he has already won, as just lately in his heroic poem, Regner Lodbrook.
B. S. Ingemann is, perhaps, in a still higher sense than Ochlenschlager, a popular poet, and in him everything which belongs to the character of the popular temper of Denmark, loving, deep-thoughted, lively and vigorous, seems at once to have found life and expression. Ingemann has created the historical romance of the North. This romance, with its peculiar figures, its great dramatic scenes, its pure spirit, its deep feeling, its fresh life, has given birth to two miracles. It has made the history of Denmark dear to the Swedes, and it has taught the peasantry of Denmark to read romances. Ingemann's romances have been read by the people of Denmark as no other books have been read, except the Bible and the hymnbook. The peasant possesses them, and through them he takes an interest in the history of his country and its movements. On these subjects he can enlighten foreigners. In doing this, he refers to the books of Ingemann, to obtain which he had gladly paid the money won by the sweat of his brow. In reading them he often forgets the time for sleep after the labour of the day. He sits up late with his family that he may read Ingemann. He cannot do better.
A great deal is said in our time about literature for the people.* Much zeal is shown for
* In Denmark much has been <lorn; successfully in this my, and the "Society for the Right Use of tho Freedom of the Press," has understood its own business, and the taste of the people. Above fire hundred circulating libraries,
it, and much labour spent, and books for the people are prepared, consisting of pragmatical treatises, useful and learned compositions, which are sent forth to enlighten and educate the people. And the people read them—little or not at all! The people are poetical, the people are romantic, the people are full of humour. They love old stories, heroic poems, love-songs, ballads, and jests. The people have a deeply religious feeling. The heart of life throbs in their heart. Literature for the people must be kindred to this heart, must awaken responses in all its strings. An author who can do this, while he elevates the moral sense and purifies the taste, will be a favourite with the people, and their benefactor. He will ennoble at the same time that he amuses. Ingemann does this.
Ingemann is a sow-man. [A man who sows seeds in the acre or earth. F. B.] The germs of a high and holy understanding of life and of existence lie in all that he writes,—heroic poems, drama, romances, legends, and songs. In every case he makes use only of the dissonances of life to produce therefrom the purest harmonics; in every case is his voice heard as a reconciled and reconciling spirit. Happy he! To him life has no night, merely twilight, and the human heart, history, nature, the stars of the firmament, the clouds of the sky, and the moss of the field, all are sacred symbols (or hieroglyphs), from which he is able to read holy and sanctifying words. "The WonderChild," which he wrote, over whom magic had no power, but who had power over everything, and could deliver the spirits bound by demon fetters—that " Wonder-Child" lies in all his poems. And what marvel? It lies in truth written in his own heart.
The woods and lakes of Soro—a region of peaceful beauty—surround the house of the poet, like a mirror of his soul and his domestic life. Murmur gently, groves of Soro, murmur long around the beloved poet, joyfully and softly as the spirit of his life. Bear to him voices from the kindly genius that he has awoke, the voices from friends near and afar, who preserve his image in their grateful hearts as one of the most beautiful memories from "Denmark with the verdant shore by the sparkling waves."
calculated for the peasantry and the working classed are at this time opened in Denmark, and all that is needed is to provide books enough to satisfy the desire for them. For forty years has this society been in operation; during thirty under the direction of that zoalous statesman, PrivyCouncillor Collin, and the results of his active exertions are seen in the increasing taste of the peasantry and the handicraftsmen for pleasures of a higher order. Alebouses and clubs are less visited, the home is more beloved, and reading in the family circle in the autumn and winter evenings, gives a new delight and a new interest to the family life.
With Ochlenschlager and Ingemann the literature of Denmark made its way beyond the North, and became European. And this has been done also in some measure by Hertz, who, with the magic spell of the poet, has taken possession of foreign lands with his "King Rhene's Daughter." Hertz is distinguished in Danish literature from his having developed in the drama the knowledge of the life of the people. The war-ballad with its vigorous life, its melancholy, mystical tone, is the key-note of his poetical inspiration, penetrated at the same time by a lofty and moral gravity. Thus also is Hauch, natural philosopher and poet. An ardent and enthusiastic character, he seeks to unite in one science and poetry. His earth has a glowing hearth; his flowers spring up from a deep and spiritual soil. The tragic solemnity of life, the night of existence, afford to him light only out of darkness. There gleams forth in his poems, romances, fairy tales, and dramas, a gloomy but a warmly beaming eye. This was given to him by his genius and the bittersweet experiences of life. Paludan Holler, whose last great epic, Adam Homo, published during the last winter in Copenhagen, produced a great effect, is a man of deep thought in verse, in which he has attained extraordinary facility and perfection. Whilst his rich, poetic nature loves to penetrate into the deepest mines of the human soul, and to bring thence the fine gold, while he applies the fire of satire to the dross, to the rubbish of life, of thought, and of feeling, Christian Winter sings the Idylls of the country-life of his native land in poems so living and fresh, that the Danes fancy they feel in them the odours of fresh hay, and of the flowers of their meadows.
J. C. Heirerg has long stood amongst the literati of Denmark, as one of the rooks in the sea against which the ships strike. Ho has introduced into Denmark a higher and more scientific criticism. Whether that was always high enough, and scientific enough, in the highest sense of scientific, this is not the place to consider; but we have dilficulty in recognising any judgment-seat in literature, higher than that which sooner or later forms itself in the living heart of the people themselves. Certain it is, that Heiberg has laboured greatly for the intellectual development of his countrymen, not only through his Holberg-like tendency, but still more from his strong perception of the excellent which he acknowledges, and from his own poetical creations, especially in the drama. That peculiar kind of vaudeville which he created for Denmark, continues still to be the favourite amusement of the public. And the flowers which the rock bears at this time, testify to a genial and fruitful soil.
All these last-named authors and poets, though important in the literature of Denmark, are still but little known in foreign countries. But upon the "green island," there sprang up one day a little, unpretending flower, to which nobody paid any attention. Many people looked disparagingly down upon the little thing, and called it a mere nothing. Some took care of its growth. The sun loved the flower, and cast upon it his bright beams. The leaves unfolded themselves, assumed beautiful forms and colours. They took wings, loosened themselves from their motherearth and flew forth, over the whole earth, as singing Saga-birds. Everywhere people gathered themselves together to listen, great and small, old and young, learned and unlearned, in court and in cottage; and as they listened, they felt themselves alternately amused and affected. They became more cheerful, more gentle of spirit; whilst a world of lovely enchantments passed before their curious glance. Everywhere have people hailed with astonishment and delight these beautiful winged legends, gifted with colours and tones which seem to belong to a world more beautiful, more serene than this. Who in the educated world has not heard speak of Hans Christian Andersen's "Fairy Tales for Children?" In the child, they awaken the thoughtful man; and we, fullgrown people, are again converted by them into good and happy children. Andersen himself, is a "Wonder-Child," whom some good fairy has gifted in the cradle. His life is a real fairy talc, in which the poor lad who began his career in lowliness and want, closes it with honour and good luck: it began in the humble cottage, and it ends in the saloons of even royal palaces. Known and honoured also as a romance-writer and lyrical poet, Andersen's true and peculiar mastership, his originality and his immortality are in his tales. In these he is second to no one. In these, he is the son of the legendary North, where Samund and Snorro sing wonderful adventures; where the oldest story-teller, the old woman Turida, sate in the twilight of history by the flames of Hecla, relating old tales, which have come down from generation to generation. The spirit of the old story has changed since then. Its theme is now no longer the deeds of violence and the vengeance of blood, and the long, long hatred which grew silently from year to year among contending kindred, until, like the avalanche of the Alps, it was precipitated by its own weight, and crushing all that came in its way, found rest only in the graves which it dug. These stories belong to far-past times. These latest are children of light, and bear its beams over the children of men.
Figures 1, 2, 3, and 4 tiro Walking Dreuu.
Figurk 1. Bonnet of dark blue velvet with rouleaux and bias of satin on the right side, with a hanging bunch of spotted cazoar plumes. Pardessus cavalier, of blue velvet with silk buttons; fitting closely to the figure. Sleeves demi-long, with large rcvers cuffs open at the back. Robe of yellow velvet, plain, with long sleeves fastened at the wrists with a band, and edged with white lace.
Figure 2. Bonnet of light green velvet, with bouillonne all round the face, and a plume of cock's feathers drooping at the right. Under-trimming of chenille. Pardessus of dark brown velvet, ornamented in front and on each scam with numerous little bell buttons of silk, and edged round the skirt with lace. Kobe of double taffetas, of the same colour as the pardessus, but several shades lighter; sleeves long, and gathered to a band at the wrist.
Figure 3. Capote of satin with a rucho at the edge, and bias of velvet in front, halfway under the face. Above are volnnts of satin, and a bunch of flowers on the lelt side. Manteau of light lemon-coloured cloLb, crossing
over the breast and fastened on the left, trimmed with buttons and lacets; large cape, and very large loose sleeves. Kobe of durk cloth.
Figure 4. Capote of satin trimmed with ruches of blondes; crown round; bavolet edged with a ruche of blonde and two bunches of roses, one at the right and the other at the left. Manteau of rich maroon-coloured velvet, broidered with flowers in silk; trimmed with buttons and little rouleaux of satin. Robe of damask broche and Pekin. Muff of marten.
Figure 5. Full Drest Dinnrr Costume—Small cap of white blonde, with large designs placed upon the head, and fastened on each side by two rosettes of lively violet satin ribbon. On each side depend also three rich clusters of scarlet velvet, and two white marabouts. Those tufts stand m relic/t support the blonde, and arc themselves separated by puffing bandeaux of the hair.
Robe of dark velvet. Corsage open before in a V, offering to view eight or nino rows of white lace placed one upon the other, not depending, but in an upright position. Sleeves turned back to the bend of the arm, a la taigntt.
as the French call it, and large below. Jupe full, with rather deep plaits.
The trimming of the robe is a fringe composed of rich black chenilles and -ilk fringe. The chenille forma as an x lying down, and from each junction fall back three ends. At the middle of the openings is seen the crest of a silk fringe. There are three rows of this trimming upon the jupe, entirely covering it almost to the hips, and a row of the same kind, hut narrow at the edge of each sleeve, and at the edge of the opening of the corsage, the tc of chenille only. Under-sleeves of white lace.
Figciue 6. Tmlelts de, rille.—Bonnet with donblo face, the under side of bright green satin, the upper of green velvet; that below smooth, trimmed with black lace, that above, with embroidered dents of a black lace. Bavolet of plain green satin, covered with a velvet with dmts of lace. Crown flat, but with rounded corners: three rosettes of satin ribbon mingled with black lace, and placed at the junction of the crown and face. Man tcail ajusti, of green satin, smooth over the chest and close round the neck, where a small collarette comes out with a najud at the throat. The front is quilted from the scums at the top of the shoulders, the quilted part narrowing to the waist and then widening a little, but toward the lower part of the jupe extending all round. Sleeves wide, gathered at the shoulder, trimmed by a fringe sewed on en biait
the elbow to the lower edge in front. A wide fringe also passcsall round the bow of the jupe. Robe of richdamask, roseate pearl-gray, broche in columns of large waving reed leaves.
Figmu 7. Tmlrtte dt vtflc—Gray felt bonnet without trimming except the plain crossing of the strings. Lining and under-trimming of white satin. Gray poplin divas trimmed up the front with parallel bands of silk galons and buttons. Pardessus of green satin trimmed with wide lace; deep pelerine trimmed to match.
Florae 8. Home TmleiU.—Cap of white tulle coming near to the forehead, in a point, retreating to the side of the head, tlwn extending in rather long rounded ears to the cheek, and finally retreating again to the back of the head. The material of the cap Is very full and puffed :lit were, and quilted all over by numerous little rose-be lis, in the hollows of the tulle. On each side is a thick cluster of these rose-bells. Under these clusters, the puffing.- are much thicker than thoM on the head, as are aim those near the edge of the cap behind. Hair in puffed bandeaux.
Kobe of light green moire; corsage open in front in an elongated V, and trimmed like the edge of the sleeves with dark green chenille fringe; waist long, and pointed in front. Sleeves wide below, reaching in front only to the bend of the arm. Cnder-sleeves tight . Skirt very full and trimmed with three rows of the dark chenille fringe, of graduated widths, the lower row being twice at wide as the upper. Around the opening of the corsage is an under edging of white lace, and near the point appears a very small chemisette.
Fig. 9. Bteniitg Dress.
point with berthe of lace like that on the skirt. Corsage bouquet of orange flowers and white roses. The hair is ornamented very gracefully with clusters of pearls and vineleaves.
Figure 10. Marriage Costume.—Lace guimpe and veil. Robe of damask trimmed on each side of the front breadth of the skirt with two rows of point d'Alen^on, separated by abouillonne of crept lisse. High body open to the waist; trimming similar to that of the skirt, and placed around the edge of the opening. Sleeves, open to the elbow, rounded in front, trimmed with bouillonnes and lace tailing over the wrist.
Fiour.es 12,14,10, and IS are spencers or guimpes of the latest styles, with embroidery anglaise and Valenciennes.
Figure 11 is a ladies' morning cap.
Figure 13, is a cap for an infant.
Figures Id, 17, and 19 are sleevelettes and a collar.
Fig. 20. Cavalier Fardessus. This pardessus is in the style of the times of Charles II. There are indications which promise for it much favour in future. It is the same in shape as that on figure 1, but the application of the trimming is somewhat different.
The chaussure of this winter, for ball or full evening dress, is shoes of satin, and embroidered silk stockings; tor the morning, gaiters of the same colour with the dress are worn: at home, slippers, either of velvet with large puffs of satin, or of white or rose satin trimmed with lace.