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In support of such a cause, directed by such a lion. Such sentiments are founded in nature, and leader, who would think his life too dear a sacri have, for ages, under different meridians, been ful. ce!-let the mean, base, groveling soul, that wishes ly displayed by men who knew the rights of nature for security on any terms, through fear forget he is a and mankind. The names of Locx, SIDNEY and HANI. than, cringe to the creature he despises, smile on the per, have long been illustrious, and my country. man he hates, alternately shake hands with vice and men are too well acquainted with their writings, virtue, and court protection from the power he wish. not to venerate their memories. Nor can I forget es to destroy!-let us, my friends, determine to the same sentiments which have charmed you from maintain our sacred rights, or perish in the st. the lips of men, who have spoke before me, on the tempt,* with vigor urge the war, frown on our foes same occasion, whose characters will be ever dear, wherever we meet them, despise their mercy when and the exertions of whose patriotism and virtue, we feel power, and from this moment hold our exhibited, in the most critical situations, posterity selves beyond the reach of pardon.

will ever wonder at and revere. ORATION, DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCR 5, 1778, In short, to confirm this point by logical conclu.

BY JONATHAN W. AUSTIN, ESQ. sions, must be an useless mispense of time. Even

-Multaque rubentia Cede
Lubrics Sana madent, nulli sua profuit Etas-Lucan, Lib. 2.

a crown lawyer, whose sentiments are not always -Hic ubi barbarus hostis,

friendly to the rights of mankind, will tell us, "in Ut fera plus valeant legibus arma facit.-Ovid de Ponte.

a land of liberty, it is extremely dangerous to make Quis cladem illius noctis, quis funera fando Explicet? aut possit lachryinis æquare labores!

a distinct order of the profession of arms. In ab. Plurima perque vias sternuntur inertia passim Corpora.

· Virgil 2d Encido solute monarchies this is indeed necessary for the My friends and fellow citizens.—To weep over safety of the prince, and arises from the main princithe tomb of the pairiotto drop a ear to the me. ple of their constitution, which is governing by fear: mory of those unfortunate citizens, wbo fell the but in free states, the profession of a soldier, taken first sacrifice to tyranny and usurpation, is noble, singly and merely as a profession, is justly an object generous and humane. Such are the sentiments of jealousy. The laws, therefore, and constitution that influence you, my countrymen, or why, through of these kingdoms, know no such thing as a perpesuccessive periods, with heart-felt sensations, have tual standing soldier." you attended this solemn anniversary, and paid this sad tribute to the memory of your slaughtered

Arguments existing in theory, however the mind brethren. Nor is the circle contracted the most may be captivated, do not always convince; and amiable part of the creation share the grief, and, consequences, traced from the same source, are sel. soft pily beaming in their countenances, like the dom interesting. But when we find the appredaughters of Israel, annually lament the fate of hensions of the greatest and best of mankind, who, others, and weep over the miseries of their coun.

actuated by a principle of benevolence, felt for the try. Come then, my friends, let us enter the soli. common interests, fully displayed in awful and

tremendous effects, we then start from our lethargy, tary courts of death, and, perhaps, an hour spent

and like the sensitive plant, shrink from approachin such refection, may afford as solid improvement as nature in her gayest scener.

ing danger! such is the case with respect to the

subject before us. Pbilosophers and statesmer To commemorate the deaths of those men who have shewn bow dangerous staading armies muss fell unhappy victims to brutal violence—to show be in a free state, and every page in the volume the dangerous tendency of standing armies in popu- of mankind confirms the melancholy account. lous cities in time of peace, the origin of this fatal catastrophe-to trace its connexion and effects, as

Speculative writers may indeod tell us, that the

seeds of dissolution exist in every body politicthey have been, and are now displayed, in diffe.

that like the body natural, it must decay and dierent parts of America, I take to be the design of

and that the same causes which brought the em. this day's solemnity.

pires of Belus and Cyrus lo derruction, will sap It appears to me needless to enter into the nature


other government on earth.t For my own and ends of civil government, and to evince that part, I am no fatalist, and nil desperandum pro re. standing armies are a solecism in such a constitu publica, is to me a much preferable, and more ge

*Justum et tenacem, propositi virum, nerous motto. And instead of enumerating their
Non civium ardor, prava jubentium many vices and corrup:ions, as the original cause, I
Non vullus instantis tyranni
Mente quatit solida:-

*Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. I. page 407. Judges, xi. 39, 40.

See Bellisarus by M. Marmontell.

think a little acquaintance with history will inform those vices wbich have been prevalent in powerful us, that they are not merely the original cause, but monarcbies, and how carefully they watched the consequences resulting from the fatal measure we sacred altar of freedom, that they themselves must are considering. In absolute monarchies, where remain a standing monument of the consequences the military is the principal engine of government, of this fatal measure. Such is the case. Marius, we are not to look for a confirmation of this argu. in new modelling the legions, and replacing the ment. But in republics, 'till the introduction of citizens who served in them with foreign mercena. a soldiery, distinct from the citizens, we find them ries, laid the borråd foundation. The door was now dos remote from corruption, luxury, and the other open for one too powerful citizen after another, until black catalogue of vices, as any human system can Cesar, losing every check, and laughing at the imattain to: but when standing troops were intro potent analbemas of the senate, with the distant duced, they immediately followed. Depravity of legions marched to Rome, and formed a new ara in manners--a dislike to virtue and inanly sentiment ebeir history. From this period we are charmed -effeminacy, and those grosser vices, 100 indeli no more with illustrious actions, and the last re. cate to be mentioned in this place, stalked like mains of dignity sunk in the Roman world. So true dæmons through their cities. Witness, ye repub. is it, that when a people lose their liberty, they at lics, that were once great and illustrious, but are once become fit subjects of every thing base and now no more! witness, O Boston! for ye were too infamous. well acquainted with the melancholy truth!

We have thus far produced instances of the fatal We will now confirm the sentiment by a brief effec:s of armies thus kept up, which have ended inspection into some parts of history.

in the utter subversion of the laws and government

of two of the most memorable republics in ancient The Greeks were a republic, that, in a short flighistory. We will now shift the scene, and while we of years, exhibited the most glorious spectacle ihet show their dangerous tendency in states of a more ever appeared to mankind; and, as one observes, modern date, we will exhibit an illusirious exannthe age they lived in, seemed to be the golden peple through what scenes of danger, hardships and riod of buman nature. In every branch of war or blood, the determined spirits of honor, and attachpeace, in every species of science they excelled, ment to freedom, will carry a people. and were at once feared, admired, and venerated

Previous to mentioning the situation of the Unit. by the other nations of the worid: yet this heroic confederacy was originally reduced from this glo. ed Provinces, I must remark how very similar their

circumstances were to our's. We sball ever find rious superiority, by the arts of one mant under the

it an unalterable maxim of princes, who in time of idea of a guard, from an inconsiderable number of atbendants, he increased to that stretch of power as peace kept up a standing force, however they may proved the fatal stab to the vitals of his country. The

call them the protectors of law, the end is to subvert bank thus broken down, the tide swelled too rapidw those laws and render the constitution useless. be stemmed, and virtue, freedom and the laws, all Such was the mode of conduct of Philip the second, fell a sacrifice.

of Spain, to the low countries, and such the pro.

cedure of a similar character, George the third, Similar was the situation of the Romans. Al of Britain, influenced by a despicable ministry. though not so universally distinguished as the The former, as sir William Temple observes, “thinkGreeks, yet from the expulsion of their kings, to ing it not agreeing with his greatness,” (an army the time of Marius, they evinced to what a proui. being now in the bowels of their country) "lo congious greatness mankind may arrive when actuatea sider their discontents, or be limited by their an. by the principles of liberiy, virtue aud honor. I. cient forms of government," proceeds to despise Auenced by sucà motives, no wonder their actions the one and overturn the other. New courts judi.. were conformable: and wbile the most rigid inflexi. catory were appointed, new offices established, bility presided at bome, the Roman eagle flew to depending obsolutely on the king* the remotest corner of the globe.

What was the consequence?“could it be supCan we then suppose, when we view the charac-posed a generous people, would sit down tamely, ters which appeareil on the stage at this period, and kiss the rod that lashed them?' a different mode when we consider how remote they were from of conduct ensued. The duke of Alva was sent "Harris Hermes.

*S.c William Temple's observations on the Unil. Pisistratus.

ed Provinces, Page 21, 23.

with a powerful army, the very forcible plea of ty a child, wbile, by order of the officer, his own sons fants, and the most shocking cruelties were con have been his gaulers.* mitted. Here let humanity spread her veil, nor let

Perhaps there is no nation in any part of the the tender breast heave with anguish at such scenes. world, more happy than France, in every lusury of But shocking as they are, they flow as naturally life. But amid this profusion of plenty, the farmer from this cursed engine of oppression, as beams of exhibits the most wretched spectacle in nature. light from the sun. For as the same sensible wri. Supported by the gleanings of the field, the fruits ter observes, "so great antipathy ever appears be of his labor go to the subsistence of the soldiery. tween citizens and soldiers; while one pretends to be Thus dispirited and depressed, he contents himself safe under law, which the other pretends shall be with the refuge of his ground, while, after his subject to his sword and his will."

greatest exertions, another will reap the fruits of

his honest industry. The most obdurate breast But terrible as the ny executions of their most illustrious patriots appeared to them, while must melt at such scenes, and execrate the effects the land was drenched in its richest blood-how. of standing armies. ever affecting the sight of confiscations, imprison.

Look into the situation of Poland. Under the ments, and the numberless crueltjes that attended direction of that great man,t famous for his victo. them, they were not daunted. That God who hat. ries against the Turks, they were brave and virtueth oppression, and delighteth in the happiness of ous, and proved the bulwark of Christendom.co his creation, inspired them with sentiments that But, under the Saxon line, this spirit not suiting carried them through innumerable hardships, 'till their plan of government, was awed by electoral after having expended immense treasures and blood troops, and totally decayed. The consequences are for better than threescore years, they laid the foun- now severely experienced by them; and while in dation of a rich, free, and Aourishing people: Pro. this depressed state, they are an object of desire to vidence hereby giving an instructive lesson to pos. Turks and Russians, their country is a scene of terity in every age, who are contending for all that bloodshed and misery. is dear and sacred, to pursue the glorious object It is needless to mention England, or the idle undaunted; knowing that, as liberty is a plant trans. farce of an annual act of parliament, for the support planted from the gardens of heaven, its divine pa of standing troops, which is nothing but an insult rent will still cherish it, and, in spite of opposition, on the sense of that Ration. The more virtuous it will fourish, it will live forever.

among them, if the flame of liberty has not entirely Such, my friends, have been the methods used expired, easily see through the guise, and in the

death of Allen and others, wantonly butchered by by enterprising men, in former ages, to carry into effect their ambitious designs, and found their a mercenary soldiery, can too clearly read the fate greatness on the ruins of their country. But in our of themselves and posterity. day, these measures have become systematical.

The melancholy part of this subject must give They are in fact part of the constitution. To take pain to every humane breast. This is natural. But a view of the different powers in Europe, and com. these scenes more directly affect other nations; and pare them with the state of ancient republics, un

however we may pity the unhappy sufferer, there der great and wise legislators, who seemed to be is a kind of pleasure we feel that we ourselves are rajsed up for the benefit of the age they lived in, not immediately interested. And would to Gon, it and the admiration of posterity, we must drop the had ever remained so O my country! with what tear of sensibility at the contras'. Where is the heart-felt satisfaction should I rejoice, if oppreskingdom that does not groan under the calamities sion had never stretched her baleful wings to this of military tyranny? let us pause a while on the once happy clime! that that liberty which an illus. most eminent of them.

trious set of men, of whom the world was not wor.

thy, purchased at so dear a rate, might have deIn the large empire of Russia, the effects are scended unimpaired to latest posterity. But is glaring. Even the shadow of liberty has vanished. this the case? has this scourge of mankind, standOf so great importance is the military, that a re. ing armies, never interrupted our prosperity? if so, cruiting officer can go through their villages, and why is this desk hung with the sable covering of piich upon the ablest of the inhabitants, as he death! why am I surrounded by so many of my fel. would choose his cattle. And even a father has

*Vid!, Guthrie's Grammar. been imprisoned in his own house, for the escape of

John Sobieski. -3.

low-citizens, who listen to the tale of woe! yes, my the reiics of slaughterei citizens are objects of countrymen, we ourselves are deeply interested; pity, and the sympathizing spectator will ever drop and this same engine of oppression, which has a tear over them. But there may be ins:ances, {hrown mighty republics from their foundations, when the lesser streams of affection are absorbed has attempted and still continues to spread the in a still greater sea of woe. Such are the senti. same horrid consequences in America: and in its ments that must strike every breast, when we re. visual mode of conduct, bas been attended with eve- fect, illustrious Wanres! on thy death--a death, species of cruelty, some of them unheard of before, which whole hecatombs of slaughtered enemies, but which your firmness, under Gov, has hitherto, strowed around thy corpse, can never repay. and I pray ever may, surmount.

Here, ye minions of power! ye who are dead to the The shocking scene of that dreadful night, the calls of honor and public virtue, are willing to wade falal effects of which we are now still weeping to station through the blood of your brethren, here over, is beyond description. No one, perhaps, if ie behold a spectacle that must harrow your inmost is taken in every view, that was not a spectator, can soul. You, my countrymen, with the most pleasing conceive it. When I consider the many insults, sensations, have attentively listened, while, like abuses and violences, this unhappy town was ex- us, he was weeping over the unhappy fate of others. posed to for months previous to this melancholy You have kindled into rage, while he has set b fore tragedy, żnd when the tumult of contrary passions you the dangerous nature and consequences of was thus naturally excited, to see a brutal soldiery, standing armies, and prophetically pointed out 10 scattering promiscuous death through a defence you still greater events. How affecting that he, less, unarmed multitude, till yonder street was who could lament the fate of others, must be hin. crimsoned with the blood of its citizens, while a self deplored; and that he who could so feelingly tender mother, frantie with grief, pours forth the paint the effects of this borrid measure, must binanguish of her heart over a beloved son, now inca self fall one of the first sacrifices to it. pable of any returns of gratitude; all this exhibits But it is not sufficient to drop a transient tear a scene which the distressed heart may painfully to the memory of departed herves, or to pay an eafeel, but which the tongue cannot express. Let logy to their characters. The happiness of stich the breast, then, still continue to beat. These, men who, after having expired in the arms of liberty my friends, are virtuous, generous feelings, and and virtue, are now sharing the highest degree of do honor 10 humanity. May we ever retain them. felicity, cannot be increased by our praises: no, my ---May this institution, sacred to the memory of friends, the best way to express our affections for our murdered brethren, be ever carefully pre such great and good men, is to rouse and revenge served. Yes, ye injured skades! we will still weep them. To hurl still fiercer bolts of vengeance on over you, and if any thing can be more soothing, an inhuman soldiery, who, instead of affording the

last honors sacred to the dead, and which a gene. This glaring specimen of cruelty roused the citi- rous enemy will ever regard,--after grinning zens, and in convincing colors displayed the effects with hellish pleasure on the mangled corpse, which of standing armies in time of peace. But however alive could strike terror into their boldest beart, our exertions were then successful, however the lodged it in a promiscuous grave; that since they storm subsided, it was but temporary. While the could not prevent his name and reputation being scales of justice were held in palsied hands, and immortal, his remains might be bid forever. O the most shocking barbarities were the highest me. Britain! thou hast, and shall still weep tears of rit, an additional force only was necessary. That blood for this! arriving, the mask was thrown off, and a still great Are not such instances, my countrymen, very er scene of carnage and destruction opened in our convincing proofs of the fatal effects of standing adjacent villages.

armies in time of peace. In such a period they But such proceedings, however alarming at that originated, and from the fifth of March, 1770, period, were soon lost in more dreadful and dis. through every degree of violence and barbarity, to tressing operations. The heights of Charlestown the present day, it is but one connected scene. too awfully convinced us of the melancholy truth, After such exhibitions of cruelty and carnage, and posterity, while with tears of compassion tbey what can we suppose too brutal, too infamous for ponder the transactions of that day, must execraie such an army? Can we wonder to see our houses in the causes which produced them. In any situation, Aames, our altars rased to the ground, or convert.


Ad to a much more horrid use, than the Jewished Carthageninn.* Lead your sons, ye fathers, not temple? if possible they have even exceeded; and to the altar of paganism, and under the tutelage of the armies of Britain seem to be beld up as a some unknown deity, but to the sacred altar of standing evidence, how far the spirit of tyranny freedom, and while the guardian God of America and oppression can operate.

is witness to the solemn obligation, makE THEM

SWEAR that they will never be friends to a power, We shudder when the faithful page of history who are thus sacrificing their dearest privileges. opens to our view the conduct of armies, flushed Ring in their young ears the dreadful tale of mur. with victory, sacking towns, burning villages, and

ders, rapes, and massacres. Paint to them the perpetrating murders, with all the other dreadful conduct of Britain, as displayed in her arms in dif. concomitants. But if we look into the conduce ferent parts of America, till their young breasts of the British army in the Jersies, and some part glow with ardor, and thus early catching the flame of the state of New York, we shall find instances of patriotism, they may, through life, pursue un. of all these crimes, and, perhaps, in some places, daunted so glorious an object. Pleased with such ins'ances beyond them. To see the third city in an invocation, the shades of our fathers will ree neighboring state, wantonly consumed by an joice over their posterity, and the angels of love enemy who, not baving spirit or ability to meet and purity will look down delighted. us in the field, descend to these little mean me.

No one, I think, can suppose these thoughts prothods of exciting terror-to see the ravages in the

ceed from rage or passion. They are the cool Jersies, and the garden of America thus wantonly

dictates of my heart. I love my country; her disdefaced--does not the blood beat high!--do we

tresses affect me; nor, from this moment, do I ever not press forward to exterminate such barbarians

wish a reconciliation with a power, whose prospefrom the face of the earth! but to mention still

rity must be founded on my utter destruction. greater scenes of cruelty-does not the ear tingle, when it hears the shrieks of helpless virgins, dread.

I have now, my countrymen, endeavored to ful victims to lust and barbarity; while the grey exhibit the fatal effects of standing armies in time hairs and espressive groans of an aged parent, wit. of peace; not from abstract reasoning, but as they ness to his daughter's shame, plead in vain. Can

exist in fact, and now prevail in our distressed

land. Here I would remark, that it is standing any thing swell this complicated scene of woe? it can receive addition. These monsters exceed even

armies in time of peace, and the consequences thence the most barbarous nalions. With them the ashes resulting, that we are now deprecating. Armies, of the dead have ever been sacred. But under in defence of our country, unjustly invaded, are the patronage of a British tyrant and his general,

necessary, and in the highest sense justifiable. We, sau ffing the tainted gale, they bave ransacked the my friends, attacked by an arbitrary tyrant, under

the sanction of a force, the effects of which, we silent repositories, and the remains of one that was once amiable and captivating, Aung about as food have attempted to illusirate, have been obliged to for the birds of the air.* O God, where is thy

make the last solemn appeal. And I cannot but vengeance! O virtue, honor, religion humanity,

feel a pleasing kind of transport, when I see

America, undaunted by the many trying scenes that where, where are ye fled!

have attended her, still baffling the efforts of the These, my countrymen, are not the flights of most formidable power in Europe, and exhibiting fancy, not the dictates of imagination: they are an instance unknown in bistory. To see an army sulid, though very affecting realities. Can we then of veterans, who had fought and conquered in difwish a re union with such a people? can we ever ferent quarters of the globe--headed by a gene. familiarly shake hands with a nation who, leaping ral tutored in the field of war, illustrious by former every barrier, are thus wanlonly sporting with our victories, and Aushed with repeated succesues, distresses, and bathing themselves in the blood of

As Hannibal, then abuut nine years old, was our countrymen? may America never retain such soothing with childishi caresses his father, Hamil. mean, dastardly sentiments! for my own part, if I car, to take him along with him to Spain, whither, may be indulged, I would entreat, I would conjure

after finishing the war in Africa, he was now about

to transport bis troops, and was sacrificing for sucevery one, wlio as a parent feels for the welfare of cess in that expedition, he was led by his father to his posterity, to imitate the example of the renown. the altar, and with his hand on the victim, was

bound by this solemn oath, “that as soon as lie

should have it in his power, he would declare Delauncy's farm

himself an enemy to the Roinan people.

Livey, b. 21. ch. 1.

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