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of their cause inspires; they do not jeopard their salary besides that which the general court should lives for a master who considers them only as the grant them; and if they did not make this declarainstruments of his ambition, and whom they regard tion, that it would be the duty of the house to imonly as the daily dispenser of the scanty pittance peach them. of bread and water. No, they fight for their houses,
Great expectations were also formed from the their lands, for their wives, their children, for all
artful scheme of allowing the East India company who claim the tenderest names, and are held dear.
to export tea to America, upon their own account. est in their hearts, they fight proarvus et focis, for
This certainly, had it succeeded, would have eftheir liberty, and for themselves, and for their God.
fected the purpose of the contrivers, and gratified And let it not offend, if I say, that no militia ever
the most sanguine wishes of our adversaries. We appeared in more flourishing condition, than that
soon should have found our trade in the hands of of this province now doth; and pardon me if I say foreigners, and taxes imposed on every thing which -of this town in particular.-I mean not to boast;
we consumed; nor would it have been strange, if, I would not excite envy but manly emulation. We
in a few years, a company in London should have have all one common cause; let it therefore be our
purchased an exclusive right of trading to America. only contest, who shall most contribute to the se.
But their plot was soon discovered. The people curity of the liberties of America. And may the
soon were aware of the poison which, with so much same kind Providence which bas watched over this
craft and subtility, had been concealed: loss and country from her infant state, still enable us to de.
disgrace ensued: and, perhaps, this long.concerted feat our enemies. I cannot here forbear noticing
master-piece of policy, may issue in the total disuse the signal manner in which the designs of those
of tea, in this country, which will eventually be the who wish not well to us have been discovered. The
saving of the lives and the estates of thousandsdark deeds of a treacherous cabal, have been brought to public view. You now know the serpents who, therto prevailed against us, let us by" no means
yet while we rejoice that the adversary has not hi. whilst cherished in your bosoms, were darting their envenomed stings into the vitals of the constitution. put off the harness. Restless malice, and disap.
pointed ambition, will still suggest new measures But the representatives of the people have fixed a
tò our inveterate enemies. Therefore let us also mark on these ungrateful monsters, which, though be ready to take the field whenever danger calls; it may not make them so secure as Cain of old, yet let us be united and strengthen the hands of each renders them at least as infamous. Indeed it would be affrontive to the tutelar deity of this country Much has been done by the committees of cor.,
ether, by promoting a general union among us. even to despair of saving it from all the snares
respondence for this and the other towns of this which human policy can lay.
province, towards uniting the inhabitants; let them True it is, that the British ministry have annexed
still go on and prosper. Much has been done by a salary to the office of the governor of this pro- the committees of correspondence, for the houses vince, to be paid out of a revenue, raised in Ameri- of assembly, in this and our sister colonies, for ca, without our consent. They have attempted to
uniting the inbabitants of the whole continent, for render our courts of justice the instruments of exo the security of their common interest. May suctending the authority of acts of the British parlia
cess ever attend their generous endeavors. But ment over this colony, by making the judges de.
permit me here to suggest a general congress of pendent on the British administration for their
deputies, from the several houses of assembly, on support. But this people will never be enslaved the continent, as the most effectual method of estabwith their eyes open. The moment they knew that lishing such an union, as the present posture of the governor was not such a governor as the char.
our affairs require. At such a congress a firm ter of the province points out, he lost his power of foundation may be laid for the security of our hurting them. They were alarmed; they suspect. rights and liberties; a system may be formed for ed him, have guarded against him, and be has found
our common safety, by a strict adherence to which, that a wise and a brave people, when they know their
we shall be able to frustrate any attempts to overdanger,üre fruitful in expedients to escape it.
throw our constitution; restore peace and barmony The courts of judicature also so far lost their to America, and secure honor and wealth to Great dignity, by being supposed to be under an undue Britain, even against the inclinations of her minisinfluence, that our representatives thought it absol, ers, whose duty it is to study ber welfare; and we lutely necessary to resolve that they were bound shall also free ourselves from those unmannerly to declare that they would not receive any other pillagers who impudently tell 09, that they are li.
censed by an act of the British parliament, to thrust (which even a want of success in his endeavors to their dirty hands into the pockets of every Ame save his country, the heaviest misfortune which rican. But, I trisf, the happy time will come, can befal a genuine patriot, cannot entirely prevent when, with the besom of destruction, those noxious lim from receiving. vermin will be swept forever from the streets of
I have the most animating confidence that the Boston.
present noble struggle for liberty, will terminate Surely you never will tamely suffer this country gloriously for America. And let us play the man to be a den of thieves. Remember, my friends, for our God, and for the cities of our God; while from whom you sprang.-Let not a meanness of we are using the means in our power, let us humspirit, unknown to those whom you borst of as your bly commit our righteous cause to the great Lord fathers, excite a thought to the dislionor of your of the universe, who loveth righteousness and mothers. I conjure you by all tiiat is dear, by all that hateth iniquity. And having secured the approbeis honorable, by all that is sacred, not only that tion of our hearts, by a faithful and unwearied dis. ye pray, but that you act; that, if necessary, ye charge of our duty to our country, let us joyfully fight, and even die, for the prosperity of our Jeru leave our concerns in the hands of Hix who rais. salem. Break in sunder, with noble disdain, the eth up and putteth down the empires and kingbonds with which the Philistines have bound you. doms of the world as He pleases; and, with cheer. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed by the soft ful submission to His sovereign will, devoutly say, arts of luxury and effeminacy, into the pit digged "Although the fig tree shall not blossom, neither shall for your destruction. Despise the glare of wealth fruit be in the vines; the labor of the olive shall fail, That people who pay greater respect to a wealthy and the field shall yield no meat; the flock shall be cu: villain, than to an honest upright man in poverty, of from the fold, and there shall be no herd in the almost deserve to be enslaved; they plainly shew stalls; yet we will rejoice in the LORD, we will joy that wealth, however it may be acquired, is, in in the GOD of our salvation." their esteem, to be preferred to virtue. But I thank God, that America abounds in men
ORATION DELIVERED AT BOSTON, MARCH 6, 1775. •
BY DR. JOSEPH WARREN. who are superior to all temptation, whom nothing
Tantæ molis erat, Romanam condere gentem. can divert from a steady pursuit of the interest of
Virgil's. Er. their country; who are at once its ornament and
Qui, metuens, vivit, liber mihi non erit unquam. safe-guard. And sure I am, I should not incur
HUR. Epss. your displeasure, if I paid a respect so justly due MY EVER HONORED FELLOW-CITIZENS, to their much honored characters in this place;
It is not without the most humiliating conviction but when I name an ADAMS, such a numerous (of my went of ability that I now appear before you: host of fellow patriots rush upon my mind, that I but the sense I have of the obligation I am under fear it would take up too much of your time, should to obey the calls of my country at all times, to. I attempt to call over the illustrious roll: but your gether with an animating recollection of your ingrateful hearts will point you to the men; and their dulgence, exhibited upon so many occasions, has revered dames, in all succeeding times, slıall grace induced me, once more, undeserving as I am, to the annals of America. From them, let us, my throw myself upon that candor, wlich looks with friends, take example; from them, let us catch the kindness on the feeblest efforts of an honest mind. divine enthusiasm; and feel, each for himself, the
You will not now expect the elegance, the learn. God-like pleasure of diffusing happiness on all
ing, the fire, the enrapturing strains of eloquence around us; of delivering the oppressed from the
which charmed you when a LOVELL, a Ceurco, or a iron grasp of tyranny; of changing the hoarse com.
Hancck spake; but you will permii me to say that plaints and bitter moans of wretched slaves, into
with a sincerity equal to theirs, I mourn over my those cheerful songs, which freedom and content
bleeding country: With them I weep at her dis. ment must inspire. Tiere is a heart-felt satisfaction in reflecting on our exertions for the public ries she has received from the hands of cruel and
tress, and with them deeply resent the many inju. weal, which all the sufferings an enraged tyran!
unreasonable men. can iaflict, will never take away; which the ingratitude and reproaches of those whom we have sav. That personal freedom is the natural right of ed from ruin, cannot rob us of. The virtuous 28 every man, and thiat properig, or an exclusive sertor of the rights of mankind, meriis a reward, right to dispose of what be bus honestly acquired
y bis own labor, necessarily arises therefrom, are, the service of bell. They taught that princ s, bo-
This country having been discovered by an Eng If I may be irdulged in taking a retrospective lish subject, in the year 1620, was (according to view of the first settlement of our country, it will the system which the blind superstition of those be easy to determine with what degree of justice times supported) deemed the property of the the late parliament of Great Britain have assumed crown of England. Our ancestors, when they re. the power of giving away that property which the solved to quit their native soil, obtained from king Americans bave earned by their labor.
James, a grant of certain lands in North America.
This they probably did to silence the cavils of their Our ruthers liaving nobly resolved never to wear enemies, for it cannot be doubted, but they dethe yoke of despotism, and seeing the European spised the pretended right which he claimed there. world, at that time, through indolence and cow.
to. Certain it is, that he might, with equal proardice, falling • prey to tyranny, bravely threw priety and justice, have made them a grant of the themselves upon the bosom of the ocean, deter.
planet Jupiter. And their subsequent conduct plain. mined to find a place in wbich they might enjosiy shews that they were too well acquainted with their freedorn, or perish in the glorious altempt. humanity, and the principles of natural equity, to Approving heaven beheld the favorite ark dancing suppose that the grant gave them any right to upon the waves, and graciously preserved it until
take possession; i bey therefore entered into a tres. the chosen families were brouglit on safety to these ty with the natives, and bought from them the western regions. They found the land swarn.ing lands: nor have I ever yet obtained any informa. with savages, who threa:ened death with every tion that our ancestors ever pleaded, or that the kind of torture. But savages, and death with toronatives ever regarded the grant from the English lure, were far less terrible than slavery: nothing crown: the business was transacted by the parties Was so much the object of their abhorrelice as a in the same independent manner that it would tyrant's power: they knew it was more safe to dwell save been, bad neither of them ever known or with man in bis most unpolished state, than in a heard of the island of Great Britain. country where arbitrary power prevails. Even
Having become the honest proprietors of the anarchy itself, that bugbear held up by the tools of
soil, they immediately applied themselves to the power (t ough truly to be de precated) is infinely
cultivation of it; and they soon beheld the virgin less dangerous to ma: kind than arbitrary govern.
earth teeming with richest fruits, a grateful recom'ment.' Anarchy can be but of a shori duration; for when men are at liberiy to pursue that course which pense for their unwearied toil. The fields began is most conducive to their own happiness, they
to wave with ripening harvests, and the late bar.
ren wilderness was seen to blossom like the rose. will suon coine into it, and from the rudest slate
The savage natives saw with wonder the delight. of nature, order and good government must soon
ful change, and quickly formed a scheme to obtain arise. But tyranny, when once established, en'ails
chut by fraud or force, which nature meant as the its curses on a nation to the latest period of time;
reward of industry alone. But the illustrious emiunless some daring genius, inspired by heaven, shall, unappalled by danger, bravely form and exe grants soon convinced the rude invaders, that they cute the arduous design of res oring liberty and were not less ready to take the field for battle
than for labor; and the insidious foe was driven life to his enslaved, 'murdered country.
from their borders as often as he ventured to dig. The tools of power, in every age, have racked turb them. The crown of Englind fooked with their inventions to justify the few in sporting with indifference on the contest; our ancestors were left the liappiness of the muny; and, liaving found their alone to combat with the natives. Nor is there sopluistry too weak to hold mankind in bondage, any reason to believe, that it ever was jo ended have impiously dured to force religion, the daugh. by the one party, or expected by the other, that ter of the king of heaven, to become a prostitute in libe grantor should defend and maintain the grazie
fees in the paceable possession of the lands named cen: being, by whom kings reign and princes decree in the patents. And it appears plainly, from the justice. history of those times, that neither the prince nor These pleasing connections might have continued; the people of England, thought themselves much ihese delighitsome prispects might have been interested in the matter. They had not then any "very day extended; and even the reveries of the idea of a thousandth part of those advantages most warm imagination might have been realized; wbich they since huve, and we are most hearlily but, -nhappily for us, unhappily for Britain, the willing they should still continue to reap from us. madness of an avaricious minister of state, has
drawn a sable curtuin over the charining scene, But when, at an i' finite expense of toil and blood, .nd in its stead has brought upon the stage, disthis widely extended con inent had been collii cord, -nvy, hatred and revenge, with civil war close vated and defended: when the hardy adventurers in their rear. justly expected that they and their descendanis
Some demon, in an evil hour, suggested to a should peaceably have enjoyed the harvest of those shore-sighted financier, the hateful project of trans. fields which they had sown, and the fruit of those ferring the whole property of the king's subjerts vineyards which they had planted, this country in America, to his suhjects in Britain. The claim was then thought worthy the attention of the Brio of the British parliament to tas the colonies, can tish ministry; and the only justifiable and only suc. never be supported but by such a TRANSPER; for cessful means of rendering the colonies serviceable the right of the h (ise of commons of Great Britain, to Britain were adopted. By an intercourse of fo originate any tax or grant money, is altogether friendly offices, the two countries became so united derived from their being elected by the people of in affection, that they thought not of any distinct Great Britain to act for them, and the people of or separate interests, they found both countries Great Britain cannot confer on their representatives flourishing and happy. Britain saw her commerce
a right to give or grant any thing which they them. extended, and her wealth increased; her lands raised selves have not a right to give or grant personally. to an immense value; ner fleets riding triumphant Therefore it follows, that if the members chosen on the ocean; the terror of her arms spreading to by the people of Great Britain, to represent them erery quarter of the globe. The colonist found in parliament, have, by virtue of their being so himself free, and thought himself secure: he dweli chosen, any right to give or grant Anerican prounder his own vine, and under his own Ag-tree, and
perty, or to lay any tax upon the lands or persons had none to make him afraid: he knew indeed, that of the colonists, it is because the lands and prople by purchasing the manufactures of Great Britain, in the colonies are, bona fide, owned by, and justly he contributed to its greatness: he knew that all belonging to the people of Great Britain. But ias the wealth that his labor produced centered in has been before observed) every man has a right in Great Britain: Bilt that, far from exciting his envy, personal freedom, consequently a right to enjoy what filled liim with the highest pleasure; that thought is acq.:ired by his own labor. And it is evident supported him in all his toils. When the business that the property in this country has been acquired of the day was past, be solaced himself with the by our own labor; it is the duty of the people of contemplation, or perhaps entertained his listening Great Britain, to produce some compact in which family with the recital of some great, some glorious we have explici ly given up to them a right to disa transaction which shines conspicuous in the history (pose of our persons or property. Until this is done, of Britain: or, perhaps, his elevated fancy led him every attempt of theirs, or of those whoin they to furetel, with a kind of enthusiastic confidence, have deputed to act for them, to give or grunt the glory, power, and duration of an empire which any part of our property, is directly repu znant to should extend from one end of the earth to the every principle of reason and natural justice. But other: he saw, or thought he saw, the British na. I may boldly say, that such a compact never ex. tion risen to a pitch of grandeur which cast a veil isted, no, not even in imagination. Nevertheless, over the Roman glory, and, ravislied with the præ the representatives of a nation, long famed for jus. view, boasted a race of Bri:ish kings, whose namestice and the exercise of every noble virtue, have should ec!o through those realms where Cyrus, been prevailed on to adopt the fatal scheme; and Alexander, and the Cæsars were unknown; princes, although the dreadful consequences of this wickerl for whom millions of grateful subjects redeemed policy have already shaken the empire to its centre, from slavery and Pagan ignorance, should, with yet still it is persisted in. Regardless of the voice thankful tongues, offer up their prayers of reason-deaf to the prayers and supplications praises to that transcendently great and benefi.' and unaffected with the Aowing tears of suffering
millions, the British ministry still bag the darling. Approacia we then the melancholy walk of death. idol; and every rolling year affords fresh instances Hilber let me call the gay companion; bere let of the absurd devotion with which they worship it. him drop a farewell tear upon that body which so Alas! low has the folly, the distraction of the Bri- late le saw vigorous and warm with social mirth tish councils, blasted our swelling hopes, and spread -liither let me lead the tender mother to weep a gloom over this western hemisphere.
over her beloved son-come widowed mourner, The hearts of Britons and Americans, which here satiate thy grief; behold thy murdered husband Jately felt the generous glow of mutual confidence gasping on theground, and to complete the pompous and love, now burn with jealousy and rage. Though show of wretchedness, bring in each hand thy ir fant but of yesterday, I recollect (deeply affected at children to bewail their father's fate-take heed, the i}}-boding change) the happy hours that past ye orphan babes, lest, whilst your streaming eyes whilst Britain and America rejoiced in the prospe. are fixed upon the ghastly corpse, your feet slide rity and greatness of ench other (heaven grant those on the stones bespaltered with your father's brains.* Bialcyon days may soon return.) But now the Bri- Enough! this tragedy need not be heightened by ton too often looks on the American with an en. an infant weltering in the blood of him that gave vidus eye, taught to consider his just plea for the il birth. Nature reluctant, shrinks already from enjoyment of his earnings, as the effect of pride the view, and the chilled blood rolls slowly back. and stubborn opposition to the parent country. ward to its fountain. We wildly stare about, and Whilst the American beholds the Briton, as the rus- with amazement, ask who spread this ruin round fian, ready first to take away his property, and neri, us? what wretch has dared deface the image of his what is still dearer to every virtuous man, the li- God? has haughty France, or cruel Spain, sent berty of his country.
fortła her myrmidons? has the grim savage rushed When the ineasures of administration had dis- again from the far distant wilderness? or does some gusted the colonies to the liighest degree, and the fiend, fierce from the depth of hell, with all the people of Great Britajn bad, by artifice and false. rancoraus malice wliich the apostate damned can hood, been irritated against America, an army was feel, twang her destructive bow, and hurl ber sent over to enforce submission to certain acts of deadly arrows at our breast? no; none of these the British parliament, which reason scorned to but, how astonishing! it is the hand of Britain that _countenance, and which placemen and pensioners inflicts the wound. The arms of George, our right. were found unable to support.
ful king, have been employed to shed that blood, Martial law and the government of a well regu.wben justice, or the honor of his crown, had called lated city, are so entirely different, that it has al. his subjects to the field. ways been considered as irnproper to quarter troops But pity, grief, astonishment, with all the softer in populous cities; frequent disputes must neces- movements of the soul, must now give way to sarily arise between the citizen and the soldier, stronger passions. Say, fellow-citizens, what dread. even if no previous animositics subsist. And it is ful thought now swells your heaving bosoms-you further certain, from a consideration of the nature fly to arms-sharp indignation flashes from each of mankind, as well as from constant experience, eye-revenge gnashes her iron teeth-death grins that standing armies always endanger the liberty an hideous smile, secure to drench his greedy jaws of the subject. But when the people on the one in human gore-whilst hovering furies darken all part, considered the army as sent to enslave them, the air. And the army on the other, were taught to look on
But stop, my bold adventurous countrymen, stain the people as in a state of rebellion, it was but just not your weapons with the blood of Britons. Attend to fear the most disagreeable consequences. Our
to reason's voice-humanity puts in her claim-and fears, we have seen, were but too well grounded.
sues to be again admitted to her wonted seat, the The many injuries offered to the town, I pass bosom of the brave. Revenge is far beneath the over in silence. I cannot now mark out the path noble mind. Many, perhaps, compelled to rank which led to that unequalled scene of horror, the
among the vile assassins, do from their inmost sad remembrance of which, takes the full posses souls, detest the barbarous action. The winged sion of my soul. The sanguinary theatre again death, shot from your arms, may chance to pierce opens itself to view. The baleful images of terror croud around me—and discontented ghosts, with
*After Mr. Gray had been shot through the body, hollow groans, appear to solemnize the anniversary pushed through his skull
; part of the bone being
and had fallen dead on the ground, a bsyonet was of the Farte OK dance,
broken, bis brains fell out upon the parement.