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193. Legitimate ruses.--"Among legitimate ruses may be counted surprises; ambushes; feigning attacks, retreats, or flights; simulating quiet and inactivity; giving large outposts or a strong advanced guard to a small force; constructing works, bridges, etc., which it is not intended to use; transmit. ting false or misleading signals and telegraph messages, and sending false dispatches and newspapers, with a view to their being intercepted by the enemy; lighting camp fires where there are no troops; making use of the enemy's signals, bugle and trumpet calls, watchwords, and words of command; pretending to communicate with troops or 'reenforcements which have no existence; moving landmarks; putting up dummy guns or laying dummy mines; removing badges from uniforms; clothing the men of a single unit in the uniform of several different units so that prisoners and dead may give the idea of a large force." 1 1 Land Warfare, Opp., par. 144,

194. Use of flags, insignia, military uniforms of the enemy. H. R. XXIII, par. (f). It is especially forbidden

to make improper use of a flag of truce, of the national flag, or of the military insignia and uniform of the enemy, as well as of the distinctive badges of the Geneva Convention.

195. Flags. of truce,--Flags of truce must not be used surreptitiously to obtain military information or merely to obtain time to effect a retreat or secure reenforcements or to feign á surrender in order to surprise an enemy. An officer receiving them is not on this account absolved from the duty of exercising proper precautions with regard to them."

1 Ariga, p. 255 et seq., cites an example of the use of the flag of truce combined with the Red Cross flag at Tang-tsiatoun, near Mukden, and during the battle, which he considers as legitimate. March 7, about 1 o'clock p. m., some Russians hoisted the two flags and advanced toward the Japanese First Army and asked for a suspension of arms for several hours to remove the wounded and dead. Both armies were actually engaged in this work, so that the request was assented to without any defined agreement. When the Japanese resumed, fire in the evening the Russians had withdrawn.

This informal suspension of arms was taken advantage of to retire unseen by the enemy, and it was upon this ground that it is considered lawful; that is, they can be taken advantage of to effect movements unseen by the enemy.

Vide, G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 114. “If it be discovered and fairly proved that a flag of truce has been abused for surreptitiously obtaining military knowledge, the bearer of the flag thus abusing his sacred character is deemed a spy.

** So sacred is the character of a flag of truce, and so necessary is its sacredness, that while its abuse is an especially heinous offense, great caution is requisite, on the other hand, in convicting the bearer of a flag of truce as a spy."

196. National flags, insignia, and uniforms as a ruse.-In practice it has been authorized to make use of these as a ruse. The foregoing rule does not prohibit such use, but does prohibit their improper use. It is certainly forbidden to make use


of them during a combat. Before opening fire upon the enemy they must be discarded. Whether the enemy flag can be displayed and his. uniform worn to effect an advance or to withdraw is not settled." -11 1 The Germans hold that The Hague' Rules forbid absolutely the use of the enemy's flag and uniforms. 2 (Kriegsbrauch, p. 24.) The French manual (La Guerre Sur

In all the wars since 1866

(p. 25, note). The English rule is as stated in the text. (Land Warfare, Opp., par. 152.) G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 65. "The use of the enemy's national standard,

emblem atiet , enemy in battle is an

nationality, for the purpose of deceiving the protection of the laws of war. Itt SIG. 0. 100, 1863, art. 63. "Troops who fight in the uniform of their of their

no quarter, 197. Practice as to enemy uniform in this country. In this country it has always been authorized to 'utilize uniforms captured from the enemy, provided some striking mark or sign is attached to distinguish the American soldier from the enemy. All distinctive badges or marks of the enemy should be removed before making use of them. It is believed that such uniforms should not be used except in case of absolute necessity. :-) is

16. 0. 100, 1863, art. 64. “ If American troops capture a train containing uniforms of the enemy, and the commander considers it advisable to distribute them for use among his men, some striking mark or sign must be adopted to distinguish the American soldier from the enemy."

198. Improper use of distinctive badges of Geneva Convention. The Red Cross tag must be limited to the protection of units and material provided for in the Geneva Convention. As examples of the improper use may be cited covering wagons containing ammunition or nonmedical stores, a hospital train used to facilitate the escape of combatants, firing from a tent or building flying the Red Cross flag, using a hospital or other building accorded such protection as an observatory or military office or store, or generally for committing acts of nosiltity."

1 G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 117. " It is justly considered an act of bad faith, of infamy, or fiendishness, to deceive the enemy by flags of protection. Such act of bad faith may be good cause for refusing to respect such flags.

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spy when, acting clandestinely pretenses, he obtains

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ESPIONAGE AND TREASON. * 199. Spies.-H, R. XXIX. A person can only be considered a

zone of a belligerent,' with the intention of communicating it to the hostile party,

Thus, soldiers not wearing a disguise who have penetrated into the zone of operations of the hostile "army, for the purpose of obtaining information, are not considered spies; similarly, the following are not considered spies: Soldiers and civilians, carrying out their mission openly, intrusted with the delivery of dispatches intended either for their own army or for the enemy's army. To this class belong likewise persons sent in balloons for the purpose of carrying dispatches, and, generally, of maintaining, communications between different parts of an army or a territory."

1 Compare this definition with G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 88.04A spy is a person who secretly, in disguise or under false pretense, seeks information with the intention of communicating it to the enemy."'$1820

fact of being in the enemy's lines dressed as a civilian, or possible to rebut this

presumption by proof of no intention to obtain military information. On the other hand, the fact that a person charged with being a spy is in the uniform of his

State does not render it impossible for him to be a spy in fact, since he may have gained admission into the enemy's lines under the privileges of the Red Cross and have taken advantage of the opportunity afforded him for obtaining information, voi ulizo. 10 TON 1 20 bis .008

any loons espionage and the persons so

use of balas spies. Dissimulation of the object sought is the principal characteristic of the offense of the spy. Vide Land Warfare, Opp., pars. 162-165. War Rights on Land, Spaight, pp. 203-215. War on 'Land, Holland, pp: 47-48. Les Lois, Jacomet, pp. 65–66. fue to lacertaistu.009

200. Recognition of necessity for obtaining information.-In the foregoing rule and in H. R. XXIV is distinct recognition of the necessity for employing, spies and other secret agents for obtaining information about the enemy, so that the acquirement of such information by secret methods is regulated by the laws and usages of war.

201. Who included in definition. The definition above comprehends all classes whether officer, soldier', 'or 'civilian,' and, likė the criminal law, makes no distinction as to sexit scAs to the offense, it limits the same to securing information clandestinely or on false pretences in the zone of operations. It does not include all cases in which a person makes or endeavors to make

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unauthorized or secret communications to the enemy. These latter cases must therefore be dealt with under the laws relating to treason and espionage."

16. 0. 100, 1863, art. 102: “ The law of war, like the criminal law regarding other offenses, makes no difference on account of the difference of sexes concerning the spy, the war traitor, or the war rebel."

2 In occupied territory offenses relating to communication with the enemy will be punished as 'treason by the occupying forces. If committed in the home country, the laws relating to that subject or internal laws will govern. Land Warfare, Opp., par. 167 and note.

202. with enemy is considered treasonable by the law of war. Foreign residents in an invaded or occupied territory, or foreign visitors in the same, can claim no immunity from this law. They may communicate with foreign parts or with the inhabitants of the hostile country so far as military authority permits, but no further."

1 G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 98. 203. War traitor.-A traitor under the law, or a war traitor, is a person in a place or district under martial law (military government), who, unauthorized by the military commander, gives information of any kind to the enemy or holds intercourse with him."

1G, O. 100, 1863, art. 90.

204. Subject giving information to own government. If the citizen or subject of a country or place invaded or conquered gives information to his own Government, from which he is separated by the hostile army, or to the army of his Government, he is a war traitor.?

*G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 92.

205. Guide as.-If a citizen of a hostile and invaded district voluntarily serves as a guide to the enemy, or offers to do so, he is deemed a war traitor.

G. O. 100, 1863, art. 95.

206. Punishment of spies.-The spy is punishable with death, whether or not he succeed in obtaining the information or in conveying it to the enemy.'.

1 G. O. 100, 1863, art. 88, par. 2. See also Rey. Stat. U. Š., 1343: "All persons who, in times of war or rebellion against the supreme authority of the United States, shall be found lurking or acting as spies in or about any of the fortifications, posts, quarters; or encampments of any of the armies of the United States, or elsewhere, shall be triable by a general court-martial or by a military commission, and shall on conviction thereof suffer death.". . 207. Punishment of treason. The 'war traitor is always severely punished. If his offense consists in betraying to the


enemy anything concerning the condition, safety, operations, or plans of the troops holding or occupying the place or district, his punishment is death.

1 G. 0. 100, 1863, art. 91.

208. Spy must be tried.-H. R. XXX: A spy taken in the act should not be punished without previous trial.'

1 No one else should be punished for this offense of espionage or treason without previous trial. (Vide Hague Conference, 1899, p. 146.)

209. Spy immune from punishment after joining his own army.--H. R. XXXI: A spy who, after rejoining the army to which he belongs, is subsequently captured by the enemy, is treated as a prisoner of war, and incurs no responsibility for his previous acts of espionage.

1 This immunity extends only to previous acts of espionage, but does not extend to other offenses he may have committed, such as murder, etc. Hague Conference, 1899, p. 146.

210. Immunity not applicable to treason. This immunity does not extend to persons guilty of treason who may be arrested at any place or any time within the jurisdiction. And it is not necessary for traitors to be caught in the act in order that they may be punished.

1 For practice of the Japanese Army, which is in accord with the text, see Ariga, pp. 395-397.

211. Assisting espionage punishable.- Assisting or favoring espionage or treason and knowingly concealing a spy may be made the subject of charges; and such acts are by the customary laws of war equally punishable.? 1 Ariga, pp 396-397, and Land Warfare, Opp., par. 172,

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