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254 (e)

Commencement of hostilities--Continued.
Belligerency, rights of, when operative..

23
Belligerents, lawful, conditions required for.

30
Declaration of war required..

19n, 20n
Enemy population, two classes.

29
Enemy subjects, resident, treatment of

24, 25n 1,2; 26, 27, 28n 1,2,3
Hostilities, restriction of.

26
Lawful belligerents...

30
armies.

30
militia.

30
volunteers.

30
Militia, part of Army, when.

30
Neutral powers, rights and duties of.

21, 22, H. III, 2, 3
Notifications of neutrals of existence of state of war.

21, H. III, 2
Population enemy, two classes..

29
Resident enemy subject.

24-28
Surprise of unprepared enemy

20n
Volunteer corps, part of Army, when

30
Warning required prior to.

19n, H. III, 1
Commercial transactions in hostile country by officers and men.

338
supplies by companies of neutral States.

405n
Commissioned officers, how paroled. (See Officers).

75
Commissions, capitulations to be carried out by.
Common law of war, military offenses under.

16
Communication between belligerents at night...

242
by parlementaires. 235-249, H. R., 32,34
white flag.

238,243, H. R., 32, 33
besieged and outside..

224
diplomats, neutrals, in besieged place with own Gov-
ernment.

224n
enemy with own Government in occupied territory. 204
lines of, hostages taken to protect..

387n
traffic, etc., channels of, obstruction or destruction of.

12
Communications, means of, in neutral countries... 406-410, H. V., 3,5,8,9
Compensation for maintenance of interned troops..

416
property, private, seized..

341,344,358, H. R., 53, 54,56
violations of H. R.

363, H. IV,3
Complaints public, of violations of laws or war.

364,365
Complete code not wholly written...

4, P. H. IV
Conduct of hostilities. (See Means of injuring the enemy.)
Conduct of war (see also Means of injuring the enemy):
Participants in..

2
Regulated by rules.

1
Rules, unwritten, how applied..

4, P. H. IV
written and unwritten, designation of.

relating to war on land.
result of convention or treaties.

where discussed and formulated.
Confiscation, private property-: 336n, p(337), 339n, 340, 358, n(360), H. R., 46, 47,56
Consular officers, neutrals, right to withdraw from besieged place.

219
Consuls, treatment of..

n(427)
Contact mines, automatic submarine. (See Automatic submarine contact

mines.)
Contractors, newspaper correspondents, etc...

46, H, R. 13
Contributions:
Collection of..

351, 352, H. R. 49,51
Failure to pay money by undefended towns, bombardment unauthorized..

n(212), H. IX, 4
Hostages taken to insure compliance with.

387
Method of levying..

352, H. R. 51
Receipt for, to be given.

352, H. R. 52
form for.
Rules as to....

345, 351, 352, 353, H. R. 49-52

p. 128

p. 194

Conventions and declarations, international:
Convention relative to the opening of hostilities.(H. III), App. No. 1, p. 151, 3(0)
respecting the laws and customs of war on land..

(HIV),

App. No. 2, p. 153, 3(1)n
preamble to H. IV.

(P. H. IV), 4, pp. 153, 154
regulations respecting the laws and customs of war on

land (Annex to H. IV, abbreviated H. R.).... App. 2, p. 156
respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers and persons

in case of war on land...... ... (H. V) App. No. 3, p. 165, 3(g)
relative to the laying of automatic submarine contact mines..

(H. VIII) App. 4, p. 170, 3(i)
concerning bombardment by naval forces in time of war..

(H. IX) App. 5, p. 174, 3(hìn
relative to certain restrictions with regard to the exercise of the

right of capture in naval war. (H. XI), App. 6, p. 177, 3(j)
Declaration relative to prohibiting the discharge of projectiles and explo-
sives from balloons...

H.D. XIV, App. No. 7, p. 181,3(k)n
Table of ratifications, adhesions and reservations to The Hague conventions
and declarations....

App. 8, pp. 184-185
Convention for the amelioration of the condition of the wounded in armies
in the field, also known as the International Red Cross Convention and
Geneva Convention of 1906 (G. C.).....

App 9, p. 186; 3(d)n
List of ratifications and adhesions to the Geneva Convention of 1906.
Declaration of St. Petersburg convention, 11 Dec., 1868, regarding explosive

projectiles (not ratified by United States).... 10n, n(175),3(a)
The Hague, July 29, 1899, forbidding the employment of pro-

jectiles which have for their only
object the diffusion of asphyxi-
ating and deleterious gases (not
ratified by United States). (H.D. 1),

3 (b)
preventing, the employment of
bullets which expand

or flatten
in the human body (not ratified

by United States). (H. D.2),3(0)
Convoys of evacuation (see under Sanitary formations and establishments.)

through neutral states.... 418, 419n, 420, 421, 422, 424,H. V, 15

sick and wounded prisoners of war. 422, 423, H. V, 15
munitions and supplies in neutral territory.

391,395, H. V,2
Corps of combatants can not be formed in neutral territory 396,397n, H. V 4
Correspondence of diplomatic agents of neutrals...

224n, n(427)
Courts-martial and military commissions.

16n
Crimes, partial list of, against laws of war.

366,372
punishable by penal codes, committed by soldiers..

378
result of war, should be defined and made known to inhabitants. 375
war, punishable by either belligerent..

366
punishment for

366,377
see also Laws of War.

366,372
Criminal, war

366-378
Cruelty, bad faith, extortion, revenge, etc.

18
practice of not permitted by military necessity.

13

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D.

Dead, duties of commanders concerning.

165, G.C.,3
form of armistice for burial of.

App. C., p. 96
valuables, etc., found on bodies of .

166, G.C., 4
Death sentences.

17, 377,378
Deception permitted, but not perfidy

n(190), 191, 192n
practice of

12
Declaration of war.

19, H. TII, 1
time between and commencement of hostilities

20

Declarations and conventions, binding on whom.

7, pp. 184, 185, 194
reservations, effect of.

7
Defended place, defined.

214
although unfortified, may be bombarded.. n(212), H. IX, 4
Definitions:
Armed prowlers.

373
Armistice.

256a, H. R., 36
general and local.

263, H. R., 37
Capitulation.

251
Cartel..

284
Cartel-ship.

n(284)
Defended place...

214
“Fixed establishments" (sanitary).

120
Highway robbers..

371
Law of hostile occupation..

n(14), n(16)
Marauders.

374n
Martial law...

14n
Military government.

n(14), n(16)
occupation..

285, H. R., 42
Mobile sanitary formations.

118, 119
Neutrality.

388
Neutrals,

425, H. V., 16
Parlementaire.

235
Passport..

276n
Pillage.

n(339)
Pirates of war.

371
Prisoners of war

43
Public war..

n(3), 10
Reprisal...

379
Safe conduct.

277
Safeguard.

282
Spy..

199n, H. R., 29
War, public.

n(10)
rebels.

370
traitor.

203, 204, 205
Denunciation of armistice.

271, 275n, H. R., 40
capitulations..

256n
H. IV (Note: Other Hague conventions have provision
similar to H. IV; see Appendices.)

H. IV 8, p. 156
Deserters can not claim privileges of levee en masse.

38n
captured in service of enemy punishable.

38n
status of, how determined.

40
Destruction of channels of communication, etc.

# 12
life or property

12
Devastation, limitations on.

331, n(332), 334, H. R., 23 (g)
of a district..

13
Diplomatic agents and civil officials may be made prisoners of war, when.. 47 (b)
correspondence of

224n, n(427)
neutral in besieged place, communication with outside.. 224n
right to withdraw from besieged place.....

219
treatment of..
Distinctive emblems, prohibition of use of as trade-mark, etc... 170, 171, G.C.,27,28

E.
Enemies, armed, destruction of life or limb of

12
Enemy, communication with, by citizens of occupied territory

204
means of injuring. (See Means of injuring the enemy.)
uniform, etc., improper use of forbidden...

194, 196n, 197, H. R., 23
Engagements and treaties concluded with enemy during war..

18
Equipment, etc., of interned belligerents, disposition of.

415n
Escaped prisoners, punishment of..

78, 79, 80, H. R.; 8
Espionage and treason, Chapter VI, Section III.
assisting, punishable.

211
during armistice

270 (e) n5

427n

Executions, summary, not contemplated..

40
Ex parte Miligan.

n(14)
Expedition, hostile, organization of, in neutral territory... 396, 397n, 400n, H. V. 4
Expelled person from besieged place, may be sent back.

222
Explosive projectiles, see H. R., 23(e)..

3 (a)
Explosives and projectiles from balloons.

3 (k), 174, 175n
Extortion, cruelty, etc..

18
of confessions by torture..

13

F.

Finger prints, on certificates of identification..

46,
135 (a)n, App. A and B, pp. 35-37, App., p. 103
Firing need not cease during bombardment when noncombatants leave. 223
when enemy hoists white flag.

239n
not to be directed on parlementaire..

240, H. R.,32
Flag and brassard, Red Cross, legislation regarding use of.

171, G. C., 28
Flag of enemy, improper use of, forbidden.

194, 196n, H. R., 23
truce.

236-249, H. R., 23 (f), 32, 33, 34
abuse of, what acts constitute

249
improper use of, forbidden.

194, 195n, H. R., 23 (1)
may cause and justify reprisals

249n
white, causes for belligerents raising.

n(239)
firing may be continued after hoisting of

239n
signification of.

238, H. R.,32
Flags, destruction of, before capitulations.

254(c)
Force, amount and kind of, permissible..

9
Forests in occupied territory, use of

355, 356n, H. R., 55
Form of reprisal...

386
pass for newspaper correspondent..
Forms, certificate of identity.

pp. 36, 37,54,55
of armistices..

App, A-G, pp. 94-99
passports..
receipt for supplies.
safe conduct
safeguard.

p. 104
Fortifications, prisoners of war may work on, when

66
Forts, treatment in capitulations of garrison of.

254n
bombardment of, from balloon.

215n
French army, rule concerning H. R.

n(7)
convention governing internment of, by Switzerland.. App. A, p. 146
Frontier, patrol of, by neutral

393n

p. 35

p. 103
p. 128
p. 103

G.
Gain, individual, transactions for, prohibited during war

18,338
Garrison, treatment of, in capitulations..

254n
General rule of conduct for belligerents.

4, P. H. IV
Geneva Convention of 1864..

3(d) n3
July 6, 1906 (abbreviated G. C.) (see also under Sanitary

formations and establishments).
G. C. applies to sick and wounded interned

3(d) App, P: 186
binding on whom....

3(d) n3, p. 194
Geneva Cross, legislation of signatory powers concerning use of....... 170, G. C., 27
flag, restrictions on use of..

226
Good faith, breaking of.

12
essential in intercourse between belligerents.

232
Governments, signatory to G. C. must instruct troops and notify inhabitants
concerning.

169, G. C., 26
Guide, voluntary, war traitor when

205, 372
Guides, compelling service of hostile nationals as.

188
impressment of, in occupied territory. 187, 189, 321, 322n, 323n, H. R., 23, 24, 44

H.
H. R., to whom applicable...

6, H. IV, 2
Highway robbers, definition of..

371
punishment for..

371,

376, 377
Hospitals to be protected during bombardment by visible sign..

225, 227,

H. IX,5, H. R., 27
Hostages.

3870
Hostile military occupation. (See Occupied territory.)
occupation, law of.

n(14), n(16)
Hostilities, cessation of (truce).

n(263)
conduct of. (See Means of injurying the enemy.)
opening of (see Commencement of Hostilities). 19-22, H. III, 1, 2, 3,
resumption of, after denunciation of armistice.. 271, 272, H. Ř., 46

in case of violation armistices by soldiers. 275n, H. R., 41

I.
Identification, certificates of

46, H. R., 13
finger prints on.. App. A and B, pp. 35-37; App.p. 103
Individual offenders, military jurisdietion over.

17
Individuals of neutral powers may cross frontier.

399, 400n, II. V, 6
violating armistice..

274, H. R., 41
Inhabitants, charitable, in re enemy sick and wounded.

116, G.C., 5
Insignia and uniform of the enemy, improper use of forbidden.

194,

196n, 197, H. R., 23 (1)
Instructions to be issued to armed land forces...

5, H. IV, i
troops and inhabitants.

169, G.C., 26
Intercourse between belligerents, comprises what.

234
general rule for..
exceptions to

231, 233, 234
good faith essential.

232
in theater of operations, may be regulated by armistice. 268n, H.R., 39

suspended when not authorized in armi-
stiee..

269n
Interned belligerents in neutral territory. (See Belligerents interned in

neutral territory.)
Internment by neutral, troops crossing frontier.. 393n, 411-424, H. V, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15

convention governing, French army by Switzerland.... App. A, p. 146

Hague rules concerning.... 411,416, 417, 418, 423, H. V, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15
Irregulars, regulars, and deserters, status.

230

40

J.
Japan, armistice between Russia and,

App. D, p. 97
proctocol between Russia and.

App. E, p. 97
Japanese project to carry out armistice with Russia in Tumen region. App. F, p. 98
rule for captured state property enemy

n(357)
Johnston, Gen., armistice with Gen. Sherman.

n(260)
Jurisdiction over prisoners of war.

51, H. Ř., 4

K.

Killing or wounding of enemy who has surrendered forbidden (see 368n). 180,

H. R., 23 (c)
parlementaire...

2400

L.

Labels, commercial, can not use Red Cross or Geneva Cross as......... 170, G.C., 27
Land forces, instructions to be issued to.

5, H. IV, 1
Lawful belligerents. (See Belligerents, lawful.)
Law of nations, rules of, govern in cases not covered by The Hag
tions and declarations

4, P. H., IV

en-

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