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but Epirus : and beyond Delvinachi in Albania Proper up to Argyrocastro and Tepaleen ( beyond which I did not advance) they speak worse Greek than even the Athenians. I was attended for a year and a half by two of these singular mountainers, whose molber tongue is Illyric , and I never heard them or ileir countrymen ( whom I have seen , not only at home, but to the amount of twenty thousand in the army of Vely Parba) praised for their Greek, but often laughed at for their provincial barbarisms.

I have in my possession about twenty-five letters, amongst which some from the Bey of Corinih , written to me by Notaras, the Cogia Bachi , and others by the dragoman of the Crimacam of the Morea (which last governs in Vely Pacha's absence) are said io be favourable specimens of iheir epistolary stile. I also received some at Constantinople from private persons , wriiten in a most hyperbolical style, but in the true antique character.

The Reviewer proceeds, after some remarks on the tongue in its past and present state , to a paradox (page 59) on the great mischief the knowledge of his own language has done to Coray, who, it seems , is ' less likely to understand the ancient Greek, because he is perfect master of ihe modern! This observation follows a paragraphı , recommending, in explicit terms, ihe sludy of the Romaic, as « a powerful auxiliary, ý not only to the traveller and foreign merchant, but also to the classical scholar ; in short , to every body except the only person who can be thoroughly acquainted with its uses : and by a parity of reasoning , our old language is conjectured to be propably more alta inable by « foreigners » than hy ourselves ! Now I am inclined to think, that a Dutch Tyro in our tongue (albeit himself of Saxon blood ) would be sadly perplexed wïll « Sir Trisirem , » or any other given « Auchinlech MŚ. » with or without a grammar or glo-ry; and to most apprehensions it seems evident, that none bui a nalive can acquire a compeleat, far less complete, knowledge of our obsolele idioms. We may give the crilio credit for his ingenuity.,. but no more believe him than we do Smollet's Lismalago, who maintains that the parest English is

spoken in Edinburgh. That Coray may err is very possible ; but if he does, the fault is in the man rather than in his mother tongue, which is, as it ought to be, of the greatest aid to the native sludent. Here the Reviewer proceeds to business on Strabo's translators, and here I close my remarks.

Sir W. Drummond, Mr. Hamilton, Lord Aberdeen , Dr. Clarke, Captain Leake, Mr. Gell, Mr. Walpole, and mony oihers now in England, have all the requisiles to furnish. deiails of this fallen people. The few observations I have offered I should liave left where I made them , had not the article in question, and above all, the spot where I read it, induced me to advert to those pages which the advantage of my present situation enabled me to clear , or at least to make the attempt,

I have endeavoured to wave the personal feelings, which rise in despiie of me, in touching upon any part of the Edinburgh Review; not from a wish lo conciliate the favour of ils writers, or lo cancel the remembrance of a syllable I have formerly published, but simply from a sense of the impropriety of mixing up private resentments with a disquisition of the present kind, and more particularly at this distance of time and place.


The difficulties of travelling in Turkey have been much exaggerated, or rather have considerably diminished of late years. The Musselmans liave been beaten into a kind of sullen civilily, very comfortable to voyagers.

It is hazardous to say much on the subject of Turks and Turkey; since it is possible to live amongst them twenty years without acquiring information, at least from themselves. As far as my own slight experience carried me I have no complaint to make ; but am indebted for many civilities (I might almost say for friendship), and much hospilality, to Ali Pacha , his son , Veli Pacha of the Morea , and several others of high rank in the provinces. Suleyman Aga , late Governor of Athens, and now of Thebes , was a bon vivant, and as social a being as ever sat cross-legged at a tray or a table. During the carnival , when our English party were masquerading, both himself and his successor were more happy to « receive masks » than any dowager in Grosvenor-Square.

On one occasion of his supping at the convent, his friend and visitor , the Cadi of Thebes, was carried from table perfectly qualified for any club in Christendom; while the worlhy Waywode himself triumphed in his fall.

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In all money transactions with the Moslems, I ever found the strictest honour, the highest disinterestedness. In transacting busipess with them, there are none of those dirty peculations, under the name of interest, diff; ce of exchange, commission, etc. etc. uniformly found in applying to a Greek consul to cash bills, even on the first Houses in Pera.

With regard to presents, an established custom in the East , you will rarely find yourself a loser; as one worth acceptance is generally returned by another of similar value-a horse, or a shawl,

In the capital and at court the citizens and courtiers are formed in the same school with those of Christianity ; bul there does not exist a more honourable, friendly, and high - spirited character than the true Turkish provincial Aga , or Moslem country-gentleman. It is not meant here to designate the governors ot towns , but those Agas who, by a kind of feudal tenure , possess lands and houses, of more or less extent, in Greece and Asia Minor.

The lower orders are in as tolerable discipline as the rabble in countries with greater pretensions to civilization. A Moslem, in walking the streets of our country-towns, would be more incommoded in England than a Frank in a similar situation in Turkey, Rogimentals are the best travelling dress. .

· The best accounts of the religion, and different sects of Islamism, may be found in D'Olisson's French; of their manners, etc. perhaps in Thornton's English. The Ottomans, with all their defects, are not a people to be despised. equal, at least, to the Spaniards, they are superior to the Portuguese. If it be difficult to pronounce what they are, we can at least say what they are not : they are not treacherous, they are not cowardly, they do not burn herelics, they are not assassins, nor has an enemy advanced to their capital. They are faithful to their Sultan till he becomes unfit to govern, and devout to their God without an inquisition. Were they driven from St. Sophia to-morrow, and the French or Russians enthroned in their stead, it would become a question, whether Europe would gain by the exchange? England would certainly be the loser.

With regard to that ignorance of which they are so generally, and sometimes justly, accused, it may be doubted, always excepting France and England, in what useful points of knowledge they are excelled by other nations. Is it in the common arts of life? In their manufactures? Is a Turkish sabre inferior to a Toledo? or is a Turk worse clothed or lodged, or fed and taught, than a Spaniard ? Are their Pachas worse educated than a Grandee? or an Effendi than a Knight of St. Jago ? I think not.

I remember Mahmout, the grandson of Ali Pacha, asking whether my fellow-traveller and myself were in the upper or lower House of Parliament. Now this question from a boy of ten years old proved that his education had not been neglected. It may be doubted if an English boy at that age knows the difference of the Divan from a College of Dervises; but I am very sure a Spaniard does not. How little Mahmout, surrounded, as he had been, entirely by his Turkish tulors, had learned that there was such a thing as a Parliament is were useless to conjecture, unless we suppose that his instructors did not confine his studies to the Koran.

In all the mosques there are schools established, which are very regularly attended; and the poor are taught without the church of Turkey being put into peril. I believe the system is not yet prin

ted (though there is such a thing as a Turkish press, and books printed on the late military institution of the Nizam Gedidd ); nor have I beard whether the Mufti and the Mollas have subscribed, or the Caimacam and the Tefterdar taken the alarm, for fear the ingenuous youth of the turban should be taught not to « pray to God their way. » The Greeks alsoma kind of Eastern Irish papists

have a college of their own at Maynooth-no, at Haiyali; where the heterodox receive much the same kind of counlenance from the Otloman as the Catholic college from the English legislature. Who shall then affirm, that the Turks are ignorant bigots, when they thuş evince the exact proportion of Christian charity which is tolerated in the most prosperous and orthodox of all possible kingdoms? But, though they allow all this, they will not suffer the Greeks to participate in their privileges : no, let them fight battles, and pay their haralch (taxes ), be drubbed in this world, and damned in the next, And shall we then emancipate our Irish Helots? Mahomet forbid! We should then be bad Mussulmans, and worse Christians; at present we unite the best of bolh-jesuitical faith, and something not much inferior to Turkish toleration.

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