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Stock of Sugar at the four principal Ports of the United States of America on the 1st of December, 1861.
do. 1st Nov., 31,318
Distribution in Jan., tons, 19,446 14,043 Stock, 1st December, 1861, 32,687 tons, against, 1st December, 1860, 67,855 tons. Decrease, 85,168 tons, or $2 per cent.
24,176 1st November,
15,917 85,182 1st November,
40,706 or 54 1st October, 42,377
28,372 21,846 1st October, 89,458 "
47,081 or 54
28,060 24, 857
or 42 1st August, 82,076
28,165 91,140 1st July,
83,169 Increase, 1,971 9
29,383 40,381 83,953 1st June,
66 18,280 or 29
33,646 26,176 1st May, 67,281 1st May, 53,701 13,580 or 21
27,544 47,563 1st April, 55,884 1st April, 30,831
25,053 or 81 1st March,
or 147 1st January, 56,894
32,254 or 134
6* 280,078 311,869
STATISTICS OF POPULATION.
EMIGRATION. Of the 128,469 persons who emigrated from the United Kingdom last
year, 26,421 were English, 8,723 Scotch, 60,835 Irish, 4,536 foreigners, and 27,944 not distinguished; 9,746 were married men, 12,434 married women, 38,783 single men, 27,511 single women, 6,681 boys, between the ages of 1 and 12, 6,497 girls, between the same ages, 3,085 infants, and 23,732 not distinguished. 87,500 emigrants left these shores for the United States; 13,556 of these were English, 2,220 Scotch, 52,103 Irish, 3,851 foreigners, and 15,770 not distinguished ; 6,553 were married men, 8,269 married women, 27,547 single men, 20,925 single women, 4,172 boys, between the ages of 1 and 12, 4,178 girls between the same ages, 2,210 infants, and 13,646 not distinguished, Of the 24,302 who emigrated to the Australian colonies and New Zealand, 10,099 were English, 4,990 Scotch, 6,345 Irish, 578 foreigners, and 2,290 not distinguished; 2,380 were married men, 2,928 married women, 9,095 single men, 5,456 single women, 1,782 boys between the ages of 1 and 12, 1,628 girls between same ages, 655 infants, and 378 not distinguished. Of the 9,786 who emigrated to British North America, 559 were English, 991 Scotch, 1,215 Irish, 73 foreigners, and 6,948 not distinguished; 248 were married men, 371 married women, 1,089 single men, 606 single women, 259 boys between the ages of 1 and 12, 214 girls between the same ages, 95 infants, and 6,904 not distinguished. Of the 6,881 who went to “all other places,” 2,207 were English, 532 Scotch, 1,172 Irish, 34 foreigners, and 2,936 not distinguished ; 565 were married men, 866 married women, 1,052 single men, 524 single women, 468 boys between the ages of 1 and 12, and 477 girls between the same ages, 125 infants, and 2,804 not distinguished.
THE IRISH CENSUS FOR 1861. An abstract of the Irish census returns has at length been published. A decrease in the population of Ireland is shown, but the falling off is less than might have been anticipated. The population, on the 8th of April last, was 5,764,543, against 6,552,385 in 1851, and 8,175,124 in 1841. This decrease of about twelve per cent. during the last ten years is attributed chiefly to emigration, but the Commissioners add, that it must also be remembered that the effects of the disastrous period of famine and pestilence, which commenced with the potato blight of 1846 and 1847, bad extended over the first few years of the decade. Dublin county, Carrickfergus and Belfast are the only localities in the country in which an increase is shown ; the increase in Belfast amounting to ninetcen per cent. It will be remembered that the “religious profession” clause, which a dissenting agitation contrived to exclude from the English census bill, was retained in the bill for Ireland; and this enables us
to see what a startling minority of the population of the sister island belonged to the Established Church. The Catholics number about four and a half millions, while the Episcopalians are stated to muster only 678,000. It is mentioned, as a gratifying fact, that the workhouse population, the day before the census was taken, was but 50,570, against something like five times that number in 1851.
POPULATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM. The completed returns show that the population found in the United Kingdom at the recent census, not reckoning army, navy or merchant seamen who were abroad, amounted to 29,031,298, an increase of 61 per cent. in fifty years, notwithstanding that they have been planting nations by a vast emigration. The census found there 14,077,189 males and 14,954,109 females—an excess of females over males of 876,920. The overplus of women and girls in England would fill all Liverpool and Leeds; in Scotland, all Edinburgh ; in Ireland, all Belfast, Waterford and Wexford. There are sixteen towns in the United Kingdom with a population exceeding 100,000, and six parishes in the outskirts of London with such a population-one of them (St. Pancras) with very nearly 200,000 (198,882.) The number of inhabited houses in the United Kingdom is 5,154,085, which allows a house to every 5.6 persons.
CENSUS OF NEW SOUTH WALES. The population of this colony, as returned from the census taken on the 7th of April, 1861, is 350,553, against 251,834 in 1856, showing an increase of 98,719, or 39.20 per cent. These results are exclusive of the Moreton Bay district, which, since 1856, has been severed from New South Wales. The population of Sydney is 56,470, exclusive of the suburbs and environs, which contain 36,732 inhabitants. In 1851 the population of New South Wales, exclusive of Port Philip (now Victoria) and Moreton Bay, (now Queensland,) was 181,376. The number of emigrants since 1851 is 147,661, of whom 71,649 were introduced at the public, and 76,012 at their own expense.
POPULATION OF PARIS, The following is the movement of the population of Paris and of the department of the Seine, since the quinquennial census of 1856, as shown by that which has just taken place. The population of enlarged Paris, divided into 20 arrondissements and 80 quarters, now amounts to 1,696,000, being 521,654 more than it was in the 12 arrondissements in 1856. In the department of the Seine the number is now 1,953,000, being an increase since 1856 of 225,581.
CAUSES OF DEATH. To the Registrar-General's report is appended, as usual, an instructive paper by Dr. W. Farr, on the causes of death in England. The year now reported on, 1859, is the first in which diptheria has obtained a VOL. XLVI.-NO, I.
distinct line in the tables. It had previously been confounded with cynanche; and when the two are put together, the rapid progress of this great epidemic becomes evident. The deaths in 1855 were 385; in 1856, 603 ; in 1857, 1,583; in 1858, 6,606 ; in 1859, 10,184. Epidemics of diptheria are clearly described in the seventeenth century, by Italian and Spanish writers, and its frequent association with scarlatina justifies the inference that the diptherine, its materies morbi, is some modification of scarlatina. Of the whole deaths of the year, one-fourth were referred to zymotic diseases. Small-pox destroyed 3,848 persons, chiefly children, who had not been vaccinated, an instance, as Dr. FARR remarks, of the rigor with which the infringement of sanitary laws is visited, for the children perish and the parents lose their offspring by the neglect of a precaution of the simplest kind. A fatal outbreak of erysipelas at the Winchester Infirmary was traced to a cess-pool. Of the parasitic diseases, it is remarked that the ova of worms must be derived generally from impure river waters, into which the refuse of towns is poured. We have but an imperfect conception of the number of deaths from excessive drinking; but 345 were directly ascribed to intemperance and 545 to delirium tremens, 890 in all, from the two forms of alcoholism. Passing next to constitutional diseases, another regiment of the enemies that dog our steps, we find gout described as nearly stationary ; it is considered that, thanks to the more intelligent system of dining which the wealthier classes, wearied with this racking disease, will probably introduce, we may hope to see gout rapidly decline. The deaths from tuberculous disease have decreased since 1853; those from bronchitis have increased very greatly of late years. Among local diseases we find affections of the three vital organs, the brain, the heart and the lungs, causing nearly a third of all the deaths of the year. Fright was the cause of seven deaths, (not all children,) grief, of eight, (seven women,) rage, of five, (four infants,) anxiety, of one, (a man, mental shock, of one, (a woman ;) melancholy, of the deaths of 21 men and 26 women. About 25,000, chiefly infants, died of convulsions—a striking and distressing symptom, but probably only part of the disease, which is the result of organic lesions and local irritations that are never discovered. 27,104 deaths are referred to the decay of old age,
without any disease; the “weary wheel of life at length stood still.” 14,649 persons were killed—a sad confession, says Dr. Farr, for a nation humane, civilized and skilled in all the arts, to have to make. Annually 75 persons in 100,000 thus die a violent death. 13,056 of these deaths, in 1859, are ascribed to accident or negligence; among them were 279 by poison. 1,248 deaths were declared by coroner's juries to be suicides; 338 murder or manslaughter. 18 persons were killed by lightning, nearly all persons of out-door occupations; the house is safer than the field. It is hoped that the arrangement for paying coroners by salary will bring better information on the subject of violent and sudden deaths, and throw new light on their causes.
DRINKING AND PAUPERISM IN IRELAND.
Mr. BENJAMIN Scott, Chamberlain of the city of London, read a paper at the recent Social Science Congress in Dublin, in which he pointed out
the intimate relation which exists between intemperance and pauperism, between temperance and self-reliant action on the part of the people. We give the following extract: “The home consumption of spirits in Ireland materially diminished during the last five years, the number of gallons being respectively, 1856, 6,781,068; 1857, 6,920,046 ; 1858, 5,636,912 ; 1859, 5,748,534 ; 1860, 4,714,358, showing a falling off in consumption during the period of no less than 2,066,710 gallons of that which is the staple drink of the class from which paupers are gathered. That this is not the result of inability on the part of the people to obtain the indulgence had they desired it, is evident from the increased consumption of tea and coffee during the corresponding period, and the augmented number of depositors and their deposits in the savings banks. The consumption of tea and coffee increased in Ireland from 9,171,257 pounds in 1856, to 11,563,634 in 1859, an increase in the period embraced of no less than 2,392,374 pounds; while between 1855 and 1859 there was an increase of 11,047 depositors in savings banks, and of 382,122 deposits. Now let us turn from these cheering indications of increasing temperance and providence to the gauge of pauperism, and the correspondence between temperance and self-reliance is again apparent. The total numbers in workhouses in Ireland from 1855 to 1860, and the total poor rate collected in those years, are as follows: Paupers in workhouses, 1855, 79,211; 1856, 63,235; 1857, 50,665; 1858, 45,720; 1859, 40,380; 1860, 41,271. Rates collected, 1855, £835,894; 1856, £723,204; 1857, 2585,583; 1858, £525,595; 1859, £523,065 ; 1860, £509,310. Showing a reduction in the period of 37,940 paupers, and of £326,514 rates collected. It is probable that many disturbing circumstances should be taken into account in dealing with these statistics, but the great and incontrovertible fact remains, and the moral it conveys.”
According to the London Review there has been a comparative decrease of pauperism in England. That journal says, it is satisfactory to notice that the increase of population since 1851 is accompanied by a comparative decrease of pauperism. We have long known in general that the fact is so; now we have it confirmed. The population of England and Wales increased in the ten years 2,134,116, or 12 per cent. The total number of paupers, in door and out, relieved on January 1st, 1851, was 860,893, and on January 1st, 1861, 890,423, an increase of 29,530, or only i per cent. The positive increase of paupers is, in relation to the increase of people, a decrease of nearly three-fourths. To have preserved the former proportion, the number of paupers should have been 964,000 at the beginning of the year.
The satisfaction is increased when we find, further, that the proportion of pauperism is less in those districts in which the population is relatively the most numerous and has increased the most. The proportion of pauperism to population is, for England and Wales, 4.4 per cent. ; for the metropolis, 3.6; for the northwestern division, including Lancashire, 2.8; while for the southwestern, the most remarkable for a relative excess of births and small increase of people, the proportion is 5.5; and for the particular counties of Cambridge, Norfolk and Wilts, of which the population has declined, the proportion respectively is 7, 5.6, and 7 per cent. If an increase and aggregation of people carried with them an increase of poverty and misery, the future prospects of society