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had drained England of much of her material wealth, forcing her to tax her colonies for her own support. This apparent necessity led to the stamp tax and tax on tea, which, in turn, were the leading causes of the revolution against the mother country.

This century was likewise noted for the first experiments in the steamengine; (Watt's;) the extensive operations of the East India Company as a commercial monopoly; the rapid extension of commercial transactions between Western Europe and India, and North and South American colonies. The first financial revulsion took place; the stoppage of the Bank of England; riots among the working classes, produced by the expensive wars from 1750–1800.

1701.-A “ Council of Trade” suggested by William PATERSON. 1704. The Boston News Letter published—the first newspaper in the American colonies. 1708. Bank of England charter renewed, and again in 1713. 1709. Copyright act in England, 8 ANNE. 1710. The South Sea Company originated, 6th May.

1711–1720.-A capital of £4,000,000 raised (1711) for the South Sea Company. 1711. Rio Janeiro taken by the French Admiral, DUQUAI Trouin. 1712. The first stamp duty on newspapers levied in England. 1713. The Clarendon Press established at Oxford, by the profits of the History of the Rebellion. 1714. The rate of interest in England reduced from 6 to 5 per cent., and all contracts at a higher rate declared void. 1716. Joun Law originated his banking and Mississippi schemes. 1717. First project of a sinking fund for the liquidation of the English national debt. Law obtained extended privileges for his bank. 1718. Law's Company declared to be the Royal Bank. William PATERSON, projector of the Bank of England, died. 1720. The South Sea Company Act, passed 7th April. South Sea stock rose to 890, June 2. Rage for speculative schemes. Seventeen petitions for joint-stock patents refused. South Sea bubble burst, 30th September.

1721–1730.—The directors of the South Sea Company (1721) taken into custody, 24th January. AISLABIE and other members of Parliament implicated, expelled. WALPOLE, Lord Treasurer and Chancellor of the Exchequer, 2d of April. The estates of directors of South Sca Company, amounting to two millions sterling, forfeited. 1723. Act passed to prohibit English subscriptions to the Ostend Company. 1725. Tumults at Glasgow, 25th June, on account of the malt tax. 1726. Cotton a staple product of Hispaniola. 1729. Fire at Constantinople; 12,000 houses and 7,000 people perished. John Law died at Venice, 21st March, aged 58. 1730. Charter of the East India Company renewed.

1731—1740.—Culture of silk commenced (1732) in Georgia. Parliamentary grant to Sir Thomas LAMB (1732, April 3) for having introduced the silk engine. 1733. The English government refused to join the Dutch in stopping the East India commerce of the Danes and Swedes. 1733. The Excise law proposed in England, and abandoned by WALPOLE. 1734. English act passed against stock-jobbing. The new Bank of England building opened 5th June, in Threadneedle-street. 1736. High tide in the Thames. Westminster Hall flooded. Parliamentary debates published in the Gentleman's Magazine. 1740. The first circulating library in London established at 132 Strand. Parliamentary debates prepared by Dr. Johnson.

1741–1750.—Charter of Bank of England (1742) renewed. Lord

Anson returned (1744) from his voyage round the world, with £1,250,000 in treasure. 1750. A riot at Tiverton, against the introduction of Irish worsted yarns, 16th January. Bounties granted, and a company formed to encourage the British and white herring and cod fisheries.

1751—1760.-An act of Parliament (1751, 24 George II.) orders the Gregorian (or new) style to be used in Great Britain. 1753. Two thousand bales of cotton exported by Jamaica. 1754. Commencement of war between England and France, and military operations under WashINGTON, in Virginia, &c. 1759. The Bank of England issued £15 and £10 notes, 31st March. 1760. Culture of silk commenced in Connecticat.

1761-1770.--Opening of the Duke of BRIDGEWATER's Canal (1761) between Manchester and Liverpool. 1762. The Island of Cuba surrendered to Lord ALBEMARLE and Admiral PocockE. Martinique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and other islands taken from the French. 1764. First improvement of steam-engine, by Watt. Bank of England charter renewed. 1765. Stamp Act for America passed by the British Parliament, March. 1767. The House of Commons resolved to impose duties on various articles imported into America.

1771–1780.—Arkwright's second patent (1771) for his improvement in cotton-spinning. Culture of silk commenced in Pennsylvania. 1772. Commercial panic in London, caused by the failure of Neale, FORDYCE & Co., bankers. 1773. Tea destroyed in Boston harbor, 16th November. The Governor of Bengal made governor of all the British settlements in India. 1774. The petition of the Massachusetts Assembly to Parliament, presented (January) by Dr. Franklin, who was then removed from the office of deputy postmaster-general for the colonies. BURKE's celebrated speech on the tea tax, April 19. 1774. Watt, in partnership, with Boulton, founds his steam-engine establishment at Soho. 1776. Captain Cook sailed on his third voyage. 1780. Charter of the first Bank of North America, approved by Congress 26th May.

1781—1790.—Bank of England charter renewed, on making further advances to government of £3,000,000. Necker published his financial statement for France, 1781, and retired from office. 1782. National Bank of Ireland established. 1783. Charter granted to the Bank of Ireland. 1784. The Bank of New-York chartered, 9th June. 1786. British treaty of commerce with France. 1787. “ Pennsylvania Society for the encouragement of Manufactures and the Useful Arts,” formed. Cotton exported by West India Islands. 1789. Issuo of assignats in France, 17th December.

1791–1800.- Vancouver's voyage of discovery (1791.) The bucklemakers of Birmingham petitioned Parliament against the use of shocstrings. Numerous riots at Birmingham. 1793. The first ambassador from Turkey arrived in London, December 20. Whitney's cotton-gin invented and first used. 1795. Embargo on all Dutch ships in English ports, 26th January. Warren Hastings acquitted, 230 April

. 1797. Suspension of the Bank of England, 26th February. Notes of £1 and £2 first issued, March 11. 1798. Silver tokens issued by the Bank of England, 1st January. 1799. Sugar first extracted from beet-root, by the Prussian chemist, Achard. 1800. General distress and riots in England, caused by the high price of bread, January. Dispute respecting the close of the century. LALANDE decided that 31st December, 1800,

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is the last day of the eighteenth century. Union of Great Britain and Ireland, 2d July. Bank of England charter renewed until 1833.

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY. The discoveries, inventions and progress noted in three centuries, ending with the year 1800, have all been eclipsed by the astonishing events of the present century. The application of steam as a propelling power may be considered as the most important of these changes. The next of importance to the world may be said to be the rail-road—not only in developing production, but as a means of civilization and in bringing together remote interests. The vast commercial interests of the world have been more fully promoted by the invention and use of the magnetic telegraph-an invention for which the civilized world is largely indebted to the genius of Professor MORSE. While the progress and changes in the physical world have been greater than at former periods, the reform and changes in the science of law and government, and in the social condition of men, have been still greater. Among these revolutions we may name-first, the modification of the Corn Laws of England, after centuries of obstinate legislation ; second, the introduction of cheap postage; third, the adoption of general laws for corporations, in lieu of special charters. Science has at the same time demonstrated the importance of gutta percha to the world. Steamboats and steamships have been introduced into the waters of all parts of the world. Twentyfive thousand miles of rail-road now penetrate the remotest corners of the United States. The population of the United States has increased from 5,300,000 at the opening of the century, to about 30,000,000 in the year 1858. The number of post-offices has increased in the same time from 903 to 27,000, and their revenue from $280,000 to $8,000,000. The 'tonnage of the Union has increased from 1,000,000 tons to 5,000,000—the foreign imports from $91,000,000 to $350,000,000, and the customs revenue from $9,000,000 to $64,000,000. The discovery of gold in California and in Australia has led to the further development of commerce, navigation, manufactures and trade; and the rapid changes still going on would indicate that the next fifty years will be as prolific as the last half century.

1801-1810.-Embargo laid (January, 1801) on all Russian, Danish and Swedish vessels in English ports. 1802. Santee Canal, South Carolina, completed. 1803. Louisiana sold by France to the United States for $15,000,000. The first printing-press in New South Wales established at Sydney. Caledonian Canal opened for travel. Trial of steamboat on the Seine, by ROBERT Fulton, 9th August. The first bank in Ohio chartered. 1804. WILBERFORCE's slave-trade bill rejected by the House of Lords. The Code NAPOLEON adopted. Ice first exported from the United States to the West Indies. 1805. The Gregorian calendar again adopted in France. 1806. The Cape of Good IIope surrendered to the English. Abolition of the slave-trade by English Parliament, 10th June. The loom invented by JACQUARD, a mechanic of Lyons, purchased by the French government for public use. . East India docks opened at London, 4th August. 1807. Milan decrees against English commerce, 11th November. Fulton's first voyage on the Hudson. The Bank of Kentucky chartered. First manufactory of woollen cloths in the United States, established at Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Middlesex Canal, Massachusetts,


completed. 1808. Manufacturing districts of Manchester, &c., petitioned for peace. 1810. Deaths by suicide, of ABRAHAM Goldschmidt, Francis Baring and other English merchants.

1811-1820.-English guineas publicly sold for a pound note and seven shillings. 1811. Mr. HORNER's proposition for resumption of cash payments in England rejected. First steamboat built at Pittsburgh. 1812. Serious riots in the manufacturing districts of Lancashire and Yorkshire. Declaration of war by the United States against England, 18th June. 1814. London Times first printed by steam, 20th November. 1815. Veto of the United States Bank bill by President Madison ; bank re-chartered for 20 years. 1816. The new Russian tariff prohibited the importation of nearly all British goods. Bank of England advanced £3,000,000 further to government, making a total of £14,000,000. 1817. Paris first lighted by gas. First steamboat from New-Orleans to Louisville. 1818. First Polar expedition of Captain John Franklin left England. Steamboats built on Lake Erie. 1819. Emigration to Cape of Good Hope encouraged by the British government. The steamship SAVANNAH arrived at Liverpool from the United States, 15th July. Commencement of the suspension bridge over the Menai by TELFORD. The first bank in Illinois chartered. 1820. Florida ceded to the United States by Spain. Suspension bridge over the Tweed. First steamer ascended the Arkansas River.

1821--1830.-Captains PARRY and Lyon's expedition to the Arctic Ocean left England 30th March, 1821. Bank of England resumed specie payments. 1822. Funeral of Courts, the London banker, 4th March. The first cotton mill in Lowell erected. 1823. Revival of business in the English factories. 1824. Advance in the prices of agricultural produce in England. Act passed for the Thames Tunnel

, 24th June. FAUNTLEROY, banker, hung for forgery, 30th November. Champlain Canal, New-York, completed. 1825. Panic in the English money , market, December. Failure of numerous country banks. Erie Canal completed. 1826. Mr. Huskisson's free trade policy advocated in the House of Commons by vote of 223 to 40. Coin in Bank of England reduced to £2,460,000, 28th February. 1827. Commercial confidence restored in England, and employment for the poor. “Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge” established, at the instance of Lord BrocGHAM. Union Canal, Pennsylvania, completed. Quincy Rail-Road completed. 1828. Delaware and Hudson Canal, Syracuse and Oswego Canal, New-York, completed. India rubber goods manufactured in Connecticut. 1829. Increase of silk manufactures in England, and reduction of duty on raw silk. Prize awarded to Mr. STEPHENSON for his locomotive engine on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway. Subscription by Congress to the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, May 3. Departure of Captain Ross on his voyage of discovery. Chesapeake and Delaware Canal opened, 17th October 1830. Opening of the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, 15th September. Free navigation of the Black Sea opened to the United States by treaty, 7th May. CHARLES X. fled from Paris, 31st July. West India trade with the United States opened to British vessels. Independence of Belgium acknowledged. Pennsylvania State Canal finished.

1831–1840.—Parliamentary reform bill introduced in 1831 by Lord John Russell ; rejected by the House of Lords, 8th October. Frce

trade convention at Philadelphia, October 1. STEPHEN GIRARD died, 26th December, aged 84. İnsurrection in Jamaica, 28th December. 1832. Veto of United States Bank bill by President Jackson, 10th July. New tariff act passed by Congress, July. Ohio State Canal finished. Albany and Schenectady Rail-Road, Columbia Rail-Road, Pennsylvania Rail-Road, Newcastle and Frenchtown Rail-Road, completed. 1833. Ice first exported to the East Indies from the United States, 18th May. Opening of the China trade to the English. East India Company charter renewed; ceased to be a commercial body. Bank of England charter renewed. Usury restrictions removed in England from all commercial paper having less than three months to mature. Mr. Clay's tariff bill passed by Congress. Removal of the deposits from the United States Bank, September. 1834. The Chinese suspend intercourse with the English at Canton. The first bank in Indiana chartered. London and Westminster Bank commenced business, 10th March. Resolution of the United States Senate condemning President Jackson for removal of deposits, March. Nomination of ROGER B. Taney as Secretery of the Treasury rejected by vote of 28 to 18. Abolition of slavery in British West Indies. Baltimore and Ohio RailRoad opened for travel to Harper's Ferry, 1st December. Bank of Maryland failed, 24th March. 1835. French Indemnity bill passed, 18th April. Baltimore and Washington Rail-Road opened for travel, 23d August. Bank of Maryland riots in Baltimore, 8th August. Loss of $20,000,000 by fire in New-York, 16th December. Boston and Providence Rail-Road, Boston and Worcester Rail-Road, completed. 1836. Charter of United States Bank expired, March 4, and succeeded by Pennsylvania United States Bank. Reduction of the newspaper stamp duty in England, 15th September. Failure of the Commercial and Agricultural Bank of Ireland. Anthracite coal used for steamboats on North River. Independence of South American republics acknowledged by Spain, 4th December. 1837. Panic in the London market, June. Failures of American bankers in London. Further modifications of the usury laws of England. Failure of banks in the city of New-York, May 10. Grand Junction Railway, England, opened, 4th July. Revolt in Canada. Mont de Piété, Limerick, established. 1838. Railway opened from London to Southampton, 17th May. Wreck of the ForFARSHIRE ; heroism of Grace Darling, 5th September. Royal Exchange, London, burned, 10th January. Resumption of specie payments in New York, May. Sub-Treasury bill defeated in Congress, Junc. United States Exploring Expedition, under Captain Wilkes, left Hampton Roads, 19th August. Imprisonment for debt abolished in England. 1839. British trade with China stopped, December. Second suspension by the banks at Philadelphia, 9th September, followed by bank failures in the South and West. Western Rail-Road, Worcester to Springfield, opened, 1st October. Union Bank, London, commenced business. 1840. Penny postage adopted in England. Antarctic continent discovered by Wilkes, 19th January. First steam vessel at Boston arrived from England, 3d June. First Cunard steamer (the BRITANNIA) arrived at Boston, 18th July; and the Acadia, 17th August. Fiscal Bank bill vetoed by President TYLER, 16th August. Bankrupt law passed by Congress, 18th August. Bill for distribution of public lands passed by Congress, 230 August. Fiscal corporation bill vetoed by

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