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of Peru follow the nature of its different clinates., and 1,723 mestizoes; produce, Indian corn, pota: oea Wine, oil, and sugar, are the most valuable pro and cattle; annual value 20,103 dollars. ductions of the coast; com and wheat of the val. Chancay comprehends 9 doctrinas, 2 towns, and leys, and bark and cocoa of the mountains. 28 townships, and is inhabited by 13,945 souls, 18
The annual product of the mines is valued at clergy, 15 religious, 969 Spanjards and Spanish 4,500,000 dollars.
Creoles, 7,510 Indians, 1,081 mestizoen, 759 free The population of the vice royalty is calculated mulattoes, and 3,604 slaves; produce, grain, sugar &t 1,076,997 souls.
and cattle; annual value 465,504 dollars 4 rials. It is divided into seven intendencies, compre Santa comprehends 7 doctrinas, and 14 town. hending fifty.one districts; the latter governed by ships, and is inhabited by 3,334 souls, 10 clergy, sub.delegates responsible to the intendent, who 279 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 873 Indians, is under the direction of the superintendent ge 1,237 mestizoes, 108 free mulattoes, and 827 slaves; neral, a dignity always invested in the vice roy. produces sugar, grain and cattle; annual value The vice royalty contains five dioceses.
245,000 dollars. Lima, the capital of Peru, is situsted in 12 deg. Intendency of Cuzco.-The city of Cuzco, capital 2 min. 51 sec. S. lat. and 70 deg. 50 min. 51 sec. of the former locas, is situated 13 degrees 32 longitude, and was founded by Don Francisco Pio ininutes 20 seconds south latitude, 65 degrees 15 zarro, in 1535.
minutes 20 seconds longitude. It was founded in Notwithstanding the frequent earthquakes which the eleventh century by Manco Capac, and taken destroyed the city in the years 1586, 1630, 1655, possession of by Francisco Pizarro in 1534. The 1687, and 1764, Lima occupies an ura of ten miles population is estimated at 32,082 souls, 89 clergy, circumference, including the suburb of San Laza. 436 religious, 166 nuns, 113 beatas, 16,122 Spa. ro. The population amounts to 52,627 inbabitans, niards and Spanish Creoles, 14,254 Indians, 203 ne. 292 clergy, 991 religious monks and friars, 572 groes, and the remainder mestizoes and mulattoes. nuns, 84 beatas, 17,215 Spaniards and white Cre. The intendency of Cuzco, comprehends 102 oles, 3,912 Indians, 8,960 negroes, and the remain.doctrinas, 1 city, 2 towns, 131 iownships, inhabited der, intermediate classes, mixtures of the others. by 216,382 souls, 315 clergy, 474 religious recluses,
The intendency of Lima comprehends 74 Jocuri 166 runs, 113 beatas, 31 8 8 Spaniards and Spanisla nas, (curacies) 3 cities, 5 towns, and 173 town Creoles, 159,105 Indians, 23,104 mestizoes, 993 free ships-population 149,112 souls, 431 clergy, 1,100 mulattoes, and 263 slaves. religious, 572 nuns, 84 bestas, 22,370 Spaniards and Cercado del Cuzco comprehends 8 doctrinas, 1 Spanish Creoles, 63,180 Indians, 13,747 mestizoes, city, inhabited by 32.082 souls, 89 clergy, 436 17,864 mulattoes, and 29,763 slaves. It is divided religious recluses, 166 nuns, 113 beatas, 16,122 into eight districts, in the following order: Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 14,254 Indians, 646
Cercado De Lima.- This district comprehends free mulattoes, 203 slaves, the remainder mestizoes. 14 curacies, 1 city, 6 townships, and contains a po. Produces grain, and manufactures some woolen and pulation of 62,910 souls; 309 clergy, 991 religious, cotton siuffs. 572 nuns, 84 beatas, 18,319 Spaniards and Spanish Abancay.This district comprehends 9 doctriCreoles, 9,744 Indians, 4,879 mestizoes, 10,231 free nas and 8 townships, inhabiied by 25,259 souls, 33 people of color, and 17,881 slaves. The principal clergy, 1,937 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 18,419 produce is fruit, boney, sugar, and vegetables, Indians, 4,739 mestizoes, 50 frec mulattoes, 81 whicb are consuned in the capital to the amount slaves. Produces sugar, cotton, grain, and cocoa; of 500,000 dollars per annum.
annual value 350,000 dollars: Canele.-Tbis district comprehends 7 curacies, Aymaraes comprehends 16 doctrinas and 34 one city, one town, and 4 townships. It is inhabited townships, inhabited by 15,281 souls, 24 clergy, i by 12,616 souls; 15 clergy, 19 religious, 465 Spa. recluse, 4,474 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, and niards and Spanish Creoles, 7,025 Indians, 737 mes.10,782 Indians. . Produces various kinds of dyes, tizoes, 992 free people of color, 3,363 slaves. Pro. raises cattle, and manufactures some woolen stuffs: duce, sugar, grain, and some nitre; annual value annual value 145.000 dollars. 350,000 dollars.
Culca and Lares comprehends 5 doctrinas and 6 The district of Ica comprehends ten curacies, township., inhabited by 6,199 souls, 13 clergy, 347 one city, two towns, and three townships. Inbabi. Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 5,519 Indians, and tants 20,576, 22 clergy, 72 religious, 2,158 Spa. 320 mestizoes. Produces grain, cotton, red pepper, niards and Spanish Creoles, 6,607 Indians, 3,405 cocoa, manufactures some wooien stuff's; annual mestizoes, 4,305 free people of color, 4,004 slaves. value 176,239 dollars. A copper mine is wrought in this district; which Urubamba comprehends 6 doctrinas and 4 town. also produces brandy, olives, and some sugar, and ships, and is inhabited by 9,250 souls, 22 clergy, manufactures glass and soap--annual value 588,742 35 religious, 835 Spaniards and Creoles, 5,164 In. dollars 4 rs.
dians, and 3,194 mesiizoes. Produces grain, cocoa, Yaugos comprehends 7 curacies and 25 town and a variety of fruits; annual value 89,098 dollars. ships. It is inhabited by 9,574 souls, 12 clergy,/ Colabambas comprehends 13 docirinas and 14 13 Spaniards and Creoles, 8,005 Indians, 93 mes. townships, and is inhabited by 19,824 souls, 19 tizoes, and 1,451 free people of color. Produce, clergy, 186 Spaniards and Spanisi. Cre, les, 18,237 cattle and sheep; annual value 20,200 dollars. Indians and 1,382 mestizoes. Produces Indian corn,
Huarochiro comprehends 11 curacies and 35 town and grain; annual value 20,000 dollars. ships, and is inbabited by 14,024 souls, 25 clergy, Pararo comprebends 9 doctrinas and 19 town. 220 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 13,084 Indians, ships, inhabited by 20,236 souls, 20 clergy, 1 591 mestizues, 19 free people of color, and 84 slaves. recluse, 2,331 Spamards and Spanisla Creoles, The produce of this district is grain and cattle; 15,034 Indians, 2,733 mestizoes and 117 free mu. and it possesses rich silver mines; annual value not lattoes. Produces grain and cattle, and manufac. ascertained.
lures linen cloth; annual value 96,471 dollars. . Canta comprehends 9 doctrinas and 54 town Chumbibilcas comprehends 11 doctrinas and 12 ships, and is inhabited by 12,133 souls, 20 clergy, townships, and is inbabited by 15,973 sculs, 27 57 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 10,333 Indians, Iclergy, 4,471 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, and 11.475 Lidians. Produces grain, and manufactures mestizoes, 528 free molattoes, and 253 slaves-pro. linen cloths; annual value 18,000 dollars.
duce, wine, and some grain; annual value 81,400 Tinta comprehends 11 doctrinas and 13 towa- dollars. The silver mines of this district produce ships, and is inhabited by 36,968 souls, 27 clergy, annually 72,462 marks. 324 Spaniards and Spanish: Creoles, 29,045 Indians, The Intendency of Trurillo.-The city of Truxillo 5,420 'm stizoes, and 152 free mulattoes. Produce, is situated in 8 degrees 5 minutes south latitude, grain; manufactures ships and linen cloths; annual and 72 degrees 44 longitude, founded by Francis Value 152,309 } dollars.
Pizarro, in 1535. Population, 5,790 souls, 133 Qurispicanchi comprehends 10 doctrinas and 16 clergy, 60 religious recluses, 129 nuns, 1,263 Spatownships, and is inhabited by 24,337 souls, 25 niards and Spanish Creoles, 274 Indiaps, 704 mesti. clergy, 1 recluse, 37 Spaniards and Creoles, 19,947 zoes, 1000 negroes, and the rest mulattoes. Indians, 4,306 mestizoes, and 21 free mulattoes. The Intendency of Trurillo comprehends 87 Produce, grain, cattle, wool, and salt, and manu. doctrinas, 5 cities, 2 towns, and 143 townships. factures linen cloths; annual value
Population, 230,697 souls, 460 clergy, 160 religious Paucartambo comprehends 4 doctrinas and eightrecluses 162 nuns, 19,098 Spaniards and Spanish townships, and is inhabited by 12,973 souls, 16 Creoles, 115,647 Indians, 76,949 mestizoes 13,757 clergy, 764 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 11,229 free mulattoes, and 4,725 slaves. Indians, 957 mestizoes, and 7 mulattoes. Produce, Cercado De Truxillo comprehends 10 doctrinas wood, and cocoa; annual value 390,972 dollars. and 6 townships. Population, 13,032 souls, 144 · Intendency of Arequipa. The city of Arequipa is clergy, 60 religious, 129 nuns, 1.434 Spaniards and situated 16 degrees 13 minutes 29 seconds south Spanish Creoles, 4,577 Indians, 1,549 mestizoes, latitude, 66 degrees 6 minutes 30 seconds longitude. 2,357 free mulattoes, 1,582 slaves. Produce, sugar, Its population is estimated at 23,988 souls, 50 clergy, rice, oil, cotton, and various gums. Annual value, 225 religious, 162 nuns, 5 beatas, 15,737 Spaniards 31,756 dollars. an ! Spanish Creoles, 1,515 Indians, 4,129 mestizoes; Lambayeque comprehends 20 doctrinas, and 7 the remainder mulattoes and negroes
townships. Population, 35,192 souls, 62 clergy, The Intendency of Arequipa comprehends 60 27 religious, 2,299 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, doctrinas, 2 cities and 2 towns and 8 townships, 22,333 Indians, 5,448 mestizoes, 3,192 free mulat. isbabited by 136,201 souls, 326 clergy, 284 religi. toes, and 1,831 slaves. Produce, grain, saffran, ous, 126 nuns, 5 beatas, 39,857 Spaniards and Spa- sugor, tobacco, and cotton. Manufactures, some nish Creoles, 66,609 Indians, 17,797 mestizoes, 7,003 cotton and woolen stuffs, soap, &c.; annual value, free mulattoes, 5,258 slaves.,
397,799 dollars. Cercade De Arequipa comprehends 11 doctrinas, Puira comprehends 12 doctrinas, and 14 tova. 1 city and 2 townships, inhabited by 37,721 souls, ships. · Population, 44,491 souls, 61 clergy, 18 93 clergy, 325 religious recluses, 162 nuns, 5 beatas, religious, 2,874 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 22,687 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 5,929 In-124,797 Indians, 10,654 mestizoes, 5,203 free mu dians, 4,908 mestizoes, 2,477 free mulattoes, 1,225 lattoes, and 884 slaves. Produce, grain, cotton, slaves-produce,grain, wine, brandy, sugar, cotton, some indigo, abounds with cattle. Annual value, and oil; annual value 636,800 dollars.
72,686 dollars. Cumana comprehends 7 doctrinas and 8 town. Caxamarca comprehends 17 doctrinas, and 26 ships, inhabited by 19,052 souls, 34 clergy, 9 religi- townships. Population, 62,199 souls, 23 clergy, ous recluses, 5.005 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 50 religious, 33 nuns, 7,835 Spaniards and Spanish 1.249 Indians, 1,021 mestizoes, 1,747 free mulat- Creoles, 29,692 Indians, 22,299 mestizoes, 1,875 toes, and 887 slaves-produce, wine, sugar, and oil; free mulattoes, and 328 slaves. Produce, grain annual value 300,000 dollars.
and cotton, abouods in cattle, and manufactures Condesuvos comprehends 9 doctrinas, and 18 cotton and woolen stuffs. Annual value townships, and is inhabited by 20,145 souls, 35 Chota.-Not able to ascertain any correct in. clergy, 3,603 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 12,011 formation respecting this district. Possesses rich Indians, 4,358 inestizues, 34 free mulattoes, and 44 mines. ; slaves--contains gold mines, and produces cochineal Huamachuco comprehends 8 doctrinas, and 23 and grain; annual value 26,458 dollars.
townships. Population, 38,150 souls, 64 clergy, Colluguas comprebends 16 doctrinas and 10 2,273 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 17,117 Intownships, and is inhabiied by 13,905 souls, 40 dians, 18,367 mestizoes, 250 free mulattoes, and clergy, 212 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 11,872 79 slaves. Produce, grain and cocca, and mana. Indians, 1,417 megtizoes, 335 free mulattoes, and factures linen cloths. Annual value, 57,853 dol. 29 slaves-produce, grain, wool, and manufaciures lars, some woolen stuffs; annual value 70.100 dollars. Palaz comprebends 3 doctrinas, and 13 townThe silver mines in this district yield annually ships. Population, 13,508 souls, 11 clergy, 3 34,000 marks.
religious, 987 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 4,627 Moquegua comprehends 6 doctrinas, and 6 town. Indians, 7,678 mestizoes, 194 free mulattoes, and ships, and is inhabited by 28,279 souls, 53 clergy, 8 slaves. Produce, grain, sugar, and abounds in 29 religionls recluses, 5,596 Spaniards and Spanish cattle. Annual value, 35,264 dollars. The geld Creoles, 17,272 Indians, 2,916 mestizoes, 887 free mines of this district yield 250 pounds per annun, mulat:oes, and 1,526 slaves-produce, grain, and and the silver 500 marks.- Value of both $35,300. wine; annual value 705,000 dollars.
Chachapoyas comprehends 17 doctrinas, and 60 Arica comprehends 7 doctrinas, 1 city, 26 town. townships. Population, 25,398 souls, 34 clergy, 11 ships, inhabited by 18,776 souls, 44 clergy, 21 religious, 1,396 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, religious recluses, 1,585 Spaniards and Spanish 12,504 Indians, 10,954 mestizoes, 486 free mulat. Creoles, 12,870 Indians, 1,977 mestizoes, 985 free toes, and 13 slaves. Produce, tobacco, bark, sugar, mulattoes, and 1,294 slaves-produce, wine, grain, and cocoa. cotton, and oil; annual value 160,500 dollars.
Intendency of Huamanga.--The city of Huamanga Tarapaca comprehends 4 doctrinas, and 12 town. is situated in 13 degrees 1 minute south latitude, ships, inliabited by 7,923 souls, 27 clergy, 509 Spa- and 68 degrees 6 minutes longitude. Population, niards and Spanish Creoles, 5,406 Indians, 1,200.25,970 souls, 25 clergy, 42 religious, 82 nuns, 189
Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 20,373 Indians,168 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 8,385 Indians, 4,382 mestizoes, and the remainder mulattoes and|771 mestizoes and 25 slaves. Produce, grain and negroes.
cattle. Annual value 76,000 dollars. The Intendency of Huamanga comprehehds 501 Intendency of Tarmu. -The town of Tarma is doctrinas, 1 city, and 134 townships, and is inhabit. situated in 12 degrees 33 minutes 49 seconds south ed by 111,559 souls, 176 clergy, 45 religious, 82 latitude, and 69 degrees 29 minutes longitude. nuns, 5,378 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 75,284 Population 5,538 souls, 2 clergy, 361 Spaniards and Indians, 29,621 mestizoes, 943 free mulaltoes, and Spanish Creoles, 1,878 Indians, 3,244 mestizoes, the 30 slaves.
rest mulattoes and slaves. Cercado De Huamanga comprehends 3 doctrinas,| The intendency of Tarma, comprehends 79 and 2 townships, and is inbabited by 25,970 souls, doctrinas, one city, 2 towns, 203 townships. Inhabit25 clergy, 42 religious, 82 nuns, 169 Spaniards and ed by 201,259 souls; 229 clergy, 127 religious, 15% Spanish Creoles, 20,373 Indians, 4,372 mestizoes, beatas, 15,938 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 30 slavet; the rest free mulattoes. Possesses some 105,187 Indians, 78,682 mestizoes, 844 free mulat. manufactures. Annual value 34,268 dollars. i toes, and 236 slaves.
Anco comprehends 1 doctrina, and 4 townships. Cercado De Tarma, comprehends 13 doctrinas, Inhabited by 2,022 souls, 9 Spaniards, 1,744 Indians, one town and 45 townships; and is inhabited by 269 mestizoes. Produce, sugar and coffee. Annual 34,491 souls, 32 clergy, 1,681 Spaniards and Spå. value 18,795 dollars.
nish Creoles 18,821 Indians, 14,300 mestizoes and Huanta comprebends 7 doctrinas, and 20 town. 77 free mulattoes. Produces grain and bark. Annual ships, and is inhabited by 27,337 souls, 45 clergy, value 8,315 dollars. The mine of Yauricocha 3 religious, 219 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, yielded, in 1793, 2,016,703 dollars. Rent of the 19,981 Indians, 10,080 mestizoes, and 9 free mulat. crown for Diezmos and Cobos 231,283 dollars. toes.
Xauja comprehends 14 doctrinas, one town, and Congallo comprehends 10 doctrinas, and 31 town. 16 townships. Inhabited by 52,286 souls, 32 clergy ships, and is inhabited by 12,474 souls, 31 clergy, 84 religious, 1,713 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 62 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 10,011 Indians, 28,477 Indians, 21,922 mestizoes, and 58 sl vés. 2,363 mestizoes, 7 free mulattoes. Produce, grainl Caxatambo comprehends 13 doctrinas, and 56 and cattle.
townsbips, and is inhabited by 16,872 souls, 31 Andahuaylas. This district comprehends 10 clergy, 504 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 10,500 doctrinas, and 18 townships, and is inhabited by Indians, 4,808 mestizoes, 629 free mulattoes. Pro. 12,020 souls, 20 clergy, 3,000 Spaniards and Spa duces grain and cattle. Annual value 30,000 dol. nish Creoles, 5,000 Indians, 4,000 mestizoes. Pro.lars. duce, grain and sugar. Annual value 74,384 dol. Conchucos comprehends 15 doctrinas, and 19 lars.
townships, and is inbabited by 25,308 souls, 40 Lucanas comprehends 14 doctrinas and 44 town-elergy, 2 religious, 1,384 Spaniards and Spanish ships, and is inbabited by 15,727 souls, 27 clergy, Creoles, 9,899 Indians, and 13,983 mestizoes. Pro. 862 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 12,700 Indians, duces grain and possesses mines, but which are not 2,076 mestizoes, and 60 free mulattoes. Produce, very productive. Annual value 73,476 dollars. : grain and cattle.
Huamalies comprehends 8 docirinas, and 30 iown. Parinacochas comprehends 14 doctrinas, and 16 ships. Inbabited by 14,234 souls, 18 clergy, 593 townships, population 16,011 souls, 28 clergy, 1,057 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 8,957 Indians, 4,625 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 8,475 lodians, and mestizoes, and 43 slaves. Produces bark, cocoa, 6,451 mestizoes. Raises cattle and manufactures and cattle. Annual value 53,420 dollars. cotton stuffs. Annual value 56,000 dollars.
Huaylas comprebends 12 doctrinas and 20 town. Intendency of Huancavelica.-The town of Huan. ships, inhabited by 40,822 souls, 67 clergy, 11 cavelica is situated in 12 degrees 53 minutes south religious, 3,604 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, latitude, and 68 degrees 46 minutes longitude. 20,935 Indians, 15,971 mestizoes, 138 free mulat. Population 5,156 souls, 21 clergy, 18 religious, 500 toes, and 96 slaves. Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 3,803 Indians, 731) Huanuco comprehends 4 doctrinas, 1 city, and mestizoes, and ihe remainder mulattoes and ne. 7 townships, inhabited by 16,826 souls, 9 clergy,
30 religiouis, 15 beatas, 6,160 Spaniards and Spanisla The intendency of Huancavelica comprehends Creoles, 7,598 Indians, 3,075 mestizoes, and 39 22 doctrinas, one city, one town, and 86 townships, slaves; produces bark, coca, and exports a small and is inhabited by 30,917 souls, 81 clergy, 18 re quantity of silver. Annual value 45,094 dollars. ligious, 2,341 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 23,899 Panatahuus.— Military government of Callao and Indians, 4,537 mestizoes, and 41 slaves.
of the Archipelago of Chiloe. Cercado de Huancavelica.-Tbis district com.! Number of Indians for the collection of tributes prehends 4 doctrinas and 6 lownships. Inhabited levied on males from 10 to 50 years of age: by 5,146 souls, 21 clergy, 18 religious, 560 Spa. Males, • • • • • 314,863 niards and Spanish, Creoles, 3,803 Indians, 731 Females, . , . . 304,327 mestizoes, and 13 slaves. Auguraes. This district comprehends 5 doc.
619,190 trinas and 25 tow#ships. Inhabited by 3,245 souls, Exempt from age, sex and rank, 473,615 23 clergy, 219 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 2,691 Indians, 309 mestizoes, and 3 slaves. Produces Contributing, . i . . 145,575 sugar, grain and cattle. Annual value 85,000 doli lars.
Amount of tributes, ; .
885,586 Tayacara comprehends 5 doctrinas and 22 town. of the common hospital fund 25,852 7 ships. Inbabited by 13,161 souls, 21 clergy, 1,394 Spaniards and Spanish Creoles, 9,020 Indians, and
911,438 7 2,720 mestizoes.
Pensions, expenses, &c. ? • 374,052 4 Castroverreyna comprehends 8 doctrinas and 55 townships. Inhabited by 9,365 souls, 16 clergy, Neat rent, . . . . $37,386 3
| according to the population of each district, the Imposts into Callao, 6 per cent. alcabala, and 3 population of Chile cannot be estimated at less per cent. customs; woolen exports, 3 per cent. than one million.
The interior commerce pays 6 per cent, alcabala. The distance from the Cordilleras to the Pacific
Alcabala were first levied in Peru, in the year ocean, is thirty leagues, between the latitudes of 1596, at 277 until the year 1771, when they were 25 degrees and 36 degrees south; and 40 leagues, increased to 490. In the year 1777, they were in-between 36 degrees and 43 degrees south. creased to 677. The expenses of collecting the The country comprised between tbe 25th and customs at Lima, exceeds 50,000 dollars.
43d degrees of south latitude, may be considered
the length of the kingdom of Chile, it being unTable of the commerce between the port of Spain settled and even unexplored further south, and Callao.
From the Cordilleras de los Andes to the Pacific, the inclination is so great, that all the rivers fo: with the rapidity of torrents, and are tberefore not navigable. They serve to irrigate the valleys, and render them the most fertile in the world. Tic climate makes this method of cultivation absolutely necessary; for, from the Salado to the Itata, that is, from 25 degrees to 36 degrees of south latitude not a cloud is to be seen above tbe horizon, from the month of November to tbe month of May. The atmosphere, during this period, is perfecily clear, and the dews are scarcely perceptible, nor is the heat oppressive. The proximity of the Andes tempers the air, and the mercury fluctuatcs be tween 70 degrees and 80 degrees of Fahrenheit, and rarely rises to 85 degrees. Töunder storm so frequent on the cast of the Andes, are unknown in this part of Chile. Winter commences in the month of May; the cold is mild, and the raias gentle and unattended with wind. The rains of the winter fertilize the hills, and the plains, which cannot be irrigated, during that season, afford pasture for the cattle. The spring commences in 1 September; and the face of nature in Chile is then peculiarly beautiful. The bills are verdant, and covered with innumerable flowering shrubs; and the plains present to the eye a carpet of fosers The abundance of water and peculiarity of climate enable the inhabitants to raise all the fruits of the earth in great perfection. The wheat, wbicb is cultivated in the valleys, is of excellent quality and the produce seldoin less than forty times the seed; sometimes ninety; and, on the best land, even one hundred. Indian corn is likewise cultivated, and produces abundantly. Barley is raised in grest Il quantity for the use of horses and mules, whicle in the winter, are fed on this grain, mixed with chopped straw, as in Arabia and old Spain Hemp and Aas grow luxuriantly. Cotton is here and there cultivated for their domestic manufactures and there is one sugar plantation. The climate and soil is well adapted to the culture of sugari but they have been long accustomed io get that article from Lima, in exchange for their sbely
and are not disposed to change their ancient babits, The kingdom of Chile is comprised within the Rice, likewise, 'would grow on their low lands, out narrow strip of land which extends east and west it is brought from Lima.. from the summit of the Cordilleras de los Andes South of the river Itata, the climate varies. Raina to the Pacific ocean, and stretches along the coast are frequent in the summer, and, in tbe winter, azt north and soutb, from the river Salado and the attended by storms of wind. The grape is chief desert of Atacama, to the Straits of Magellan. cultivated in these districts; and the wine is better From the chain of frontier posts (which begin at than where the vineyards are irrigated. Arunco, on the coast, and extend to the Cordilleras,) The olive grows luxuriantly throughout all Chile to the town of Valdivia, the country is in possession and the oil is of the first quality. of the warlike tribe of Arancanians, who still remain On the banks of the river Meule, and on sll be independent; and from Osorno, south, is inhabited rivers south of 35 degrees 17 minutes, there by the various tribes of Patagonia, whose territories excellent timber, and the whole country abound have not been explored.
with forests of a thorny minosa, which makes ... The population of Chile, by the census taken in charcoal, and is in general use for fuel. 1791, was found to be 750,000 souls. From the In the neighborhood of Talcahuano, within strong motives of concealment, as the census is yards of the sea, tbere is a fine vein of serca taken for the purpose of proportioning the taxes which has been used by our whaling ships.
114,952 731 11784, occasioning the great export of that year 17,121,206 6.
309.230 3 | The excess of exports was occasioned by the war. Four ships arrived in 1779, and sailed in
2,465,499 2 4,763,461 6
1,194,066 71 2,751,967 1
2,911,898 16,782,099 11
. 5,220,887 21 448,095 1 |
ar Spanish effects, Freign effets. Total value Gold and silver. Produce. I
The kingdom of Chile was governed by a pre., The district of Coquimbo, exterds frien tie Cor. sident and captain general, who was amenable only dilleras to the sea, it bound, north on Crasco, and to the council of the Indies, and was assisted by extends fifty leagues south to the district of Cug. an audienza, or supreme court. His powers were cos. The capital, LR Serana, commonly called the same as the vice roys of Lima, or Buenos Aires. Cequimbo, is situated in 29 degrees 54 minutes
There were two bishopricks in Chile. That of south latitude, on the south bank of the river CoSantiago comprehended the territory from the river quimbo, within half a league of the coast. The Salado to the Maule; and the bishoprick of Concep land slopes gradually ioin the town to the sea, cion, included the country from the Maule to the and being meadow, firms a lawn of never failing island of Chiloe. The presidency was divided into verdure. The town is regular and well built, and districis (pariidos) governed by a sub-delegate. is surrounded with gardens, which produce all the Copiipo, the most northern, was the first co quiered tropical fruits in great perfection. The inhabia by the Peruvians, under the lacas, who exiendeltants are remarked for their urbanity and hospi. themselves subsequently to the banks of ihe Maule. tality to strangers; and the climate is equal and
The Spaniards followed the track marked out temperate. by the enterprize of this extraordinary peopie; and the river Coquimbo waters, the valley of Hurl. passing along the edge of the Cordilleras, descend.que, the most fertile part of the district; and the ed into Chile by the mountains of Copiapo. This Liman, which is a large stream, waters the coun. district extends from the Cordilleras to the sea. try above and below the juntas of Guamalata.. On the south it is separated from the vice royalty The gold mine of Talca, which is situaied in this of Lima by the desert and district of Atacama, and district, is very productive. The copper of Coextends north seventy leagues to the district of quimbo is esteemed the best in the world, and Guasco. The town of Copiapo is situated in 26 contains a small portion of gold.' The French degrees 50 minutes sonth latitude, twenty leagues formerly imported this copper through Spain, and from the coast. It is small and inconsiderable; extracted the gold from it. Mining is carried for the only part of this district capable of cultiva. on by voluntary labor. The mita or conscription tion is the narrow valley which exiends from the of the unfortunate Indians, to toil in the mines, was Cordilleras to the town, the river losing itself in never practised in Chile. the sands beiween the town and the ocean. South! The port of Coquimbo is formed by the hend from the Hospederia de Yerba Buma, extends a lands of Teatimos and Pelicanos; and is one of the desert tract (travirsia) about thirty leagues to the best known, and the most secure of the Pacific. borders of Guasco.
It is situated in 29 degrees 54 minutes south lati. La Caldera Copiapo, the port, is situated in 26 tude. degrees 1 minute south la:itule.
The district of Cuscos, extends from the Core The wine of Copiapo is much esteemed, and is dilleras to the sea, and from Coquimbo south to of excellent flavor, but has not body to keep any the district of Petorca. Rozas is the principal length of time.
town. The district of Guasco, extends from the Cordil. The river Chaupo fertilizes this district. Near leras to the sea, and from that of Copiapo to the where it falls into the sea is a large lake, abound. district of Cuquimbo, occupying a line of coasting with fish. of thirty leagues extent. The principal town is. The district of Peterca extends from the Cor. small, and situated about sixteen leagues from the dilleras to the sea, and from Cuscos, its northern sea.
boundary, south to Quillota. The capital is Petor. The mines of gold in this district have been ca, sometimes called Santa Ana de Bribiesca. This abandoned; but those of copper produce annually district possesses gold and copper mines, and is eighteen or twenty thousand quintals. The king watered by the rivers Longotama and Ligua. On exercised the right of purchasing copper at seven the banks of the latter, stands the town of San and a half dollars per quintal, payable in Santiago. Domingo de Rozas; and near it, the settlement of In consequence of this monopoly, the miners pre. Placilla. There is a large Indian town in the val. ferred disposing of it to the smugglers, who gave ley, called Valle Hermoso. them fourteen dollars in gools. The mines of The port of Valparuiso is situated in 33 deg. 1 silver discovered in this district, in 1811, are the min. 45 sec. south lat. It is the most frequented richest ever known; the veins which have been in Chile, although open to the north and northeast, bitherto wrought, are near the surface of the earth, and to northwest winds, which blow with great and bave yielded ine extraordinary product of forty violence in the winter, accompanied with a heavy marcs, and soinetimes even sevenly marcs to the sea. caxon of ore.*
1 The town extends around the bay, from the cas. The port of Guasco is formed by tworocks, running tle of St. Antonio, for nearly a mile, and is separat. out from the island of Carnero, and Puini Expedi ed from the Almendral (a suburb of Valparaiso) tion. It is siiuated in 28 deg. 26 min. south latiti. by a low beach. The houses are irregularly scat. tude, and 75 deg. longitude, west of Cadız Stered over the sides of sieep bills, which rise ab.
ruptly from the shore, and extend along the ra. * The method of estimating the product in Potosi, vines of Saint Augustin, Saint Francisco and Go. Chile, and generally in Peru, is by the caxon of ore, mez; the ground being very broken and ruggel. which contains fifty quintuls, of one hundred pounds The country near the town is very burren, and all each. The marc of silver is eight ounces of eight| the supplies are drawn from Quillota. That abun. ochavas; each ochava of seven y-five grains. The dant district furnishes, at a very cheap rate, sup. cason of ore at Guasco produces forly marcs, or plies for the vessels that frequent Valparaiso. three hundred and twenty ounces of silver. In Stock of every description, fruit, potatoes, vegeta. Potosi fourieen marcs is the average, or one bles, and excellent biscuit, may be bought at : hundred and twelve ounces; and in Guanaxuato,! very moderate price. The best water is brought the richest mines of Mexico, the average is four from the Almendral, at some trouble and expense, ounces the quintal, or two bundred ounces the Until the late revolution, the only commerce Caxon,
I from this port was with Lima, between forty and Srp. To Yol. XVI.