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from a pine tree and makes a shelter that secures / Scott and bring him assistance and an escort.-him from rain.
After waiting with an anxiety that may be readily I passed where a little girl bad been shot through imagined, a sufficient time for the Indian to have the arm, and scalped, notwithstanding which she returned, he began to apprehend that either fort is in a fair way to recover Scalping is a custom Scott had been abandoned, or that the Indian had among these people, when they bave killed or been destroyed in attemp. ing to reach it. Ile de. wounded an enemy, by making a circle round the termined therefore to endeavor to reach an ludian top of the head with a knife, and stripping off the settlement, distant about 50 miles, although doubte skin; this is generally followed by a coup-de.graceful whether it was a friendly or hostile one. He with the tomahawk. Scalps are trophies held in wrote on the sand a statement of the rout he bad great esteem among them, and he who can pro. taken, intending, if the Indian should return, that duce the largest number is entitled to the high he might be able to find him, and in his weak ex. honors awarded a great warrior, a title of much hausted state proceeded. He had no guide but distinction among them. Frequent instances have the river, and his path intersected by creeks that occurred of recovery of persons who have been he had to swim, and swamps to wade through. scalped wben the other wounds they have receiv. He was compelled to travel very cautiously, the ed were slight. During the war of ihe revolution, woods being filled with hostile Indians, and unable end in the last war, the Indians employed by the to make a fire, and without clothes, he suffered Briíish government received their compensation much from the cold; he was without any arms in a stipulated price for each scalp they produced. but a pen knife, with wbich he cut clubs for him. I am sorry to say that the practice of scalping is self and the soldier, and be bad determined, should sometimes adopted by our frontier militia. The meet with two or three Indians in a body, he
The facility with which an Indian can discover would attack and endeavor to take their arms. the track or trail of man or beast, is really sur. He frequently saw tracks of the savage enemy, and prising: where an inexperienced observer is un- more than once warmed himself at fires they had able to discover that either bare passed, an In- just quitted. At length, after being four days dian will trace the marks with unerring accuracy, without tasting a mouthful of food, he reached an and be able to tell how many there were, and how Indian village: he found the warriors had all lefe long it has been since they passed. On all sub- it, and was received with great coolness by an old jects that it is indispensably necessary for them squaw, to whose hut he first went, and from whom to bave an acquaintance with, in the prosecution with much difficulty he procured a breakfast. It of their wars, or in the pursuit of game, they dis. is remarkable that although the general and bis cover an acuteness and sagacity very surprising soldier had been four days without food, yet, when considering their ignorance on abstract subjects. some cooked venison was placed before them, they
General Gaines bas tad a narrow escape-when felt little disposition to eat, and experienced no general Jackson arrived at Hariford, gen. Gaines, inconvenience from long abstinence. The general anxious to prepare his brigade for movement, and proceeded, and soon after joined the army. fearful that the officer commanding at fort Scott The Indians have but few ideas on the subject should, Unware of the approach of supplies, of religios; some of them have a vague indistinct abandon bis post, resolved on making the hazard. notion of a future state; they however give them. ous attempt to reach the fort. The Flint river, on selves little trouble or concern on that head. If which fori Scott is situated, was at this time very you ask the generality of Indians about their reli. much swoln, and its current exceedingly rapid and gion, they will tell you it is a thing we know nothwide. He embarked on board a boat with two ok. ing about. An intelligent one will inforın you that cers and twelve men. He had proceeded down the he believes there is a great spirit above who rules
river but 70 miles, when his boat struck upon a the sun and moon, &c. and that to those who - stump on an island then overflowed by water, the behave in this world like good warriors, he will : boat filled, but luckily did not sink. It was night; after death, give a country abounding with game;
major Wright and two soldiers immediately at. but if tliey behave like old women, they will to 10 tempted to swim ashore, but they perished in the one where there is no game or land to plant corn. attempt. The general remained on the boat about This is the whole of their theology; there is no one hour, he then prepared himseif to swim and such thing as prayer or worship among them.started with five soldiers and a strong active In. There is no prospect of their ever becoming dian, named Billy. The current was extremely Christians. Christianity is too learned a religion rapid and they had half a mile to swim. The In. for their comprehension, and the example of the dian had torn a piece of board from the boat to whites is not calculated to make a favorable im. wbich he attached a string, that he carried in his pression. And it is a melancholy fact that all the teeth, and by that means rendered the general efforts of the missionaries have merely implanted great assistance. They reached the shore, with among them superstitious feelings about what they a loss of three out of the seven that started. Gene do not coniprebend, of which wicked men among ral Gaines bailed the boat and informed major them have vailed ihemselves, and, under the nanie Nicks of the loss he had sustained, in consequence of prophets, occasioned all the wars that have
of which, those who survived remained on the desolaied their land. Lid wreck until day, when they all, except one, reached There are white men to be found with the In
the shore, opposite to that on wbich the general dian tribes, exhibiting the disgusting spectacle of a bad landed.
retrograde from civilization; men who have abandon. General Gaines now found himself naked, with-ed tlieir country and society, naturalized them. out food, in a wilderness surrounded by hostile selyes among the savages, adopted their manners Indians, who would immediately put him to death and habits, and become generally more vicious and if they discovered him. He decided on endeavor. degraded than the Indians themselves. But I was ing to reach fort Scott, distant as he imagined happy to remark that this base degeneracy, al. 35 miles, but he soon became weak, sick, ex. ttough sometimes the effect of choice, was more
hausted, and unable to proceed. He despatched / frequently the offspring of crime or necessity. - the Indian and a soldier, to endeavor to reach fort There is no greater reproacb, and nothing they
so much dread, as the stigma of cowardice. An ous manner of living, is not to be overcome. Her Indian woman once called her husband a coward; a rough barren rock, unfit for the hammer of the he walked deliberately up to a cliff of one hundred mason, the chisel of the sculptor, or the band of feet high, jumped from it and fell into the river the cultivator. by some extraordinary good fortune he reached Extinction is the inevitable fate of this race of the shore. Not satisfied with this display of his men. It appears destined by the God of nature that intrepidity, he immediately ascer.ded a second time, they should yield to the superior genius and intel. jumped again from the cliff, fell into the Alabama, ligence of the whites. And although it cannot be and was seen no more.
denied that they were the original holders of this Pushmatahaw, the famous Choctaw chief, hav. continent, and we are intruders, who have grade ing heard that a white man had called him a cow ally dispossed them, yet what wrong has been done, ard, he went to the factory, bought a barrel of gun. it is in vain to think of retracing, and as Christiana, powder, carried it to the village where the man as civilized men, we can have no regret in perresided, lighted a fire brand, and seating himself ceiving a race of men become extinct, after every on the barrel, challenged bis accuser to come and effort has been roade in vain to wean them from seat himself also, and he would blow them both up their savage propensities, and make them usefu The challenge was declined.
to God or society, and convert them from their . There are physicians among the Indians, who barbarous paganism, who have never developed a have no contemptible skill in the cure of gun-shot capacity for the altainment or exercise of any of the wounds, and the bite of snakes; their method of arts that adorn human nature, and who, notwithproceeding in these cases they keep secret. standing their sagacity, and occasional display of
The Creeks have few mechanical ideas--they superior acuteness, are, in the mass, entirely u. manufacture bousehold utensils and silver orna- tameable, savage, ferocious and ignorant, and can, ments for the nose and ears, but they are ill made, in comparison with the population who take their clumsy, and exbibit no indications of ingenuity. places, be considered as but one degree above the In this respect they are vastly inferior to the beasts of the forest. savages inbabiting the north west part of the con. tinent. Many attempts have been made by the United
Miscellaneous Scraps. States to civilize these people, but they have all Mammoth ideg.--A person travelling through proved abortive. Children have been taken from New-York, in one of his letters to his friends, 08among them, and every effort made to give them serves "Between Montgomery and Bloomingbits the advantages of education. But they have return the remains of a maminoth were recenly discover ed to the forest worse savages than before. Proper ed, the skeleton of which was in a good state of pre. persons have been sent among them to teach the servation. What a pity it is that this huge animal arts of agriculture, and farming utensils have been has become extinct. Had be remained alive until furnished, but they cannot be persuaded to culti- the discovery of America, and its settlement by vate their fine lands. Many have been taught me the whites, of how great a service be might have chanical trades, but they return to their own coun- been. Taking him to have been the elephant of try with a fixed determination never to exercise America, but much larger than that of Asia, and them. The U. States have been accused of pursuing possessed of the same docile disposition, witb an unjust and ferocious policy towards them; when wbat facility might he have been taught to assist in in fact they have been treated with parental kind. the abridgement of buman labor. With teams of ness. Troops are stationed to prevent intrusions mammotbs forests might be torn up by the roots, among them-trading houses established to sell rocks removed, and in short, agriculture could be them goods at a low price-individuals probibited carried on upon a scale commensurate with the from trading with or purchasing their lands-an vastness of our country. agent appointed to each tribe to live among them, In the orignial consiitution of things there seems and look after their interest, and no lands of theirs to bave been a happy correspondence of every part have ever been beld by the United States, that were of creation. For the narrow limits of Europe, the not acquired by fair treaty or purchase.
ox appears to be ampiy sufficient; the more rugged There are good traits in the character of an In. Asia possesses the elephant, whilst the mammoth dian. He is honest; theft is a crime much less com. was reserved for the extended plains, the huge mon than with the whites, and traders say they are mountains, the vast lakes, and the immense rivers remarkably punctual in paying their debts. The of our native America. persevering intrepidity displayed in various Wars, Horrible case.—Died, at Sullivan, (N. Y.) on the their bold, unsubmissive, inde;endent spirit, scorn. 12th Sept. last, of a cancer, Mrs. ESTIRB WHITE, ing to yield their national independence, much less wife of col. Solomon White, aged 66. Tbe cancer 10 submit like the blacks to personal slavery, are commenced on her upper lip, about 17 years ago. characteristics deserving the greatest respect. But Ulceration began about 10 years since. In its pro. they are vindictive, crafty, faithless and ferocious, gress it destroyed the whole of the face, skin, muse as untameable, and as incapable of being moulded cles and bunes, excepting about half of the lower into the ways of enlightened men, or the duties of jaw. For six months previous to her death she civilized life, as the tyger of the desert. Nalure had been a moving spectacle of horror; her bodily has endowed the blacks with intellect, denied to health being perfectly good, but totally blind, deaf the Indian; a negro can be taught all the arts of and speechless. She prepared her own food after it civilized life; and they have frequently developed was cooked, and with a spoon, but latterly with her a capacity to attain and practice the high branches fingers, put it into the æsophague or passage to tbe of knowledge. Not so the Indian; with more cou. stomach. After destroying the eyes and eye brows, rage, spirit and hardihood, he has infinitely less it made its way into the brain, and she died without pliability of mind. He delights in ignorance, his pain, or even & struggle, with a full reliance on the prejudice against civilization is invincible, and his promises of the gospel and perfectly resigned to attachment to a wild, unrestrained, savage, barbar.lihe will of her Ileavenly Father.
- Bank of the United States. , enable the persons really owning them to give as
10 proxies a much larger number of votes, than, ac. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES-FBB. 18, 1819,!!
cording to the fundamental rules of the charter, The house in committee of the whole, on the they were authorized to give, on the choice of subject of the bank of the United States and the directors, in order to obtain an undue preponderfollowing resolution, submitted by Mr. Johnson, of ance at the board. This was known to the judges Virginia, being under consideration:
of the election. What was the next course adiopted "Resolved, That the committee on the Judiciary to secure completely the interest of this fxvored be instructed to report a bill to repeal the act, class. I know not, said Mr. J, how to speak of it, entitled "an act to incorporate the subscribers to or of individuals who are not present to respond the bank of the United States," passed April 10th, to me. In what terms shall I describe the conduct 1816:”
of the president of the bank? There was a transMr. Joaxson, of Virginia, rose in support of his fer to him of 15,000 dollars, not in stock; both motion. The circumstances, said he, by which we witnesses concur in stating that the stock was not are now surrounded, are different, very different, transferred to him; that he paid nothing for it; that indeed, from those by which we were cheered, at it was a transfer of money, of profit made on stock the commencement of the present session of con. purchased and held by a few interested individuals, gress. All then was peace, tranquility, harmony, llarge stockholders, who sold 1,000 shares of the and prosperity. The president of the United stock held by them, for a profit of $15,000, and paid States gave to this house, and to the nation, a to Mr. Jones, in money, the amount of this speculapicture of our national felicity, truly interesting tion. Shall we call this a douceur, a present, or and flattering. The people of the United States shall we give it a harsher name? These monied were represented as more prosperous and happy, speculators, said Mr. J. who bave an eagle eye to than at any former period of their existence; as their interest, and pursue it with an appetite as infinitely more prosperous and happy, than any keen as death, are not in the habit of making pre. uther people on the face of the globe. What, now, sents to this amount, without some adequate and is our condition ? Surrounded by one universal interested view. Having pursued the course neces. gloom. We are met by the tears of the widow sary to secure to them a convenient weight and and the orphan. Pictures of highly wrought suf- influence in the direction, it became necessary to fering, of misery and ot distress, are crowded upon approach the president, to touch his pulse, to sofien us. Our sympathies are assailed. We are pointed his heart, and fix him securely in their interest. In to the bank of the United States, and gravely told, what light shall these honorable stockholders be that, destroy but this corporation, and you dissolve viewed ? Shall I be permitted to apply to them the charm which securès to the people of this na. the doctrine held on a late interesting and importtion prosperity and happiness. And is it possible, ant subject? That the instigator to bad actions, said Mr.J. that the ten millions of people in this is worse than the actor; that he who places in the country depend for their prosperity, their hap. hands of the assassin, the dagger to be plunged piness, and their repose, on the conduct of the into the bosom of innocence, is worse than the directors of this bank? This corporation, wbich murderer? And what has been the consequence by its very first act, put our authority at defiance of all this art, this management ? A few individuals
by the first step which it took, violated the have been enriched at the expense of the innocent charter which created it? Sir, I should consider and the honest. This shaving institurion-has it this country in the most deplorable, the most really, said Mr. J. any claim on the justice, or the melancholy condition, if the proposition be true, liberality of this house or of this nation ? No: jus. tbat by the act to incorporate the subscribers to tice hides her face; she wishes not to look at the this bank, which gives ihem exclusive privileges black catalogue of iniquities, which this institution for twenty years, we enable them to direct the presents; humanity would gladly drop the tear of destinies of this nation, and make it happy or mi. Oblivion on the sickening scene. Mr. J. said he serable as they shall choose. And what, he asked, could not speak of this subject in the way it desery. had been the course of conduct pursued by a ma-ed, but would proceed as well as he was able. jority of the directors? Had they pursued that Has this corporation, said Mr. J. by all the acts course which the public interesis pointed out, or of which it has been guilty, by the division of votes, had they been engaged in practising fraud and by the evasion of the second specie instalment, by corruption; in the prostration of all those princi. the judges of the first and second elections allowing ples which he considered as most interesting and many persons to give more than thirty votes each, most valuable to this country? I will not presume, under the pretence of their being attorneys for said Mr. J. that any member of this house, has others, in whose names shares then stood when taken less pains than I have done, in the examina. those judges, the directors, and officers of the bank tion of the facts disclosed by the report of the perfectly well knew that the shares really belonged select committee appointed to investigate the con- to the persons offering to vote upon them as at. duct of the directors of the bank of the United torneys-forfeited its charter! If the charter was States. Has any gentleman, he continued, read forfeited, what, he asked, was the remedy which the affidavits of Dennis A. Smith and James W. it was proper to apply? What the course proper DicCulloh, who entertains a doubt as to the facts for this house to pursue ? Here a difficulty pre. established by their testimony? What does their sented itself. The congress of the United States, evidence establish? Not that the public interest, as he contended, without authority, and contrary to or that the public good has been the object of a the constitution, had created this corporation, which majority of the directors of this institutior; but could not be tested by the application of the princi. that the interest of a few large favored stockhold. ple of any known system of laws in the world. Shall ers has been the constant and steady object of their we, said Mr. J. refer this charter to the st.ndard pursuit. What were the means used to obtain the of the civil or the common law? The Roman law complete controul of this bank? The charter was is represented to be the source of incorporation Fiolated; shares were split up and taken in the according to which law, a voluntary association pames of individuals not interested in them, to of individuals, at any time, or for any purpose,
Sup. To Von. XVI.
Was capible of producing it. In England, whenc-1 the people of this country, as a nation, the congress our notions of it are immediately borrowed, ii of the United States. We, therefore, said Mr. J. seems part of the executive authority. The king, have neither the common law nor the civil law, by by his letters patent, creaies corporations Shall which to test this charier. we then decide this question by the Roman or But, sir, said Mr. J. we have the charter before by the common law? I ask, said M. J. if either us. Let us apply the fundamental rules of the of these codes be in force in the United Siates ? charter, under the guidance of reason and common If he were not deceived by his memory, the su- sense, to the conduct of this corporation. Those preme court had solemnly decided that the com- rules wbich at its creation were imposed on it, to mon law of England was not in force in the United govern and direct its course, without a due obserf. States He understood the supreme court as bav. ance and obedience to which rules it must cease to ing seliled that question; but, if noi seliled, Mr esist. This charter has been violated; and the ques. J. said he should still contend, and felt himself tjon now occurs, has congress the power, the moral prepared to prove, that the common law of Eng power, to repeal the charter, or must the qurstion land was not the law of ine United States. The be submitted to the judiciary? Is ihe provision in first gettlers of this country, Mr. J. said, fled from the act of incorporation, which provides the remedy the civil and religious persecutions of Egland, of by scire facias for breaches of the charter, obligatory Europe; they sought here that independence and on the congress of the United States? Cannot the happiness which had been denied them in the power which created ibis corporation, dissolve it! countries which gave them birth. In this new world, Can the faith of this nation, Mr.J asked, be pledged on this expanded continent, they found themselves by an act which is contrary to the constitution of as free from the shackles and despotic systems of the country? Can this corporation surrender its Europe, as the winds and the waves which wafied charter? To whom would the surrender be made! them hither. They were capable of adopting any Would it be to a member of the judiciary, or to a system of laws which they thought proper to select, court, in session ? If so, to which member, or to With regret, he had heard it said in this house, wbich of the federal couris? Or would the sur. that our ancestors brought with them the princi- render be made to the congress of the United ples of the common law: that it was their birth States? He humbly conceived that the corporation right and inheritance, a sort of heir-loom. This he had the right to surrender its charter, that the sur. denied, and contended tnat they came here free render, if made, must be to the power by which from all municipal Jaws but such as they chose to it was created. He presumed that it would be adopt. True, many principles of the common law conceded to him, that the individual members were adopted by the first setllers, from choice, be-composing the corporation had the power and the cause they were best known to them. This was right to dissolve it. Put the case, that they failed natural. But what was the course adopied after or refused to elect directors, by wbat process could the revolution, which surely dissolved all the they be coerced or compelled to perform this duty ? charms of this boasted system of Bri ish juris. Some member had suggested that a mandamus prudence, and left the people of the United States, might be awarded. Whal, said Mr. J. resort to a as a nation, free to choose such sysiem of law as mandamus against an individual? Who would they pleased ? Look at all the legislation of the sue out the process? Such a process was some. states, afier the revolution, and after their respec- times resorted to by a superior court, to compel tive constitutions went into operation: they adopted an inferior court to discharge its duty. But it was for their own municipal regulations such portions the first time that he had heard of sueing out a of the common law, as were applicable to their mandamus against an individual. If the members situation, not contrary to their bills of rights and of this corporation neglected or refused to appoint consti utions, and not local to the kiuguom of Great directors, it would, as a necessary consequence, be Britain. Many years after the staie governments dissolved. bad been in successful operation, wben the princi- Mr. J. asked if this institution-if its members, ples of liberty and free government were well had powers over its duration and legal existence, known and clearly and distincily understood, by which congress had not? Had they created a the people of this country, the present constitution power greater than the creator? Had not the of the United States was adopied The people of power which spoke this charter into existence, also the United States, by this instrument, which is an the power to destroy it! Mr, J. denied that . original, social, writien compact, freely and volun- precedent legislature could, wy any act, bind its tarily entered into by the contracting par les, in successors; contended that it was at all tiines comwhich all the powers of the government are ex- petent for a legislative body to repeal the acts of prtosly enumerated and clearly defined, woich had its predecessors. That this congress, that this for its object the union and harmony of the states, house, would always be actuated by the strictest their security agains domestic disquiet and foreign regard to propriety to the immutable principles aggression and danger, io regulaie the intercourse of justice-Was fair, was proper to presume. But, of ine sta es with each other, and with foreign na. that it ought never to be resirained from repealing tions, ad pted for national and general objecis, and any of its own acts, or those of its predecessors, not wich a view to local and municipal regulations. when the welfare and happiness of the people re. Have the Unied States or the legislative power quired such repel; or from dissolving any cor. of the Uniied States, Mr. J. asked, by any act, poration, or supposed corpration, which claimed deciared che prmciples of the common law to be to exist by some law of the United States, wlien in force in the United States? They are ceriainly that very law had been grossly and palpaily violat. not recognised by the consilution of the United eu. He considered the right clear and indisputable. States. The principles of ihai law, fie said, were Is it expedient, under existing circumstances, to not suiied to such a governinent as ours. They exercise this right? He considered the policy were generally of a character siricily municipai: quaily clear and indisputable. He understood the they had never been adopted by legislative enac bank was now able to pay all its debts, and to meet tion; they had never been adopted by the only all its engagements. The claiins of innocent stock. branch of the government capable of giving law to holders can now be secured; they can now be protected from injury, if the corporation be im-minded, honorable gentlemen, who could sofien media ely dissolved. Permit it to go on, judging their president by a douceur of $15,000; those gen. from is p19t conduct, no man can tell what will tlemen, who, we are told, have strong claims on be he resul. If, in the three first years of its the forbearance of this house. Mr. J. regretted existence, it be convicted of such misuse and abuse that this picture, this horrid picture, would be of iis powers; if, during that period, the whole seen not only in this country, but woull necessarily tenor of its conduct be marked with acts of t.e be presented, in all its deformity, to the gaze of most glaring impropriety; and it be permitted to the world. I would attract the eyes of all nasions escape with impunity, who can estimate the con- to the United States. That country which hereto. sequences? Will it not hereafter put the power fore bad claimed, and received, so much credit for of this house at defiance? What reliance, Mr. J. the purity of its character; that country which we ask d, could be placed on the directors of the go. I have been told is still so prosp rous and so happy, vernment? From the report of the committee of in the forty third vear of its age, to have produced investigation, it would be found that they, or a monster of fraudan'l corrustion, without pas llel. por ion of them, had been guilty of as many viola. Even Eorland, bad as he believed her, could not tions of their duty as the private directors, and furnish a" i istitution more distinguished for adroit. characterized by the same culpable regard for ness in swindling and fraul, than this corporation. their individual interests, at the expense of the Sir, all Eirope will point the steady finger of scorn institution, and of the small and innocent stock at this grand shaving shop. holders. A due regard, then, Mr. J. said, for the Mis called the atientinn of the committee to interests of the small and innocent stockisolders the struggle which was made to re-charter the old would induce him to give his vote for the repeal bank of the United S ates, and the arguments which of the charter. Let the corporation coniinue, and were used on that occasion. He adverted to the the interests of this class will still be sacrificed feelings which were imparted to the general as. to the interests and views of the large and in sembly of Virginir, when a letter was received from fluential stockhol:lers. He would then secure the Mr. Giles, a senator from that state, on the subject innocent, by dissolving the charter: and they would, of his instructions to vote against the renewal of moreover, Mr.J. contended, have another security; the charter of the bank M, J. said he opposed for he held it a clear principle, that the president the reading of that letter; hut curiosity prevailed and directors were responsible, in their private for 1-iwas red It seemed to him, Mr. Ĵ. said, that tunes, for all their iniquitous and fraudulent acts, all acts were referred to the standard of motive. to those who had sustaine i jajniry; that the injured All actions appeared to be traced to some motive party had a clear remedy. These directors had lof interest or design. Instead of Loking to the undertaken to negociate for specie in Europe. one single and grand motive which ought to be The necessity to resort to this mode of procuring presurned to ani nate all in this house, the ardent the specie part of the capital, was the result of and pure desire to promote the public interest and mismanagement of abuse of their powers-of a happiness, there appeared to be an effort to attribuie violation of their charter-of an inordinate thirst motives much less noble, honorable, and disin. for wealth-of an ill judged desire to put their terested. He could not but believe that those who machine into mo:ion. By evading the payment, on sought with so much solicitude to establisb impure the part of the favored stockholders, of the second motives, were beguiled and led astray, by glancing specie instalment, this negociation was rendered at the mirror which reflected the motives of their necessary. How was this business conducted ? own bosoms. On principles of equity and justice? No, sir. An Mr. J. said he disliked to speak of himself: he agent was sent to Europe, to purchase specie; the would, however, to avoid the imputation of any contract was negociated, and the specie delivered interested or undue influence, take this occasion in this country, at an expense to the bank of to remark, that he had, on all occasions, voted $525,297 38; an expense which resulted from mis- against the incorporation of banks; that he voted management, and a fraudulent and culpable sys against the charter of the Farmers bank of Virginia tem of favoritism, ex ended to the large stock -the extension of the charter of the old bank of holders Mr. J said, as the large stockholders Virginia; that he was not a stockholder, nor ever received indulgencies and benefiis, which made had been a stockholder, in any bank; that he had the expenditure of this sum necessary, it ought to never applied fur, nor received, any species of ac. have fallen exclusively on them, and not equally commodation from any bank whatever. on the innocent stockholders, and the government, During the late war, at a period when the treawhich appears to have been the fact. And this sury was emp'y; when he energy of the nation apact, Mr. J. said, rendere:) necessary by a total peared to be paralized; when ruin seemed to stare disregard of the fundamental ariicles of the char. us in the face, we were toll, he said, that we milst ter, and for the purposes of individual speculation, have a National bank; that without it the war coulil was one for which the directors claimed credit not be prosecuted--the soldiers could not be fel, from the nation. Those humane gentlemen, said or clothed, or paid, to fight the battles of the coun: Mr. J. who have such claims on our justice; those try. Great efforts were made; a bank charter was artful gentlemen who can divide thiriy shares so successfully carried through both houses of con. ingeniously as to enable them to give almost as gress, and presented to the president of the Unit. many thousand votes; who can now weep for the ed States, for his signature. Surrounded, as lie widow and the orphan, who will be ruined by the was, by all the gloomy circumstances of the day, dissolution of this charter, who had hearts as hard Mr. Madison returned the charter, on the express as stone when in pursuit of their favorite object, ground that it did not provide sufficiently for the their idol, and their God-noney; who, to obtain interest of the government. The constitutional that desired and loved object, wealth, and its difficulties were removed from his mind; the subconcomitants, power and influence, would have lject bad been adjudicated, and put to rest. What feasted on the blood, and battened on the bones of was the consequence ? Some republican gentle. those for whom they now allect so much sympalby men, Mr. J. said, now within the sound of his voice, and sorrow; those disinterested, compassionate, high' must recollect the course pursued. A meeting was