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NEW SERIES. No, 24-Vol. IV.) BALTIMORE, AUGUST 7, 1819. [No. 24 Vol. XVI. Wrole No.'4.14

THE VASP=THE PRESENT—FOR THE FUTURE.

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY H. NILES, AT $5 PEK AYNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE,

As the present volume of the REGISTER closes cominon honesty in the governments of Spain and with the current month, and as it hath been the good Great Britain that the world will blush to witness, · Caxtom of a number of the friends of the work to pay We think tliat the treaty will yet be ratified, as : the year in advance before the current one was ex- soon as time is allowed for Spanish digitity to do

pired, it may eave trouble to remind such gentle business—but in any event, we trust there will not men and others, that a supplement, to cost one dol. be any further negociation on the subject. We have lar, is printing for this volume, and so far advanced dealt frankly with Spain-the treaty was every as to be finished by the time that the volume is com- way advantageous to her, as well as convenient to pleted. This supplement contains many valuable us, and it is time that the spoliations on our com. debates and public papers, and other things which merce and the use of Florida as an enemy's country. were thought necessary to a history of the times, or were settled and terminated. If she will not act otherwise proper to be preserved, for reference or upon these as she ought, after so much entreaty, let aingischent,

the consequence be upon her own lead. If Britain *.*To printers of nerospapers.- A large exchange interferes, it will be a quarrel of her own seeking, is kept up wib papers that are of no manner of use and though to be regretted, it will effect a perina. to the editor of the REGIETER, on the liberal princi- nent good by relieving us of the vassalage in which ple, however, that the difference is price was gene. we are now held through her manufactures. rally to be paidarrearages on this account must The U. S. ship Franklin lately visited Cadize. de discharged and the advance for the year for "Old Benjamin” was a grand negociator. warded, or the exchange will be stopped on the 1st of Sept. next. This resolution is not intended to MORE NEWS! We have a report that the emne. affect such publishers as the editor has felt it right, ror of Russia has demanded that the king of Printa on any account, to make a compliment to of the sia shall abdicate his throne, in favor of his family. difference in price.

There is not any probability of truth in this. titAnother number on the "mitigation of slavesy," part in type, was laid aside to make room for the account of the trials of certain persons,as pirates,

| Labor-its Products and Checks. at Richmond. The series shall be completed with The transfer of any considerable portion of a po. the volume.

pulation, situated as the people of the United States

are, from the productive to the consuming classes GREAT NEWS FROM Spain! The United States ship though now severely felt, does not seem to be unIlornet lett Cadiz on the 2nd ult. and arrired at Newderstood, as to its operation. We will endeavor to York on the 30th. Capt. Read, bearing despatches, shew this operation as briefly as we can-always reached Washington city on Monday last.

recollecting, that in this country there is no neressie We only learn tbat the treaty for the cession of ty for any one to be idle, on account of a superfluity Florida, &c, was not ratified on the 22nd of June, of laborers, and that we receive commodities to a the day that capt, R. left Madrid.-that wliether it vast amount from abroad, which ought to be made at would or would not be ratified, was uncertain-itbome. Hence it is, that tho'a superAuity of laborers being said that Ferdinand's ministers were oppos. does not exist, there is a severe want of employment, ed to it from fear of exciting the displeasure of Great It is estimated that there are 20,000 persons dhidi Britain, and it was idly reported by some, that the seeking work in Philadelphia--in New York, 10,000 grand expedition, intended for South America, al- able bodied men are said to be wandering the streets most ready for sea, of 18,000 men, &c, would be di- looking for it, and if we add to them the women rected to the protection of the Floridas..

who desire something to do, the amount cannot be It is understood that Don Onis, who so suddenly less than 20,000 --- in Baltimore there may be about left our country after the treaty was concluded, wit 10.000 persons in unsteady employment, or actual, succeed the marquis De Cassa Yrujo, as prime mi. ly sufering because they cannot get into business. nister of Ferdinand. Yrujo and his family were We know several decent men, lately "good livers, ** strangely taken from their dwelling in Madrid who now subsist on such victuals as two years ago, about the 20th of June, and have not since been they would not have given to their servants is the. heard of. Some suppose they have been murdered; kitchen. Here are 50,000 persons, in three cities, but the crimes imputed to him are unknown. wholly or partially idle. Admit that they obtain

If Onis thus succeeds Yrujo, and the treaty is not half employment just enough to keep them from ratified within the period of its limitation, which becoming an incumbrance on others, and arerage expires about the 24th of this month, the act can the value of what they might earn at only fifty cents bear only one construction-that of a deliberate per day, and the amount of logs is-12,500 dollars design to heap insult on injury, and the course of per day-75,000 per week-two millions per month, 30 proceeding which we ought to follow will be clear. &c. Here we see how it is that the want of employ ly indicatect-- which is to redregs ourselves, if we strikes at national yealth: the cities however, are al. can.' And, if the British ministers, aftertheir expli- ways overcharged with unproductive persons, ás

çit avowal in parliament, that they had no right to well as infested with idlers; but now, thousands whom - interfere in the matter, have interfereil, we may con.) are best disposed to support themselves decently

clude that they have also resolved to take part by labor, are in a state of positive suffering-bewith Spain, if a controversy should arise on ac. cause they have not any thing to do. count of her misconduct to the United States. Wel After a series of cautious calculations in 1817) see, are very inwilling to believe that either of these REGISTEH, vol. XII) we came to certain conclusions Things can happen: they would shew a wayt of which we shall now use as data, 1.pon simply a

Vor. XVI.-- R6,.

tempting to shew that they may with propriety be, merce stands to the liome market as 45 is 772, or a assiuned as such.

one is to 'seventeen! YET THIS COMMERCE IS TO BE The aggregate annual yalue of all the n.

| PRIZED AS TENDING TO FIX THE VALUE OF TH: GENERAL agricultural products of the U. S,

AMOUNT PRODUCED, SO FAR AS OXE MAS SCPPLIES THE including the product of the forest,

WANTS OF ANOTASR, AT HOME OR ADROAD. the food for borses, grain distilled,

The value of the importations of the year (1817) &c. was estimated to amount to 8462,534,000 is not estiinated, though the official table is given in And the like aggregate of all other

the present volume. The real foreign cost of thein articles consumed or used, to sup.

in 1816 was estimated by a very intelligent friend, ply the wants and wishes of the

and published in detail in vol. XV,pages 210, 211, of people, at . . . . . 310,000,000 the REGISTER, at 139,500,000 dollars; which were in

part paid for by exports of domestic and foreiga $772,534,000 goodsto the amount of 81 millions leaving an ap

parent balance against the U. 8. for that year of The amount of the exports of tirat

47,600,000,year, of domestic articles, was : 68,313,500. The imports of 1817, though excessive, were not

so great as those of 1816; but on the principles of This amount, enormous as it is, will not appear the estimated value of those of that year, they may extravagant, when by the simple rule of three we have amounted to in

o . 110,000,000 know that it gives only about the seventy eight dol. And were in part paid for lars to each person, to feed and clothe him, furnish by domestic produce ex. bis drinks, support his horses, build and repair his ported . . . 68,313,500 houses, (so far as manufactures are consumed there. Foreign commodities, do. 19,358,069 87,671,569 in), furnish all sorts of implements and working Apparent balance against tools, except on account of the labor immediately United States, 1817 ,

. $22,328,431 employed on them, &c. &c. &c.* Indeed, we are convinced that we are much below the real amount From the elements furnished by the precedof the cost of the articles thus consumed in the ing statements and calculations, we shall noir United States, by nine millions of people-whose make some deductions as immediately applicable clothing, alone, we have valued at 178 millions, into a consideration of the things before us. part of the 310 just above given. .

The balance of trade against the United States, It is proper to remark that the exports of 1817, when Europe is at peace, must be satisfied thusamounted to a greater value, in part owing to the 1. By the exportation of specie, and thereby de high prices of cotton, tobacco or bread stuffs, than range what otherwise might be a wholesome paper any year before.--In 1816, the amount was nearly currency., 65 millions—but the average of 15 years, from 1813 2. The transfer of our government and other to 1817, both inclusive, was only about thirty nine stocks, wherein the profit, or interest thereon, is lost millions. The returns of the year 1818, are not to our cowitry forever, and the principal itself must yet published, but will shew a much diminished a- be refunded. mount, and we are doubtful it those of 1819, will 3. By bankruptcies among our importers, now exceed forty-five millions, if they come up to that plentiful enough and spreading havoc through sinn. We mean of domestic articles, of course.t the social body-affecting labor in all its various

But taking 45 millions as the proper amount of pursuits, and destroying confidence between man our exports, and comparing it with the above 772 and man. millions, the value of articles produced in the Unit. (We do not know how the balance is to be ed States, or needful to the wants and wishes of the satisfied for the time being, in any other way--but people, and we see that our boasted foreign com- pay-day as to our stocks, must corne; and if the dis.

charge of the pitiful sum of 82,600,000 of the Loui*The support of puupers in the United States, for siana debt has caused, (as some pretend to say that food and clothing, &c.bas an average cost of more it has the present great difficulty 23 to money mat. than 45 dollars for each person. See sundry state-ters in the U. S. what must we expect from the ments and returns on this subject in the REGISTER: mighty sums hereafter to be sent to Europe on ae. an average of $78 cannot, therefore, be esteemed count of our other stocks held there!)

? too high, when we recollect that that sum includes But there must needs be an end to all thresere not only the amount expended for food and clothing are rapidly approaching it at this time, and the but for all other manufactured goods or articles in sooner we prepare forit the better. A regard must any wise consumed.

be had to POLITICAL ECONOMY-We cannot muck Some French economists several years ago, ésti. longer neglect it, if we would. Until now, the remated the whole product of the labor of France to sources of our country had supported as in carrying give about 600 francs for each family say about 20 on a pernicious trade--but these resources are neardollars for each person. It is not easy for an Amely exhausted, and frugality must be the orderof the rican to imagine how a people can be supported at day. The government will soon feel the effect of that rate. But the manner of living ainong the these things on individuals; and a great diminution French is very different from our's-one person in of revenue, as derived from duties an goods importthe United States consumes as much of value here; fed, ought to be calculated upon with certainty, for as regulated by money, in the meat which he eats, years to come.. as would maintain a peasant's family in the interiors' Let us now consider the effect of an estra imporof France.

ftation, on home industry. The operation is the 4A very sensible writer estimates that our cotton same as that of an export to foreigners an excess of this year, will yield us not so much as it did in the last importation regulates the price of lomestic fabricks by 10 millions, that in the value of bread stuffs ex. just as an export to foreign countries fixes the price ported, there will be a deficiency of between 4 and 5 of all the commodities that it partially deals in. It millions, and in tobacco of 3 millions. In these is important that this should be clearly understoock three articles, eighteen millions of dollars.

and we shall attempt to explain it.

Admit that the price of wheat is 100 cents per those who inmediately manufacture for their own bushel. A certain district of country produces use; nay, even the latter are affected by it--for eve. 1000 bushels more than its inhabitants can consume, ry one puts some ideal price on the value of their though 10000 are consided within the district labor, and a man or woman will rather be perfectly one half by the growers of the grain, leaving 5000 idle than work to produce an article which, if they bushels for their profit of cultivation, or to pay the have the means of buying it, they can buy for less blacksmith, shoemaker, Traiter, &c. and purchase than one half of such ideal value. The loss by want articies of clothing, sugar, coffee, &c. whether of of production is thus added to the loss of price on foreign or domestic product.* Now it would appear goods made for sale, and the aggregate is enormous, advantageous to the cultivators to destroy the excess This we think, must be evident to every reflecting 1000 bushels, to keep up the price of the 5600 that mind. they have to spare; for this 1000 of positive 'er. It is a great mistake when the consumer of such cc83 will reduce the price of the whole [spare] quan- goods (other than the original manufacturer) always tity to 75 cents per bushel; on the other hand, a de- believes that a reduction in their price is advanta. mand for 2000 bushels when only 1000 could be geous to himself.* Itis so, to persons with fced salaspared, would raise the price to the neighboring ries, such as officers of government and others who consumed to 150 cents per brish.

fin any way live upon incomes, whose amount is not The demand, therefore, like a little leaven, "eas to be changed by probable circumstances. But veneth the whole lump.”

these are a very small part, though a powerful one It is thus also in respect to manufactured articles in society, and their case is of no importance to a --if a certain district of country consumes only 1000 liberal consideration of the subject. Nine tenths, yards of cloth in a year, and 1100 are brought into if not nineteen twentieths of the people have more it and must be disposed of therein, the aggregate or less a dependence upon a market for the products value of 1100 yards will be less than that of the icoo oftheir labor-and it is no matter to what purpose

would have been. The ercess makes a drug in the that labør is appropriated, if the person applying it & market, and as every one would be desirous to re does not immediately consume its product by him

lieve himself of such excess, a depreciation of self or his family. If the profit in any branch of bu. price on the whole quantity must obtain. But the siness is too small to subsist a person comfortably, it Íoss by such depreciation is only the beginning of follows that in a country like the United States, evils.

where land is plenty and the people few, and every In the last three years it may be agreed, that we one has liberty to pursue what occupation he pleia have received cotton and woolen goods, &c. to the ses, he will abandon it as soon as he can, and take amount of not less than 30 inillions more tban the up another that is more profitable. An excess of regular market required-that is, to the value of 10 persons in profitable employment follows, until millions a year. Though this amount is less than that too becomes unprofitable, and another change one fourth of the general value of such goods im. is necessary. It is for the benefit of every class in ported, we see that it has cffected a reduction of society, that each class, usefully employed, should price in the whole quantity, cqual to 33 1-3 per earn a comfortable subsistence-So one class may cent. The common distress of the dealers in dry.Ideal liberally with another, and money have a rapid goods affords us lamentable proof of the deprecia. Icirculation. Let us try to make this appear. tion which we speak of. It would then seem evi. We say that the people of the United States an. dent that if this excess of 10 millions per annum, nually consume bread stuffs, meats and domestic li. had been sunk to the bottom of the sea, at the loss quors to the amount of'. . . 253,612,000 of those concerned in manufacturing, shipping or That it costs for the support of their importing it, or of all together, that the generall horses . . . . . . 61,000,000 profit on the business at large, would have been in- Add, for sugar, &c. i. '

6,000,000 creased-supposing that a general profit has been made, sid ,

Vegetables, meats and drinks +$320,612,000 . But this excess strikes at the whole amount of Add for the foreign export of such goods manufactured or consunied in the United things . ........ . 20,000,000 States. We take it as datum that the whole cost of . clothing the people of the U. S. amounts to 178 mil

340,612,000 lions (sce vol. XI, page 273), of which, for the sake Now, it seems that the foreign market will take of the exposition, we will admit that the foreign sun-off only one seventeenth part of such agricultural pro. ply might rightfully be 30 millions, the rest from our ducts-yet that small part, regarding the general own manufacturing establishments, including all of product as merchandize, fixes the rate of valile on hats, leather, &c. &c. and the product of household the whole amount. ' Stop the export altogether, or industry, the most desirable of all. But the little ex-raise bread stuffs and meats for the foreign market cess just ahove stated, only one sevententh of the to the amount of 40 millions, when only 20 can be sent whole quantity, having first prostrated the price of away (supposing the crop to be otherwise as usual), all foreign goods with accumulated power attacks and it is probable that the price of every barrel of the domestic fabricks, and depresses the value of four made for sale will be reduced one fourth. The all made in the United States, beyond the wants of general profit to the farmer is thus reduced 25 per

cent. on its whole value, so far as it is controvertable *We learn that a large quantity of wheat has arrived at the eastward from the Mediterranean--] "It is an immutable truth, which cannot be too 5000 bushelsin-ope parcel, a part of which bas been strongly impressed on the mind by being too often sent to New York and sold for fifty cents per bush-urged, that it is the ability to pay for an article which el. It is thought that this wheat will not make as constitutes the value of its price to the consumer. The nice flour as our own, but it will probably make the man that earns $10 per day, niay buy green peas sort called fine.?!

at $2 per peck; but the laborer who get 50 cents, Let the principles established in this essay be ap. must purchase' potatoes, or some other cheap veste plied to the fact before us, for the refiertion of the table. political economist.

See rol XII, page 277.

into inoncy, or exchangable for coinmodities which dollars, in the sum of 7000! These things are stated ho wants, except some small diminution in the cost of, for example only. The proposed consumption of labor paid for by him, of very little effect on the tobacco, by the cotton planters, would not amount aggregate product of his farm-and he has to give to much as to quantity, when compared with the four bushels of wheat for soinething which he might whole crop raised; but the value given to it in the have obtained for three. This is a severe reduction new market would be equal to almost one sixth of of profits.

all that it produces by export. We see that a Again the present product of cotton for the clemand for one seventeenth part of our bread stuffs supply of the world, is more than equal to the wants and meats, gives life and spirit to the great number or wishes of the people for cotton goods--or else of persons engaged in growing grain and rearing greater than their means to purchase them; for cattle, and may thereby appreciate the effect which it is a fact, that the sale of such goods is violently this proposed demand and value given to tobacco, forceil. But the lands that might be appropriated would generally have upon that commodity, and to the cultivation of cotton, are equal to the supply the comparatively small number of persons engaged af twenty worlds like this, if the people thereof desir- in its cultivation-ever recollecting, that it is the eri the commodity and we would open a trade with 'amount of and demand for the SURPLUS, that 'fixes them. To localize the matter and give force to the price on the whole quantity of anarticle, whether tiesc important facts, let us suppose, (and it is not the product of agriculture or manufactures.' very far from the truth, that the general amount of - Here againletus remark, that if the value of a comdic cotton crop in the United States may be esti. modity is appreciating in consequence of a foreign mated at 130 millions of pounds-rather more than demand, all persons engaged in producing that com. one half of which may be exported.

modity and all those whom they principally deal That very accurate observer, Mr. Darby, in his with at home, are prosperous. An extra demand valuable tract on Louisiana, tells us that a person in Europe for double the amount of our coinmon ex

produce 180 dollars per annum---or, in other words farmer located at Green Bay, on lake Michigan, so 12001b, to the hand-See vol. X. p.355). Then it far as he raised a surplus of grain beyond his family appears that to produce the aforesaid 130 millions, wants. The reverse of this takes place when the it will employ about 108,000 persons, and no more; value of a commodity is depreciating, because there but say they only raise 1000lbs. each, and they will is no demand for the ordinary surplus--if the suramount to 130,000. We have lands enough in plus be of extraordinary amount from uncommon the United States fitted to the growth of cotton, to goodness of crops, the depreciation in price is not employ at least two millions of hands. But suppose we so material, for the unuşual protit may still be reatransfer from tobacco, &c. only 130,000, and what lized, would be the state of our cotton planters? Can any By thc progress of science and the arte, as appliman believe that this simple operation, (a thing cable to every branch of human industry, the fact. which indeed, is now rapidly going on) would not appears very evident that the capacity of productions reduce the general price of cotton at least one third: in the population of the civilized world, is far beyond

Would it not reduced it 50 per cent? We think the wants, wishes or means of the people, in a state that it would. The demand is nearly or quite filled of peace and regular consumpidi. Hence it is, up, but the capacity to produce the article is of an that in thickly settled countries, where men are enormous extent. It is then the interest of the cot. plenty and land is scarce, that much distress and ton planter to encourage the growth of tobacco, misery prevails-assisted however, by the heary &c. and better that he should pay one dollar per taxes laid upon production for the support of des. 16. for what he wants for bimself, than that it should potic governments. But in the United States, bé so reduced in price as to lead to the transfer of where land is plenty and men are scarce, and the 130,000 laborers from Maryland, Virginia, &c. demand of government is comparatively light, erto the cotton-growing states. But the reverse of tre misery cannot easily prevail, if the laboring this was the argument of our cotton planters, in re-l people are content to live on potatoes, and bread made spect to demestic manufactures, in their late pros- of the offals of our grin, as black almost as a man's perous cultivation. Let us see how a planter with 50 hat, as millions do in Europe, cating meat only once working slaves, might be affected by these prin- in a week or once in a year. This however, does not ciples of things

suit our appetites, and we will not agree to it, if we 50 hands will raise 50,000lbs. of cotton at

can help it. No one has a better right to live well. 15 cents, or ...

than the man that works for his living; and in this Deciuct from the profit, 10lbs. of tobacco

country, happily, the most of these are an integrat for each hand, at S1 pcr lb. (which is

part of the government and may influence its deci. about the whole value, perhaps, of the

sions, and command-that labor shall hate its reward. clothing which is bought annually for

It is no matter to us, at present, that the world is slaves) - 500lbs. . . . 500 overstocked with laborers--that their surplus pro

ducts are sold at such prices as sends tens of thouProfit of the crop 7000 sands of them supperless to bed; this is not our case Put ifthe labor appropriated to tobacco, because it vet-We can live by ourselves and of ourselves, in#ill fetch only 3 cents per lb. be transferred to the dependent ofall the nations in the world; and it is cultivation of cotton, and the price thereof is depre-our design, to enjoy this state of things as long as ciated only one fifth, instead of one-third, as we be we can, by a de apportionment of labor, so that all lieve that in such a case it must be, the amount would being reasonably employed, may be happy in indus. stand this:

try without crudgery, and have as much of good 50.000lbs. of cotton at 12 cents . - 6000 things as they desire to eat. But, as before obDeduct 500lbs, of tobacco at 3 ccnls' • . 15-served, a general surplus is created, and the

market is forced by depreciated prices, thus insi

5985 | Kuously attacking the capacity of production, and And the difference o‘the annual profit would be causing people to buy what they might just as The several of the whole, wanting 15 dolars; 985 l well make for themselves. Hence it is tbat wary

pestilence and even famine, are regarded as par- that every person could be usefully emploved eight zial benefits by some speculatists, that their waste or ten hours in a day, at a wholesome business, of commodites and of life itself, may furnish vents there is no doubt but that society would be bene. for the one, and diminish the means of furnishing fitted by it-but when oppression makes it necessitgoods by the other. We well recollect the effects of ry that a person should labor sixteen hours in a day our late war, trifling as the contest was compared to live meanly, the state of the society inust be miwith the mighty efforts of European powers. It serable indeed. We, more than any other people did not draw off or divert from their usual avocations on the globe, have the power to regulate this of life, more than a hundredth part of our population, may encourage labor and at the same time promote Laking in all persons engaged in the manufactures the happiness of the persons employed, leading and works pertaining to it; yet business was them to independence, and increasing by their pro. üvely, every body seemed to have enough to do, duction the strength of our country, through popu.

and the products of agriculture, except such as lation and wealth. inainly depended on a foreign market, were at high The fact is the time has arrived wlien someprices. These facts are mentioned simply tớ shew thing more than professions will be required of our that there is little, ifany surplus laborin the United executive officers and legislators, in favor of home States; if the war had lasted three years more, eve-industry. Enough has been said about friendly disry person, male or female, from old age to infancy, positions to support it. The distress of the people desirous of employment, might have easily found has reached an alarming extent, and there is no conit and at liberal wages.

siderate man in our large cities and towns that looks The return of peace and the great importation of to the approaching winter, without anticipating foreign goods, has materially changed the state of scenes of misery such as he never before witnessed. things. We begin to feel the noiseries of the peo-The great political questions which heretofore agiple of the old world, and it is now necessary that we tated the people about democrats and federalisti, should defend ourselves. The superabundance of are lost in the weighty matter, whether we shall suf our domestic products, that we can find a market fer at home for the profit of foreigners, or support for abroad, cannot stand in competition with the our own people in all their laudable undertakings? perfected labor of the old nations, assisted by ca- Whether we shall become wretched by a suicide-lepital and machinery, in the manufacture of goods--gislation, or regain health by a wholesome adminisbecause one person there so assisted, produces a tration of our resources—whether, to make a pleavalue equal to that of many agricultural persons sant-looking treasury report, shewing a balance of here. It may be easily proved, though as an agricul-eight or ten millions in favor of government, we tural nation only, we might not starve for want of will agree to continue to sacrifice many tens of inilfood, ihat we should have to forego most ofthe con- lions which the people ought to have and enjoy. Let forts and conveniencies that we now enjoy, and every freeman take his stand 101-110w is always no longer clothe ogrselves in broadcloths and silks, the best time to do a thing which cair be done, if it --for at the very highest prices for their our sur ought to be donc-let every man pledge himself to plus apticles of agriculture for export, they never liis own conscience to refuse his countenance and have amounted to70 millions, whereas it requires 178 support to any person inimical to home industri.. Inillions to clothe us, as we are now clothedmand This paper dabbles not in party politics-it never we want thousands of other things, for: as many interferes with the persons of the ins or outs-but. thousand purposes. As simple agriculturists we the editor frankly confesses he is disgusted to learn should become almost as poor as Arabs, and be as that English paper, for an example, is still used in çöhewers of wood and drawers of water to nations the PUBLIC OFFICES at Washington city; know. more liappily combining the power and resources of ing, as he does, that American paper, good enough agriculture, manufactures and commerce, to produce for the proudest man in the world to write upon, can national wealth.

be hati and at 25 percent, chcaper, (or more) than' l'o exemplify this.We hear of a manufactory at the foreign article costur-and that this manuWaltham, in Massachusetts, which with about 300 facture, working up a raw matcrial which without persons, assisted by 200 power looms and other it would be wholly lost to the country, and emplov· machinery, manufacture about 450,000lbs. of cotton, ing a great number of persons, men, women and making about 1,250,000 yards of cloth, of an average clildren, flags for want of its consumption. This Value of 25 cents, per annum, equal to S312,500 brings to mind a piece of impudence which has be. Deduct the raw cotton at 18 cents per lb. 81,000 fore been noticed in the REGISTEN-some fellow was

----- bold enough a short time ago, to get American pro

$231,500 |tections printed, (whiclı, by the bye, ourlt never to This gives a produet equal to more than 700 dol- bave been written or printed at all) on British pa. lars for cach hand-- three fourths of whom at per, water-marked "London!" Of paper, the edileast, are women and children, to give a profit on tor may be presumed to speak against bis interest, the capital and make a profit for themselves. There if that interest can be affected by the exclusion of is no product of a riculture that can compare with British and other foreign paper- for lie causes a this in amount o profit to the country, though not consumption of the article to the amount of nearly so great to the individuals who own the manufac- 5000 dollars a year, and if it were to raise 25 per tory, on account of the heavy investment of capital, cent. in consequence of such exclusion, he should cost of repairs, &c. all whiclı, however, is kept not receive one cent more for the products of lis within the home circulation, and tends to make mos establishment than he does now, on that account. ney “plenty,” as the saying is. : .

. But he has no reason to fear any thing of the kind It must be adınitted, that the capacity of labor in competition will keep down the price to a reason. ilie United States, is yet fur short of its ultimalepio-able profit, and the happiness of many thousand słuction, as compatible with the happiness of sociviy. persons would be increased by its encouragement Constant, regular employment, is conclucive to and extension. health and morals--idleness is the fountain of evil, Finally--the Alpha and Omega of our politics is und source of disease. Application to business is a--that the people of the United States shall be se. sery different thing from crudgrijanifal wore olvired all their natural arrel righifi.ladrata: 5-*

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