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cannot be concealed, that its progress has received was looked upon with a distrustful eye. In order a sudden check, and society labors under the shock to its retardat:on, to keep them poor and dependent, of a rapid recoil, the discussions of political parties, they were forbidden to manufacture, and compelled sink into minor importance, in comparison with to supply their wants from England. Even the the great principles of the prosperity and happi- earl of Chatham, who is considered to have been ness of the people and of the nation. These are the friend of America, as he was thic advocate of the priuciples that should rise paramount in the her rights, was still so much an Englishman in this view, occupy the thoughts, and animate the feelings respect, he was unwilling that a single hob-nail of every citizen of the great American republic. should be manufactured in America. Divesting yourselves, therefore, of party feelings, The cultivation of the soil to its greatest extent, prejudices and partialities; casting aside, as dero-excited no apprehensions, that it would enable the gatory to the character of American citizens, the colonies to hecome independent. England well petty jealousies of sectional interests, take into knew, that in the mutual exchange of raw products candid consideration, that system of policy, which for manufactured goods, all the advantage was on in the early etablishment of our government, was her side, the loss on that of the colonies; she, theredeemed best to comport with our interests as an in- fore, restricted them to the cultivation of the soil, dependent people. If its principles should appear except permitting a few handicrafts of first necesto you just, and the reasoning by which it is sus-sity, and the fisheries to the New England colonies, tained, consonant to truth; if you should be satis. which raised no productions she required. fied, it is the best adapted to our present and pro. This system kept the colonies in a wretched coubable future circumstances, you will not hesitate dition. They were totally destitute of the precious to trust to it, for the advancement of individual and metals, either to constitute or regulate a currency. national prosperity.
Every hard dollar that found its way into them, was An enquiry naturally arises into the causes which immediately exported to England in payment of led the government, after having matured this sys. debts. “Those that are acquainted with America, tem, and contemplated its adoption, to lay it aside. I know as I do," said capt. Luttrel in a debate in par'.
They are developed in our commercial history, and liament, "that from Rhode Island, northwards, they will be found to strengthen the principles and have no money, that their trade is generally car. views on which it was erected, and for which we Wried on by barter, from the most opulent mer. contend.
“chant to the most necessitous husbanrlman. Sir, The peace concluded in 1783, continued undis- before your fleet and armies visited their coasts, turbed. Europe offered but partial markets to our you might almost as soon have raised the dead, as productions, while it closed its commerce to our "one hundred pounds in specie from any individual marine. The annual value of our foreign exports, win those provinces."* was less in amount, than the annual value of our In order to procure some kind of currency to consumption of foreign commodities, and we pos- make those mutual exchanges, which the wants of cisessed no collateral sources of wealth to compen-vilized life render indispensable, and which cannot sate the deficiency. The government had assumed with convenience be effected by barter, the coloa large debt, which subjected it to a heavy annual nists were forced into various expedients. They interest; other expenses were accumulating, the altered the standard of money; they issued paper increase of which might be confidently anticipated; money of different kinds; they constituted it a leand the prospects of revenue from foreign com- gal tender. But all was ineffectual. While they merce, or an impoverished people, were but gloomy. had to hire workmen in England to perform their In these circumstances the attention of our states labor, they could not retain their gold and silver, men, must have been directed to internal resources, which was sent to pay wages abroad. Altering the Yet, from this quarter could be derived little to in- standard did not affect the value of gold and silver, spire their hopes. Commerce brought no money which conld not be restrained by an arbitrary limiinto the country; circulation was limited and slow; tation; and their paper money having no guarantee the industry or labor power of the country was but for its safety, constantly depreciated. partially exerted, and consequently much wealth Such, it was known to our government, were the lost, that might have been created. Without a cir- results that had been produced by a commerce en culating medium, and full employment for industry, gaged in the exchange of the productions of the soil, revenue must have been oppressive to the people, for manufactured goods. They could not, there. of difficult collection to the government, and uncer- fore, anticipate, that a similar commerce, would tain in its proceeds,
have other effects; and consequently, that by such The difficulties of the colonial governments, and a commerce, a metallic currency could be given to the evils endured by the colonists, were then fresh the people, or even a metallic basis acquired, for an in remembrance, and tbeir causes were well under- adequate paper curreney. There was then, no stood. The commerce, to which they had been other course left them to pursue, but to adopt the limited, was that, which at this time is recommend manufacturing policy of Europe. By supplying a ed to our adoption. Confined almost exclusively portion of those wants with our own industry, for to the tillage of the soil, they exchanged their raw which the colonies had been coinpelled by the paproductions, for the manufactured articles of the rent country to hire and pay for labor in England, mother country. This kind of barter, or conutual would diminish tre amount of our imports, without' exchange," to which the colonies were forced by diminishing the amount of our exports. Because the colonial system of England, kept them poor to England took from us no more of our productions, favor industry at home. This commerce, to which than she really waited, and those she would take the jealous policy of Great Britain limited her colo- under any circumstances, while the other nations to nial possessions in America, it was acknowledged which we traded, were never influenced by other both in and out of parliament, in the colonies and views, than the mere supply of their wants. Thus in Enzland, and cannot now be denied, was in the balance of our trade with the West Indies, tended solely to render them subservient to her in which had always been paid in specie, but imme, terests, to which theirs were unhesitatingly sacriSiced. Their progression in wealth and power,! "Parliamentary Register.
diately remitted to England, would have ben re- sumed their usual peace policy. The object of this tained in circulation; while a portion of the balance policy is, to foster their own marine, agriculture and with France and the Mediterranean, would also have manufactures, to the exclusion of those of other nafound its way back to this country, instead of al- tions. We consequently had lost the commercial rewars being transferred to England. In this manner, | lations, that had existed in a state of European war. and in this manner only, in a state of general peace fare. In fact, we reverted back to our old commerin Europe, could a circulating medium have beencial positon, prior to the French revolution, or when procured, that could be kept pure, free from de- colonies. Had this circumstance been understood, it preciation, and fluctuations.
would have been seen, that the same effects would But the rapid occurrence of events, wholly unex-l have grown out of the same causes now as forinerly. nected, unfolded new prospects, and enabled the | Tlie principles, views, and reasonings, adapted to United States to acquire, with ease and rapidity, the then situation of the country, it would have been the wealth and power necessary to give stability to perceived, were again applicable. But the habits their recently formed institutions. In the midst of and modes of thinking, which had been formed
be agitations of the French revolution, the crops during twenty years of a lucrative commerce; the failed in France, and other parts of Europe. At once complete mutations which had taken place in the a market was open to our agricultural production, commercial world, during that time, learing few stimulated to its greatest energy. The labor power individuals possessed of a practical knowledge of the of the country, was instantly employed to the full effects of a general peaee, on the interests of the estent of its capacity. The war that soon ensued, country, occasioned the revolution our commerce and involved almost every power in Europe, consti- | had undergone to be overlooked or disregarded. tuted us at once the carriers of an immense com- Most of those engaged in cammerce, who also, it inerce. Our sails swelled on every ocean, and our will be recollected, preside over the monied institu-' flag streamed on every shore. Every doilar of capi- tions which regulate our currency, had little other tal we possessed or could borrow, and every hand in experience of commerce, than such as.existed dur: the nation, before idle, found employment. A roading the wars of the French revolution. They natuwas thus opened to a rapid acquirement of wealth, rally supposed, that it would continue to work the and it was a natural policy to pursue it. The capital same effects, as during that period, except, in smaland industry of the country, before stagnant and deler amount. The failure of two successive crops in pressed,rushed into the new formed channel. Manu- Europe, in 1815 and 1816, which stayed for a time, factures under these circumstances were neglected, the operation of the new state of affairs,'served to and the project was dropped. All the benefits that continue this delusion. The time, however, is not were expected to arise from them, were to be ob remote, when we shall be awakened to the true se tained with certainty and expedition, by prosecut. tuation of ourcommercialrelations with Europe, and ing our newly disclosed and widely extended com- its consequences. The evils, which now press on inerce. Wealth rolled in apace, and the metallic us, many vainly flatter themselves, are mere tempo, capital alone, in the space of ten or twelve years, rary effects, similar to those, which have before was increased to twenty or twenty-five millions of arisen from slight derangements of commerce. We dollars. But the whole of this prosperity, depend. are firmly persuarled, they are of a very different ed on contingencies. A gerieral peace in Europe, character, and of a more formidable nature. We vould bring it to a close. As it was, we could not have no doubt, that they are the same, as the evils enjoy it undisturbed. The celerity of our progress, under which this country suffered, when coloniese awakened the jealousy of a rival. It was sought to and during the peace subsequent to the revolution. ciestroy, by new principles of national law, the ad. The sooner we satisfy ourselves, that such is the vantages we drived from our neutral character. The case, the earlier we shall extricate ourselves from difficulties that pere thus generated, terminated, the embarrassments, that must grow out of this posi. Anally, in war, which arose, let it be remarked, not tion, in which we are placed. We propose to enter froin a spirit of manufactures, but from a spirit of into the examination of this subject in a future commerce. The expenses and sacrifices necessary number, and trust we shall exhibit hy a comparison foits prosecution, were in fact, a tax upon the coun- of the commerce of the colonies, and the effects it try, in favor of commerce, yet it was cheerfully produced on them, extracted from authentic docuiborne by the agricultural and manufacturing intements, with the present commerce of this country, rests.
and the effects now begun to be felt, that they are Out of this contest, the nation canic with an ac- of sirpilar character. We fear, that from this view ccssion of character; whilst the rapidity of circula- of the subject, though little flattering to our pride, tion, the full employment of capital, and its reten. it will be apparent, that after baving expended the sion in the country, caused individuals to feel but best blood of the nation, and millions of treasure to Jittle comparative distress, notwithstanding its bur-shake off the yoke of colonization, we have volun. i hens. The attack directed against the physical tarily avlopted the colonial policy of England, and strength of the country, only served to develoge its placed ourselves, with respect to her, and in truth to powerand resources. The war now waging against most of the world, in the situation of colonies. From its moral strength, has paralised its energies, and this state of humiliating and injurious dependency, Faid it prostrate in the dust. It is no exaggeration the United States are bound to vindicate the sore. to assert, that the two last years.cf peace, have pro-reignty of a free people. Forin vain will they make duced more commercial embarrassitwit and distress, I pretensns to a perfect independence, while they a greater destruction of capital, and increase of in-lincur, through the mediumn of their; wants, all the
vidual misery, than was caused by the whole war; consequences of subjection. ' and instead of invigorating, bave enfeebled the naton. This apparent anomaly deserves to be examined.
Land System. We believe its solution will be attained in the fol.
FROM THE NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER, ouring considerations. The general pacification of The following article, from a correspondent, Durope, had preceded the treaty of Ghent, and inost whose hand-writing betrays to us the author, is of the powers of the eastern hemisphers, had rosa entitled), from the standing and long experience is public life of the writer, to a conspicuous place in The titles to land, as so ascertained, are derived our columns:
from the public authority, wliose arm is extended to . There has appeared in the Intelligencer* an ex- maintain the rightful possession. The efficacy of traordinary publication, dated General Land Office, this protective power is recognized in the wilderJune 29, 1819. The publication is stamped with ness, which is traversed by adventurous science. authenticity by the signature of J. Meigs, the well It is recognized in that navigation, without sails or known commissioner of the office.'
oars, moving on the waters which distinguish and It is rich in precious instruction. It exhibits the and enrich this empire of freedom. land system of the United States in practical opera. See those vessels, with the agency of steam, action-settling the wilderness and converting the vancing against the powerful currents of the Misdesert into a fruitfull field.
sissippi and the Missouri! Their course is marked A novelty in the records of empire, the fact is by volumes of smoke and fire, which the civilized given to the world, with a character of indisputa- man observes with admiration, avd the savage with ble verity. The commissioner, indeed, does not astonishment. Botanists, mineralogists, chemists, seem so have recollected his own scientific atten- artizans, cultivators, scholars, soldiers; the love of tions and labors, in his disposition to award merited peace, the capacity for war; philosophical appara. “ praise to others who have contributed to the prac- tus and military supplies; telescopes and cannon, tical excellence of the system. But his liberality garden seeds and gun-powder, the arts of civil life towards them cannot hide his merits from the pub and force to defend them all are seen aboard. The lic eye. . .
banner of freedom, which waves over the whole, Of the land system of the United States, as exhi-proclaims the character and protective power of bited in the publication, he has said with truth, the United States. “So wise, beautiful, and perfect a system, was never Greece in its wisdom, Rome in its grandeur, Eq, before adopted by any government or nation on rope in its glory, never realized a system so deserta, earth.” In regard to the rights, and dignity, and ing the admiration and applause of human kind. happiness of man, it triumphs over the legislation
HAMPDEN, of Europe and laughs at the barbaric pomp of Asia.
Among a free and brave people, but in a rude age, before genius and science had thrown a ra. Expedition up the Missoum. diance over the western world; among the nations From the St. Louis Enquirer. The Western Ena from the north, who formed settlements amidst the gineerset out from St. Louis, Monday, June 21, to ruins of the Roman empire, as we know from the ascend the Missouri. · We understand that she is history of more than a thousand years past, there not limited to time, and will proceedat leisure to exwas adopted a system of territorial possession, which plore the vast region of the Missouri, and of all her had in view the certainty and security of titles to tributary streams. 7he cause of scientce is exceedle landed estates. Their mode of approaching their ingly interested in the results of this expedition. objects is observable in the forms of their original Every body knows, who knows the Missouri river conveyances. With palpable deficiency in sci- at all, that she differs in all her qualities, attributesence, the mode was imperfect; yet it marks the va- and characteristics from all other rivers in the lue attached to indisputable land titles by the free world; her water cold, rapid, light, muddy, sweet men of an unlettered age.
and salubrious; the atmosphere through which she Centuries have elapsed since that system was flows dry and elastic, and so favourable to health perverted by changes and abuses into the land te that the yoyagers and tradera consider themselves pures of Europe. It has been reserved for the as leaving disease and sickness behind, the moment freemen of the United States to realize objects they enter that stream of the river.-- What is agreed which were so desired, but could not be attained, in by all mankind, literate and illiterate, must be by the nations who founded a new system of empire so; but though all are sensible of the astonishing in Europe during during the sixth century of the qualities of the Missouri water, and the unrivalled. Christian era.
Thealthiness of the climate through which it flows, And such objects are of extensive importance for it belongs to the learned alone to tell the causes.purposes of cultivation and social improvement. A region so vast, so different from all others in air Giving a permanent basis of civilization, the cer- and water, must have a vegetable kingdom of its tainty and security of land titles are eminently wor- own, and the botanist will coubtless find abundant thy the attention of an enlightened and free peo- subjects for the employment of his talent. In the ple; for, in a system of freedom, two objects are history of the white, or grisly bear, the zoologist essential. The first is, to ascertain the boundaries will discover fresh.cause for covering with contempt of right: the next, to secure the observance of such that theory of the count Buffon and the Abbe Rayboundaries.
nal, which attributed to nature a disposition to Look at the system of the United States, with re-l belittle her animal productions in the new world. ference to these objects! No other country or age this bear finds no parallel in the old world among las produced a land system so sublime in princi- the rest of his species, eitherin his size, his strength, ple, so perfect in practice, so magnificent in pros, or his dauntless ferocity. Beyond the Rocky Mounpect. It is a glorious policy which draws wisdom tains, if these should be passed, a still nobler infrom heaven, to fix the boundaries of right upon stance of animal production will be found. The earth. . With a glance from heaven to earth, cast.horse of the Columbia river, taken all in all, is per. ing an eye on the map of public surveys, philoso-haps the finest animal of bis kind in the known phy can declare the longitude and latinide of every world. He is derived from the old workl, but infarm,"
stead of degenerating, has improved on the banks The principles of the system are taught by astro- of the Columbia. Fineness of form, fulness of all nomical and geometrical science. They have the the muscular parts, docility of spirit, capacity to exactitude of mathematical demonstration They sustain great fatigue, to provide food for himself, are durable as the globe.
and to hunt down the deer and the buffalo for his
master, are a part of his characteristics.-- The geo* Sec Last ne of the Regisier, page 362. , Diogy and mineralogy of the country will present
enquiries of great interest. Different parts of the
Tons. 95164 region through which the river flows, exhibit clays 'The registered tonnage, as corrected and earths of great fineness and most uncommon at this office for the year 1817, is composition, from the properties of which the river stated at . .
809,724 70 is supposed to derive its peculiar qualities. The The enrolled and licensed tonnage is Rocky Mountains have not yet been examined. slated at
525,029 59 They are supposed to contain minerals, precious The fishing vessels - , . 65,157 7 stones, and gold and silver ore. It is but of late they have taken the name of Rocky mountains, a
Amounting to 1,599,911 41 name which imports nothing appropriate or peculi. The tonnage on which duties were ar, as all mountains are rocky. "By all the old tra- collected during the year 1817, vellers they are called Shining mountains «from an amounted as follows: infinite number of chrystal stones, of an amazing Registered tonnage, paying duty on size, with which they are covered, and which when each voyage .
. 765,742 37 the sun shines full upon them, sparkle so as to be Enrolled and licensed tonnage emseen at a great distance." (Carver.) The same ployed in the coasting trade, paying early travellers gave it as their opinion that in fu- an annual duty . .
468,999 54 ture ages these mountains might be found to contain Fishing vessels the same . . 62,508 94 more riches in their bowels than those of Indostan and Malabar, or which are found on the golden
1.297,250 93 coast of Guinea, or in the mincs of Peru."
Note. Duties were also paid
on tonnage owned by citi.
zens of the United States, Emigration Table.
engaged in foreign trade, Amount of emigrants whose arrival in the United not registered
12,185 86 States was reported in the newspapers received Ditto, coasting trade, 2,207 51 at the office of the WEEKLY REGISTER, for one week, I. commencing on Saturday morning the 24th July
14,303 42 and ending on Friday the 30th, both inclusive. : Total amount of tonnage, on which duAt Philadelphia, in 13 vessels
743 l ties were collected .
. 1,311,644 3F New York
420 The registered tonnage being correctBaltimore.
ed for the year 1817, according to Boston
84 the mode prescribed for the governNorfolk 1 «
40 ment of the collectors of the several Alexandria
districts, as stated in the communi.
cation made to congress the 27th
1424 February, 1802, and in conformity From whence-Liverpool . .
. 454 with the intimation contained in the St. Andrew's, St. Jobn's, Halifax 354 register's letter of the 7th DecemAmsterdam
186 ber, 1811, may be considered neariy,
157 the true amount of that description
- 809,724 70 Harre - .
| The enrolled and licensed tonnage is Grenock . . . .
stated at the amount upon which London . . . . . 35 the annual duty was collected in Bremen - .. .
1817, on that description of tonnage, About 100 more may have arrived at other ports and may be considered as nearly the and in vessels whose passengers were not reported trile amount .
468,999 54 in the newspapers.
Fishing vessels, the same . . 62,508 94 The time has been when we were pleased to see the progress of emigration it is now painful to The district tonnage of the United observe it, because of the want of employment for States, is stated at ." . . 1,341,233 28 our own people.
Of the registered tonnage, amounting as before
stated, to 809,724 70 tons, there was employed in District tonnage of the United States.
the whale fishery 4,874 41 tons.
I beg leave to subioin a statement (marked A) of Letter from the secretary of the treasury, transmit the tonnage for the year 1817, compared with the
ting the annual statement of the district tonnage amount thereof, as exhibited in the preceding an. of the United States, on the 31st December, 1817. nual statement for 1816; with notes in relation to
Treasury department, January 13th, 1819. the decrease and increase of the registered and eni SIR-I have the honor to transmit the annual rolled tonnage respectively in 1817. statement of the district tonnage of the United By this statement it appears that the States, on the 31st December, 1817, together with total amount of new vessels, built in an explanatory letter of the register of the treasury. the several districts of the United
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your States, was obedient servant, WM.H. CRAWFORD.
Registered tonnage . 34,614 10 The honorable the speaker,
Enrolled do." - 51,779 27 of the house of representatives.
Total amount of new vessels Tons, 86,393 37 TREASURY DEPARTMENT,
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, Register's office, January 13, 1819, your most obedient servant, SIR, I have the honor to transmit the annual
JOSEPH NOURSE, Reg. statement to the 31st December, 1817, of the dis Hon. Wm. H. Crawford, tin tonnage of the United States.
gecretary of the treasurya