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toiocco, &c. in proportio!, and the fact will be the U. S. has failed, through the unreasonable obstishewn that our exports will have produced in the nacy of the secretary-who demanded security for present year the enormous amount of twenty mil. the payment of the draughts of the government. lions of dollars less than usual;then will the agri- A most unmerciful departure from the modern culturalist value the home market as he ought, and principle of banking, the essence of which is a blind the importer of British dry goods, not able to pay considence in the ability and integrity of the rag bafor them for want of really-money purchasers, quit rons.” Some arrangement, however, has been the practice. When our opponents are thus con- effected with the bank of Steubenville, which, pervinced, they will believe what we have always told haps, has not thought it cainreasonable” to give the them, and deliberately go along with us into a regu- requisite security, and its notes are considered as lar system of laws to support dopestic industry. A j"and office money." casc exactly in point occurred ppimltimore several Counterfeit notes of $100 on the Louisiana bank, years ago: The streets of this city are first paved are extensively circulated. They are so well done under the superintendence of commissioners, but at that the bank will not issue any more notes of that the requiest of a majority, and cost of the holders of denomination, and the public are advised not to give property on them. The commissioners were teazed currency to them. to pave a certain street-some of the people said, We have cautioned our friends in the western "come and look at it--we are knéc-deep in mud, a country, several times, against counterfeit bills, 5's horse can hardly draw an empty cart through it; we and 10's, on the Marine bank of Baltimore-yet besecch you to do something for us."-But the ma- nearly half of our remittances beyond the mountains jority was wanting, and the commissioners coull not is in such stuff. This bank has very few notes out act; but they consoled the applicants by saying, and the people westward may rest assured that “when the mud is deep enough, you will be attended to.ninety-nine in a hundred, at least, of those that they So it went on, until sometimes it was almost impass- meet with, are forgeries. able-the majority then consented, the street was STATE SOVEREIGNTIES.– The Natchez Press says: paved, and it was soon made, and continues to be, “We hope to find room in our next paper for the as clean a street as any in the city. Let the mud get decision of the supreme court of the U. States, in deep enough!

the case of M'Culloh, (cashier of the branch of the BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. It has been intimat. U. S. bank in Baltimore,) vs. the state of Maryland, ed that Mr. Cheves, president of the bank of the in which, in our humvle opinion, the last vestige of U.S. in a late visit to Washington, urged the ne- the sovereignty and independence of the individual cessity of a suspension of specie payments by the states composing our national confederacy, is obli. biink-in consequence of which the following ap- terated at one fell sweep. But we kvo's not that it peared in the Aurora of Saturday last

matters much, for our privileges as a people have "We are authorised by unquestionable authority been of late so frittered away, that we may as well to say, Mr. Cheves, president of the bank of the Unit-inter, at once, the form of a constitution of which the ed states, made noapplication directly or indirectly, spirit has been murdered. In truth, the idea of any to the secretary of the tresury, or any other person country's long remaining free, that tolerates incorwhomsoever, to prevail on the president of the porated banks, in any guise, or under any auspices, United States, to authorise the bank to suspend is altogether delusive.” specie payments. That, on the contrary, it is his decided opinion, that specie payments ought to be

CESSION OF CUBA. maintaied: and can without difficulty be inaintain-! A late southern mail brought us a report of the ed by the bank.”

cession of the island of Cuba to Great Britain. In Another report is in circulation, perhaps with no addition to the paragraph below on that subject better authority than the preceding, that the presi- from a Savannah paper, the Charleston Courier dent of the bank had advised a postponement of states, that letters received there (Charleston) from the payment on account of the Louisiana stock, Havana also gives a strong color of probability to which is to take place in October next--and that the the transaction. One letter says, that implicit faith secretary of the treasury peremptorily rejected it. was put in the rumor when it was ascertained that

A third report is, that the object of Mr. Cheves' it originated from a letter of the Spanish ambassavisit to Washington was to obtain the sanction of the dor at the court of St. James, to his friend in Havana. president and secretary of the treasury, to pay the From the Savannah Republican of the 8th insi. debentures of the United States with the notes of We have seen a gentleman just arrived from Haany of the branches of the bank. This would seem vana, in the Post Boy, who states that admiral PopTeasonable, because the bank is compelled to re ham was at that place with three 74's and two fri. ceive such notes in payment of duties. But, all pay- gates that he was making arrangements with the ments made by the United States are considered governor for the transfer of the island of Cuba, which as being made in lawful coin, and the bank fairly lit was reported had been ceded to the British gosuffers this inconvenience on account of the advan.vernment, and it was said would be given up at the tage derived from the public deposites.

expiration of nine months. Our informant further It is certain that much twisting and turning is go-states that it was talked of generally in Harana, and ingon; whether for good or evil, time will develope. believed by many, that a cession of Cuba to EngA severe set has been made at the state banks, ge- land had absolutely taken place that private let. nerally, and the bank of the U. $. is powerfully re- ters from Jamaica tended to confirm the report; yet, straining the issue of its own notes. This will af. that the inhabitants of that island (kd not appear to fect its dividends, and compel the local banks that be inclined to change their yoke, but were warmly continue to pay their debts, to reduce their's, disposed to declare themselves independent. and probably szut up many of them. To wich, 0We consider this report wholly unfounded. however, if it were rightly done, we have no sort of The British admiral, we believe, has arrived at Haobjection.

vana with the commissioners who were to do cer. TREASURY ARRANGEMENT. A letter to the editor tain things under the treaty with Spain respecting of the Register informs, that the expected arrange the slave trade. It can hardly be expected that Ferment of the Cincinnati banks with the treasury of dinand has ceded Cuba to Great Britain, until we hear that he and his ministers are prepared to leave enemy of the human race, without any claim on socie. Madrid, to enjoy the spoil of their country in a fo- ty but for a gibbet.* And, when we see the magnireign land-for, Mexico excepted, this island is the tude of the evil caused by the importation of slaves, most valuable possession of Spain, and as the key to though the punishment of death is insufficient for the the rest she claims in Amenca, of incalculable im wretch whose avarice increases it, yet we hope the portance.-- En. Reg.

time is at hand when our laws will consider it as the highest of.cice which can be committed, that of

treason exlupted:-murder is a virtue compared Mitigation of Slavery-No. 3.

with it, for murder is inseparable from the pursuit of PROPOSITION THE SECOXI).

this business, in addition to the future disadvantage «That it is true wisdom to exalt the minds of the and distress that must flow from it. It is true, if

slaves--to invest them with correct ideas of the there were no purchasers there would not be any moral duties, and encourage them in the acquire- importers of slaves-still, there is a distinction bé. ment of a qualified property.”

tween them, as between wilful murder and man. It is most expedient-perhaps, we ought to say it slaughter. The truth is, that the condition of our is indispensably necessary, that the people of the southern brethren, in general, is very delicate and United States, and especially those of the states difficult, and rather challenges our sympathy than south of Pennsylvania, should look fairly at the pros- provokes invective, if we judge them as we ought. pect before them as connected with the business of self-preservation is the first law of nature, the negro slavery, and calculate its consequences. When common foundation of the actions of men; and the leaven's artillery” is playing over our heads, and citizens of those statesin which there are few or no man humbled into a sense of his own insignificance, slaves, cannot accurately estimate the real or sup. acknowledges Truth, the closing of his eyes to posed necessity of all the local laws enacted respectavoid the glare of the lightning has no effect to ing slaves; without which we must consider many of change the direction of the shaft: but the more them as being unreasonably severely, if not wantonprudent guard against its destructive power through ly barbarous. We are not about to justify any of the means which philosophy has afforded for the these laws--there are some of them that the writer purpose. Nor is there any possible good that can of this would have refused to sign, if the want of his come of our retiring from a solema consideration of signature could have prevented their operation, linthe question, when and in what manner are the der the penalty of having his right hand chopped slaves to receive emancipation?-an event that we off; yet he can feel charity for other mer, as good look upon as certain as that man must die, though as he pretends to be, who judge such matters dit. when and how is unknown to any of us. We ap- ferently, through education and manners, and can prehend that no reflecting person doubts one of appreciate better than he can, what is called the exthese more than the other; but in respect to both pediency of them. But let us all endeavor to discowe too much desire “a more convenient season" to ver some course of policy that may redeem us of the give them that consideration which thicir great im- evil, with a due regard for the interests of the masportance demands. We are not disposed to fix the ter and the slave-preparing the latter for an emantime when this mighty event must take place, by vio-cipated state. To give him freedom at once, in his lence, if means are not used to give it a safe direc-present lack of understanding, would be worse than tion, while the power to adopt them remains: but throwing pearls before swine,''t and it is also ne. we think that if slavery increases for 25 or 30 years cessary for the good of all parties, that the freed more, at the rate that it has done in like numbers of negroes should not be extensively mixed with those years past, the period is as long as can be allowed to to whom liberation is denied. We have abundant its existence, inits present form and pressure. If so, proof of this melancholy truth in Baltimore-the all will agree that the time is short enough to effect tree blacks among us are less honest and correct, such reformations and establish such improvements less industrious and not so much to be depended in our policy as may ward off the blow, and relieve upon, in any respect, as the well-treated slaves; and us of an otherwise inevitable war-a war which of they are generally, less happy. Besides, their house all the wars of modern times, must be the most pro-es are shelters for the disaffected and bad, and too digal of human misery. Nor is it useful to discuss frequently the depository ofstolen goods, and scenes the principle of slavery, for every man's reason is of the lowest debauchery. We speak en masse convicted of its wrong, and no one advocates it ex- but with great pleasure bear a contrary testimony cept from a regard for his slaves as property, or in in favor of several individuals that we happen to a supposed necessity, that as slavery exists it must know, who are ornaments to the class of dav-labou remain so; considering also, that the blacks are not rers. There are many good reasons why this state qualificd to provide for themselves as they ought to of things should exist among freed negroes, and es be, before they are emancipated: and, by our pre-pecially so if associating with slaves. Having so long juciices and antipathies, so powerfully obstructed in labored for the benefit of others, without the hope their march to a respectable rank in society, if to of a reward to render toil pleasant; they commonly be attained by them in general. There is a vast consider labor as an oppression, and rarely, if ever, distinction, and we wish to express ourselves freely indulge in those dreams of future independence upon the subject, between those who hold slaves which commonly lightens the white man's weary and such as traffic in them. Among the former, we way, and supports bim in severest drudgery and know that there are some of the most amiable men keenest privation: work is to them the enemy, al. in the world, bountifully invested with every good ways to be avoided, if possible; for the idea of acă quality that prevails in the heart of man, who de-quiring property, real or personal, beyond their imprecate the evil and deplore the necessity of its du- ration, and would gladly embrace any suitable plan "We lately noticed the execution of a person in that could be devised to accomplish the liberation North Carolina for negro stealing--another is to be of their blacks, without ruin to themselves and the hung on the 28th inst. for the same crime, in South objects of their solicitude. But the other is a cold Carolina. calculating villain, which language has no terms suf. When we speak thus, we always refer to the ficiently strong to describe in his true colors--an common field slaves of the south.

mediate wants, rarely crosses their mind and they from the eye of the master and submit to his will will make a thousand shifts rather than seek em- with reverence, to avoid punishment--the notion ployment, unless pinched by instant necessity; not that he is become a man is never entertained by setting it at the moment they want it, they lay bim; there is nothing to excite emulation or stir up hold of any thing within their reach, the property a praise-worthy ambition. Even when the father, diof others, to satisfy their wants, or indulge some sen- rected by the master, takes his offspring to the field, sual gratification, unless restrained by the fear of (if still permitted to reside in his parents' cabin)detection and punishment. This cont in the free and puts an instrument of agriculture into his hands, blacks exceedingly slackens tle zeal of the friends he teaches him only so to use it as to spare his back of emancipation, and is the source of great triumph from the lash - he cannot tell him to use it skilfully to those who totally reject the expediency of it. It because he must earn his future living by it, for the is easily accounted for-ninety-nine men out of a father has no idea of earning any thing; the sole and hundred, give higher importance to things as they whole object ofattention,isto do so much in a certain are, than to what they may be-- without much re. manner and certain time as will excusu him of lazi. Hecting upon what produced them, or what may be ness. Emulation is checked as the common enemy produced by them. The education of the white of the gang; for if one, by superior activity, excels people is essentially different from that of the black, the rest, all are inade to suffer on account of that When the poorest whiteman in the United States) activity,--and he who exerts it must abandon it, un. has a male child born, he receives and encourages der the penalty of being charged with a high crime, the hope in his bosoin, that his son will arrive at a a kind of treason, against inis own parents, compabetter situation than that in which he himself is;- nions and fellow slaves. Further, and what is ex. he looks forward with confidence to the time wlien ceedingly important in a consideration of this mat. this child, tauglit soine useful trade or profession, ter, avimit that the child had wiat we call a strong inay rise to respectability, and redeem the condition natural mind, that he had organized to himself a habit of his parents from a portion, at least, of the oblo- of thinking, and the result was that he shewed an quy and disrespect that then is attached to them, uncommon aptitude to reason on any subject preand be blessed with all the comforts of life. The sented to him; he would be generally regarded as a infant is educated on this high and lionorable princi. dangerous character and treated with caier severiple, and at tiree years old he has some idea that he ty on account of it; closely watches frequently will be a man-some pride of himself, some faint chided and punished, and probably, be separate impressions of dignity of character, which never can from his friends:--or, if the master siould be a hube wholly eradicated from his heart. If it hap- mane man, regardful of merit, he might take such s pens (which is not often the case with a native slave from the held for a house servant, and thus ab. American) that the father cannot read and write, or stract his intelligence from the common stock of the has felt the want of a knowledge of other branches numerous class. Under such views of the condition of learning, the parent already begins to lay down of our slaves and of slavery, is it reasonable to essome scheme, or indulge some hope, for the future pect that the blacks should be invested with corinstruction of his son, and delights himself with a rect ideas ofthe social duties or moral virtues-that prospect of the advantages which he will derive they can have tolerable notions abont property, that from it. There are few persons of the description great, we had almost said, sole stimulant to honest instated, in the United States--however depraved they dustry? The whole study of the slave, is to live along themselves may be, however deeply sunk in misery as easily as he can, just to do his task in task time; he and wretchedness, and however inattentive they cannot care about “getting done soon" that he may generally appear to the interests of their inay enjoy a relaxation from toil, because his task is children, who are totally careless of their education, regulated by hours, and if he does it easily a heavier and without trusting that they will be better one will certainly be imposed on him, and he will off' than their parents have been. Who can calcu. also injure and additionally oppress his fellow-lalate the inozal force of this inestimable persuasion borers. With such an ethication, and under the inof the human heart, and measure its effect upon the fluence of such habits, we may as easily expect to infant mind? We cannot cither calculate or messure hear of a white man learning Greek and Latin the power of these things, though every man who without books, or any one to converse with him considers them for a moment, may satisfy himself of about such languages, as to hope that negroes can the magnitude of their strength, in laying the foun- reach the standards of propriety wlach we have fixed dation of all the moral and social virtues. On the for our conduct and established for theirs. It is true, other hand, let us consider the state of the common many of them know the general iference between negro slave, the qualities of whose mind yet fills right and wrong-the policy of their masters with that of the freed black. When he has a child born, the force of discipline, bas taught theni that they if he reflects upon the subject at all, as to the future shouli not steal; and so far they have a notion of prodestination or fate of his son, the general idea strikes perty without being able to solve its inysiery; darkly him, that he will always remain as he himself is- enquiring how it is that all the good things whicla slave; subjected to abject obedience,consigned to in they raise, and all the surplus food that they culticessant labor, and without a hope of reward; nor vate, is locked-up from them. Still, he told them it has he the consolation to believe that any good pro- was wrong to steal, and the impression that it was so perties in his child can in any wise alleviate his own has been made upon their backs, and they have felt burthens, or afford him comfort in his old age. He that the master thought so. Yet there was not any cannot anticipate any thing but juisery from the moral force that induced them to refrain from it. birth-no thing that is pleasant, can light the path nothing but the far of detection caused them to be of his infant to manhood; and the whole amount of honest. the education which the child receives, is to shriek Such is the power of the combined operation of

these and many other things which might be men*We use the word "seducation" in what we consi. tioned, on the benignited mince of a negro, that he der its original sense "the bringing up of children cannot shake them off, though emancipated, but by and ynuh:"the teaching of them, we understand to the esertion of virtues that would exat a white man ini un instruction in literature, wasic or mystery, Sc. io a tigh rank in society. He has every thing to learn-even to learn to think. And further, how can negroes-to give them something to be grateful for, we expect chastity in the females, violated by ruffian to restrain them by a silent monitor within, more hust, or seeking in it the solitary enjoyment which productive of obedience than the fear of the sword their situation affords them? We have reduced - for it is ever-present, them as far as we can to the state of brutes, and yet We shall continue the subject and offer a scheme demand of them an observance of the great princi- this purpose-not original with us, but one that has ples which we expect to find in men! The education been practised by an individual, to great advantage that we give them is of the character which we give in the West Indies--the object of which is to eleto our horses, and not much more-but who would vate the character of the slave, and make him feel an expect a horse to reason?

interest in the welfare of his master-attaching him The facts here adduced and suggestions present to the soil, but granting to him certain privileges by ed, which we think must prove satisfactory to every which he may feel soine degree of freedom, and be. one who will take the trouble to consider them, come qualified to enjoy the boon as he ought, if furnish an excuse, if they cannot justify, the mis- ever possessed by him. conduct of the freed negroes-whose chief errors are of our own creation, or at least permitted by our A Savannah paper of May 10, gives us the fol., neglect of them in their youth,

lowing as in “alarming" piece of intelligence· But this is the debased condition in which the le- Letters from Augusta, by the last mail, mention, gislatures of some of the states would place the peo- that there was a contemplated plan, laid by the ple of color, especially the slaves. It is an offence blacks of that place and its vicinity, to destroy the against the law to teach them to read; they are pu-city-they were to assemble at Beach Island, and nishable if assembling for religious worship; and one proceed from thence to Augusta, set fire to the place, state has passed a law forbidding their emancipation and destroy the inhabitants. Mr. Alexander Rusand respecting those who have been emancipated, sel, not answering when hailed, was shot by one of which nothing buta wild despair could have prompt. the guards posted on the occasion, and expired in ed-clearly unconstitutional, and certainly repug-two hours after receiving the wound. nant to every principle of equity or justice, in be. A negro named Coot, or Coco, was tried as ing retrospective. On this, however, we shall have being at the head of the conspiracy, and sentenced something more to say hereafter. We are agreed to be executed a few days after. Five others were on the general policy of separating the freed ne- to be tried the next day. Coot appears to have ar, groes from the slaves; but the manner in which it is ranged a pretty extensive plan of operations, and if proposed to be done by the law alluded to, cannot she had got under way, would have caused much hahe supported, except in a positive belief that the voc of persons and property. During his trial he personal safety of the whites-their very lives, were maintained a “bold and impudent effrontery," and in imminent danger, which we do not believe is not a muscle moved when the verdict was pronow the case, and we hope, most earnestly hope,nounced against him, that it never may be.

Yet it is this want of moral force over the blacks, and sole dependence on a terrible despotism; this

Literary Notices. . disregard of property, which they have not any idea WORCESTER'SGAZETTEERS.–The public have withof-that will cause the emancipation of the wretch. in a short time been favored, by J. É, Worcester, A, ed race by violence, or cause their annihilation M. of Massachusetts, with an extensive work in two by the sword, if the system regarding them beneat, but heavy volumes, entitled The Universal persisted in. They now have nothing but life | Gazetteer. A work like this, executed with intelliworth regarding, and that is hardly worth the pos- gence, industry, and care, was much wanted; and session of, in the assurance that it cannot be chang- we are happy to express our conviction that Mr. ed for the better-they are destituto also of hope Worcester has united these qualities in a very re. for their posterity, and we dare not say that they markable manner, so far as we are able to judge will not stand justified before God for “seeking from an examination of a number of his articles, the their long lost liberty through blood and slaughter.” amount of which, relating to the United States only, Let any man put his hand upon his heart, and tell is about 8000-in the whole, 90,000; many thousand us why he would oppose their march to emancipa- more, we are told, than in any other work of the tion, except on the principle of self-preservation, kind: in which we observe a careful searching after and declare that the blacks have not a right to act truth, though it is impossible to believe that a comup to this universal principle as well as white peo-pilation like this should be free from errors. It is ple. It belongs to them as well as to us—and no sufficient that every accessible source of informaman will hazard his reputation as an intelligent be- tion has been consulted to avoid them, and that the ing, to aver the contrary. We are ashamed of the facts advanced are liberally exhibited as they appear thing we practise we use it like certain Indians do to exist. The work is neatly executed, and in every the devil when they pray to him—there is no attri- way, in our opinion, far preferable to any other bute of Heaven that takes part with 11s, and we know that we have seen. it. And in the contest that must come and will come, From the Universal Gazetteer, Mr. Worcester has if the present policy is purstel, there will be a heap abstracted a Guselleer of the United States, with an of horrors such as the world has rarely seen: tracts enlargement of the principal articles. We have esa of country equal in extent to European kingrloms, ainined many of these about which we had some will be faitened by the blood of men, and the vio- personal knowledge, and find them more correct lated and mangled carcases of women and children, ihan is usdisal, This is also a very neat 8vo. volume,

and tender infant, will be strewed over the land. $2.50 in boards, and contains a greater mass of in. Who is there that does not believe this calamity formation respecting our country than any book probable? We believe that every reflecting per which has come under our observation, as to things son expects it-“some day!

expected to be contained in a work of the kind. In this fearful emergency, a powerful effortsho'ıld! We hope that the industrious editor of these books be made to erect a moral force in the minds of thel will be liberally requited by a discriminating public,

for the fidelity and zeal he has manifested in the dif-, customs and manners of the people, the nature of fusion of knowledge.

the soil, its productions, &c. and a general account DeclaraTION OF INDEPENDENCE. We are grati- of the origin of the Mexican revolution, as an appenfied to learn that Mr. Binns' long expected plate of dage to his truly excellent map. the Declaration of Independence, with fac similies of the naines of the signers, is nearly ready for deli

Insolvent Laws. very, being expected to be published before the next anniversary of the event, From the time, labor and

FROM THE N. Y. DAILY ADVERTISEN, expense bestowed on this work, and the character We have been furnished by a gentleman of the of the artists employed, the superior quality of the bar, with the following general statement of the paper, &c. We have good reason to hope that, whilst principle decided by the supreme court, on the init may serve to warin the heart of the patriot, or solvent cases pending before that court: embellish the parlours of the opulent, it will also in the supreme court of this state, now in session star.d as a test of excellence in the various arts at its in this city, the opinion of the court was given yesperiod, and give io posterity a correct idea of their terday by Mr. chief justice Spencer on the subject perfection at this time. The disbursements on ac- l of our insolvent laws. count of this plate have been enormous; for the The late decision on this subject at Washington best talents have been engaged upon it at such pri. had given birth to sundry legal proceedings, involv. cés as the best talents deserve.

ing the validity of insolvents' discharges,and a varieDr. Reese's New ENCYCLOPEDIA. The propriety of cases were accordingly presented to the court, tors of this publication, Murray, Fairman, & Co. an. The majority of the cases, it was observed by the nounce that the 79th No. is now ready for delivery, chief justice, resolved themselves into three clasand that the lasi number is daily expected to com-sesplete the mighty work. These gentlemen became 1. Application for leave to issue writs scire facias proprietors at the 40th No. and since then have ex. to revive old judgments, docketted previously to nended nearly two hundred thousand dollars upon it!! the passage of the laws, under which the insol.

The promised engravings of Washington, Frank vents had obtained their discharges. lin, Penn, Rittenhouse and Rush, will be delivered (The effect of which would be to reinstate the judgwith the last number.

ments in their original force, and to confirm their Dr. Robinson's map. From the Franklin Gazette.

lien upon all the real estate, owned by the insol. We are informed from a respectable and authen vents at any time subsequently to the entry of tic source that the map of Mexico, Louisiana, and such judgments, in whose ever hands the same the Missouri terrilory, including also the state of might be.) Mississippi, Alabama territory, East and West Flori. 2. Applications to set aside executions, issued on da, &c. which has been long and anxiously looked judgments that had beon a long time dormant, for, is now read to be delivered to its subscribers. but which were obtained on contracts made preThis important and desirable work is the produc. viously to the passage of the law, under which the tion of Dr. John H. Robinson, member of the Mili insolvents had obtained his discharge.-(The tary Philosophical society of America, and a briga

law of 1811 was more particularly in view in this dier general in the republican armies of Mexico.

class of cases.): The information on which the author founds his 3. Application to set aside executions, which had publication, is derived from his own knowledge of been issued on judgments obtained on contracts the country in his several voyages there between made since the passage of the present insolvent the years 1806 and 1817, and from a number of ma- law in 1813, under which discharges had been nuscript maps now in possession, drawn by order of obtained. i the vice roy of Mexico, and the captain general of The importance of the questions were so great the internal provinces. The map is replete with that the court stated they should hold the cases historical as well as geographical information, and comprised in the two first classes under advisement developes an extensive, and it is believed, a correct until the next term of the court. view of all that rich and productive country, which On the last class of cases the court decided that the selfish, if not the blind policy of the Spanish the executions must be set aside with costs, leaving it monarchy has studiously concealed from the know- to the plaintiffs to bring actions of debt on the judg. ledge of its own subjects, as well as from the rest of ments if they think proper. the world. Sketches, fragments, and unfinished su- The binding authority of the supreme court of the perficial and incorrect accounts have been given of United States, on the question presented for their the country surrounding and bordering on the Gulf decision was distinctly recognized. It was held, of Mexico, and of that particularly extending be- however, that neitherof the cases before that court, yond the boundary line between the vice royalty presented the point on which this 3d class of cases and the internal provinces; but none have been pub- turned. In one, the contract was made before the lished bearing that character of authenticity deriva- passage of the lawv; in the other the contract was ble only from personal observation, practicable ex- made by the citizens of South Carolina, and in reperience, and actual survey. We congratulate the ference to the laws of that state, and that the al. public upon the appearance of a work, the value lowing a law of New Orleans to discharge the debt, of which is well known and appreciated by the might therefore be held to impair the obligation of leaders of the republican armies, and his majesty the contract. the congregs of Mexico.*

The court did not admit the force of the distincThe late cession of a vast territory to the United tion as taken by the U. States judges, between the States being apprehended in this publication, ren-impairing the obligation of contracts and altering or ders it still more interesting and useful to our citi- taking away the remedy for enforcing them. And they zens; its general merits and faithful delineation must considered themselves as having the same right to inake it popular abroad. Dr. Robinson is, we are analyze the reasoning, and to dissent from the opi. informed, preparing a narrative, descriptive of the vions of the United States judges, on all the topics

not necessarily involved in the decision of the pre*The title by which that body is always addressed. I cise case before them, that they had to analyze and

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