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drels, known by the name of kidnappers--generally against them. He who know's our heart, knows. a part of the refuse population of the section in that we would not "prophecy" evil to any portion which they practise their inanstealing;* and be- of our country, but we feel seriously convinced that sides, many have been imported from Africa and "God is just," and that this people will one day. the West-Indies, contrary to law, smuggled into the break their chains, if they are not voluntarily loosencountry, on account of the great demand for human ed. What oceans of blood will then be shed, what. flesh: the carcase of a man oftentimes bringing more horrors of horrors prevail, which present justice than 1000 dollars!

and humanity may possibly prevent! The following table shews the population of the In our next number we shall offer a scheme for ten states, or the then territories which now com- this purpose, in direct variance, however, to the opio pose them, as they stood in 1790 and 1810:

nions that generally prevail on the subject in the 1790.

1810. states mast deeply interested. · But let us recollect Free


what France was before her revolution, and what persons. Slaves.

she achieved in her battles for liberty; and, what is Marrland . . .

216,602 103,036 270,044 110,502

454 983 292,627 582,104 392,318 still more remarkable, we ought to remember what North Carolina

293,179 100,572 386,076 169,824 Spain, debased Spain did, when her people believed South Carolina

132,079 107,094 218,750 196,305 Georgia , . 53,284 29,264 147,215 105,218 they wer: striking for freedom! The servile popria Kentucky

i 61,247 12,430 325,050 80,561 | lation, filled with enthusiasm, annihilated the choicTennessee). . . 33,276

217,192 44,535 3,417

est legions of'imperial France; and, assisted on her Missimippi

{ 23,284 17,088 borders for a long time by a foreign power, at length Alabanaj Distriet of Columbia, (inte

aided by that power, actually invaded the nation einde in Md & V., 1700)

18,628 5,395

that sacrificed a million of lives to subdue her. It Louisiana Lacquirtti

5 41,896 34.000 Missouri, &c. S since 1790.


is not force that will keep our slaves as they are; it

is gentleness and mercy, supported by intelligence, 1,245,633 648,440 2,249,553 1,158,677

that must do it-if any thing can do it. But this is a Of course, the other states 1,978,540 48,738 3,799,004 32.659

subject which we do not wish to dwell upon-Grand tcials, 3,22 4,1 48 697,178 6.048,557 1,191,346 yet there should be an awakening of the people to



the actual condition of their affairs. The fact is, that The population of the southern section of the U.

under present commercial prospects and the ex.

. States consisted in 1810, of 2,249,553 free inhabi.

tending cultivation of cotton in the East Indies to

. tchts, and 1,158,677 slaves. The census of 1820

1990 supply the European market, wherein laboris inuch will shew of the former about 3,000,000 freemen, 1.

cheaper, and the commodity, of course, lower than and 1,800,000 slaves: the high prices of cotton, &c. li

slave-labor can produce it with us--the quantity of within the last few years, having caused an extraor

- blacks collected in the southern states will prove a. dinary demand for, with an increased care of the

scrious incumbrance on the white population, and slure-species.

W it will probably be difficult to employ and maintain Now let us seriously ask the question, where is

ere is themto advantage. This is a matter worthy of deep this thing to end? Allow only 15 years more, and

consideration the same tract of country, if slavery is not permitted beyond the Mississippi, except with the addition of Law Intelligence-Bankin.. . Florida, by which also there will be an accession of the following singular case is copied from a Norti slaves, will contain at least three millions of them! - Carolina paper-the illemington Recorder. a number equal to that of several of the nations of The bank of om,

Superior court of Europe, who have long maintained their indepen


Slaw, for the County of dence, a quantity sufficient to constitute a respecta

Jolin , ble government, far superior, in this respect, to our This suit originated in the county court, upon a. own when the congress of 1776 ventured on the

promissory note, drawn in the usual way, for the declaration of independence. We shall not calcu

sum of 62 dollars. The execution, protest, &c. was late the consequences, if some great man should nr

some great man should proven in due bank form. The defendant failing rise up among them and invite them to freedom. I to establish his pleas, of course, as usual, the bank. We bave seen that the savages, whose known mode obtained judginent. I he defendani, much to the of warfare is to spare neither age nor sex, have re. astonishunent of the gentleinen learned in the law, ceived aid and comfort, arms, ammunition and supcraved an appeal to the superior court, for which, plies, from a foreign country which makes a parade

the sum being small, be easily obtained the necessaof its regard for thie blacks-and, einbodied in the south and possessed of the shores of the gulf of bank that it was ridiculous to appeal; that the ac

ry security. He was told by the attorney for the Mexico, supported by the powerful fleets of a jeal- tion was brought upon a plain note of hand, that the ous nation, how shall they be reduced to obedience? | bank must recover; and tirat it would certainly deIt is hardly to be expected that they ever can be

mand the damages that the law gave, as weil as ille - they will exterminate our borders or have to be linterest. However, the defendant said he was the exterminated. The feelings of at least three fifths best iudce of his own business; and that if he mu: t of the people of the United States will not be enlist.

follow tlie advice of a lawyer, he preferred one that ed in the controversy, except by the distresses of

was not employed against him. So the appeal was of their suffering countrymen. Jefferson says, "the

the regularly brought up; and, as the bank always hare Almighty has no attribute that can take side with ltheir own notary and witnesses, of course the plainus ir such a contest." Let those immediately inte. tiff was reads; and as the defendent could make no Jested look a-hea:l to natural results, and prepare defence to a plain note of band, payable and nego

ciable at bank, he cold hare no legal exci'se to cos*But we see that a person convicted of negro-steal-tinue the cause -80 both parties were, or compelle, ing in North-Carolina, was hung on the 23d ult. A to be ready. powerful interest was made to get him parioned;! The bank's attorner informed the jury that it will but the governor would not yield. May such be the lan:ction upon a plain ilote of hani, brolight again fate of the whole fraternity!

the defendant, the maker, and rich the benk mail

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discounted for his profit-I mean, gentlemen of the N. B. The other two suits were dismissed; and jury, accommodation and which he had most un- the defendant marched out of court calculating the gratefully neglected to take up, pay, and discharge; costs of the three suits in both courts. and that the bank was compelled to bring three separate suits on this small note, (holding it up to the jury,) one against himself, and one against each of Legislature of Connecticut. the endorsers--and that these suits were brought

GOVERNOR'S SPEECII. in the county court, and judgment obtained; and Gentlemen of the senate, and the defendaut was fool enough to appeal to this Gentlemen of the house of representatives: court, wliere he must inevitably be cast; and the If I do not greatly mistake, the affairs of our councosts in the three guits will amount to more than the try have, at no former period, displayed more exhidebi; but, gentlemen, it is not the bank's fault--the lirating subjects of contemplation, than at present. defendant has brought it upon himself.--The note the nations with which we are principally connect. was proved, in due form, by one of the clerks of the ed, appear to be convinced of the utility of justice bank, who swore to the defendant's hand writing; in their intercourse with the United States. The and the jury was informed by Mr. Attorney that it causes which menaced future conflicts, are yielding was unnecessary to prove the protest and notice to to the influence of reason and humanity. In regions thie endorsers, as the action was brought against the which have been but recently explored, new states maker. The calculation was made, and the jury are forming, under constitutions founded on just told that the bank expected their verdict for S62 principles of civil and religious liberty. Rules for Principal, $2 for protest, ani S5 89 interest--mak: preventing disputes, and for promoting the settle. ing the aggregate sum of sixty nine dollars and eigh-ment of vacan territories, have been established, of 1nine ceats.

which the world has afforded no former examples. · The defendant stated, with a mournful counte-lourswarming population is rapidly extending, unitDance, that it was true the bank had accommodateded by the same language and laws, and by kindred Iim by lending him the money; that the times were ties of mutual attection and interest. In short, those Jard; that he thanked the bank for their kindness; sublime conceptions of the future happiness and ret he did not think it a very great accommodation grandeur of the American nation, which were preto be subjected to the cost of three suits, when the sented by the sages of the revolution, to the admiraact of asscinbly authorises both the drawer and en- tion of their remote posterity, have been eminently vorsers to be included in one writ; and he hoped to realized, during a single age. As no other people nizke it appear, that, in this case, the bankers have have been equally distinguished by Divine favor irot even accommodated their ownselves. Ile ad-land protection, we are specially (Itured to maniInitted that it was a plain note of hand; that he justly fest our gratitude to the Supreme Being, by a pru. owed the bank $69 89_but that the bank was in-dent use of the inestimable privileges committed to

lebted to him in a larger sum; and that, as he had our care. entered the plea of set-off, he asked the jury to find the duty assigned to us in particular, is so plain, the issues in his favor. lie then took out of his that it cannot be easily mistaken. We are members breeches pocket an old leathern bag, and proceed- of a state, which has long been distinguished as a «d deliberately to untie the string. The eyes of all confeilemacy of freemen. After a revision of their the audience were upon him. At lengih he hauled fundamental institutions, the people bave decreed, out two small pieces of paper--first opened one, that but for changes are necessary. Accordingly and then he other. liure gentlemen, is the bank's it has been the principal oject of ihat constitution, note for fifty dollars; here is noiler tortwenty dol- which it is our duty to observe and to execute, to lars-fifty dollars and twenty dollars make seventy define those privileges, which w e truly the birthdollars--and as seventy dollars is more than sixty right of the people, and to guard against either gram nine dollars and eighty-nine cents, it will follow, of dual or occasional invasions of their rights, 'y the course, that the bank owes me eleven cents. abuse of power, or the unlimited exercise of legis

It was objectcél, on behalf of the bank, that the lative discretion. Entertaining these opinions, I defendant ought not be allowed this offset; and not, c: not but consider ihe constitution as a great secuat any rate, unless he proved, that he had the iden-rity to the conmiw. It !"V now be considered tical notes in his possession at the time of the com- as a point which has been deliberately settled, that menceinent of the suit. That if defendant couli, Connecticut is hereafter to be governed according at any time offset the notes of banks against suits to a written constitution, established by the will of brought by the banks, that any defendant, after put the people. Upon the power to exercise this ting off a suit for twelve or eighteen montis, might right, cir political liberty essentially depends. always, by procuring one dollar more than the Wherever it has been acquired, it can never be debt, subject the bank to the costs of two distinct lost, without extrene negligence or culpable courts.

apatlıy. The constitution will be altered only as Ils honor, afterinspecting the notes, observed to experience may indicate its imperfections. This the jury, that it appeared from their clates, that the power will be manifested by the people at large, notes had been issued previous to the commence after mature discussions of the merits of such prement of the suit; and as they were made payable oncise amendments, as may be presented to their condemand, consequently ther must have beca due at sideration by their representatises. Of course, spethe time the action was brought; and as the notes of culative propositions of a ginerul nature, which, Ile corporation must be viewed in the same ligit from their wicertainty, tend to infame and mislead as the notes of individuais, that the defendant, the communits, will, in respect to the supreme law npon proving the hand writing of the president of the nate, be bereafter smuvailing and sister, would be chitled to a set-of- Besses appointing the julio's, sheriffs and other consequently the bank being indcbted clerz"*2 com ctficcis necessary to the organ zation of the govern13 the defenlar', they must fint a verdictier him. neni, a number of alterations in ihe existing laws The hand-writing rus probert; and the jury, irithout will be requisite. Among those, one of the most leaving tic bos, garc a verlic: isr the defendant, important will be theelerising of proper regulations, annast the applause of a colod court.

a required by the constitution, for ascertaining the value and amount of the school fund, and rendering rected to the diffusion of useful knowledge, the enthat precious deposite inalienable to any other use couragement of industry, frugality, and honesty, than the encouragement and support of public and and the promotion of concord among the people.. common scliools, for the equal benefit of all the peo

OLIVER WOLCOTT. ple of this state. As a proportion of the property General assembly, May session, A. D. 1819. belonging to this fund is vested in securities of real estate, from which it cannot be withdrawn without great inconvenience and loss, it appears to be neces

National Interests. sary that the office of commissioner should be con- Address of the Philadelphia society for the promotion of continued. The avails of the fund may, as hereto."

domestie industry, to the citizens of the United Statec. fore, be paid into the treasury, and there appropriated for the support of schools, as the law may prescribe;

No. V. but it seems to be proper and analogous to our other

Philadelphia, May 3, 1819. regulations, that the accounts of the fund should be the friends of domestic manufactures in this couirendered to, and annually settled with the comptrol-try have had to combat a host of objections mainler, in the same manner as other public accounts, tained with great zeal and plausibility, many of and that it should be made the duty of that officer, to / which, though utterly destitute of foundation, have present to the general assembly, an annual state- had universal currency. We shall devote the prement, exhibiting every increase, or diminution of sent number to obviate some of them. the fand, with the cases in which they originated. I. The demoralizing and debasing effects of maIt is well known that a considerable part of the ex. nufacturing establishments. tensive grants, sequestrations and devises which II. Their injurious interference with commerce. were formerly made for the support of schools and. III. The high rate of wages in the U. States. religious instruction, have been dissipated and lost, IV. The great extent of our vacant lands, whiclı and it is only by cstablishing invariable rules, and by ought to be settled previous to the erection of manuconstant vigilance, that similar misfortunes can be facturing establishinents on a large scale. prevented in future.

V. The extortion practised, and the extravagant The crime of fraudulent bankruptcy, by which prices charged by manufacturers during the war. the privileges of an elector become forfeited, has VJ. The loss of revenue that would arise from never been defined. A law on this subject appears protecting or prohibitory duties. to be necessary.

I VII. The danger of encouraging smuggling by By our late system, a number of duties and pow.high duties. ers are assigned to the governor and council.

I. DEMORALIZATICY. Anong these, are the appointment of commission. The most specious and generally prevalent arers of sewers, and of turnpike roads, and deciding gument against manufacturing establishinents, is on the official bonds to be given by sheriff's: provi- grounded on their debasing and demoralizing efsions on these subjects appear to be required, fects. The honest feelings and the sympathy of the · I submit to your consideration, wliether it is not humane and enlightened part of the community, expedient to prescribe the number of notaries pub- and the passions and prejudices of the remainder, lic, to be commissioned in the different counties of have in consequence been enlisted and excited to the state.

activity against those establishments. The changes Several of our ancient laws have become obsolete, have been rung times without number, on the deor have been annulled by the constitution of the pravity, corruption, and pauperism inseparable from United States, or of this state; and by the repeal or large assemblages of men, women, and children, amendment of various regulations, the statute law collected in a small compass, inhailing a pestiferous has become less definite and intelligible than is de- atmosphere, both moral and physical. The most sirable. As great caution is, however, necessary Icaptivating pictures have been drawn, by way of on this subject, I respectfully invite you to consider contrast, of the purity, the innocence, the healthi. whether it will not be proper to appoint a commit. Iness, and the independence of agricultural employtee to report a revised code, to a future general as ments--and the whole has been wound up by desembly.

precating the folly anıl insanity of seducing the An. As the subject of taxation is very important, Icadian cultivators of the soil into the business of ma· have deemed it to be my duty, to prepare a detail. Inufacturing, so destructive to their health, their moed view of my reflections on this subject. --This rals, and their happiness.. will be submitted to your consideration, by a spe! This objection, like a thousand other common cial message.

place assertions, has been almost universally assumAfter a long period of calamity, wise and benevo-led, and universally admitted, without demur or scrulent men of every country, appear to be unitingple. Even the friends of manufactures have hardly their efforts in devising mcans for diminishing the dared to doubt its correctness, barely lamenting it . Wants, and improving the condition of mankind. I as one of the many serious evils inseparable from

Among the foremost in this honorable combination, I society in its present state. · And had it not been to' the different states of our union, are exerting an un-| the investigations of a recent writer, it might have precedented activity. As the situation and institu-l continued for another century to lead mankind tions of Connecticut afford facilities for a more ac- l astray. Its reign, however, is over. . curate application of the latest discoveries and im- But even if these views were correct as regarder provements, than is practicable in states of greater the overgrown manufacturing establishments in Engextent and more recent establishment, our advan. I land, and some other parts of Europe, they would be ces ought to correspond with our advantages. We inapplicable here; as the best friends of manufactures are bound to hope that the period is fast approach-J in this country have hardly calculated on any thing ing, when the rank and character of communities further than the home market; and in so wide 4 will be estimated by no other rule, than by their country as this, if the manufacturers were degraded comparative attainments in moral excellence, and an oppressed by men of great wealth in one distheir success in advancing the means of social han-trict, they would be able to resort to similar' esianpiness. Our exertions ought, therefore, to be di-lishments in another, of which, were manufactures


duly protected, there would be numbers in every | Colquhoun furnishes another table, of the state of quarter of the union. i

pauperism throughout England, which we also an, The most eminent statistical writer in Europe, at nexprésent. is probably Colquhoun, author of Police of

Per cent on the London,” and various other important works bear',


population, ing the strongest marks of profound research, deep

earch deen 15 In Cumberland, Cornwall, Lancaster penetration, and philosophical enquiry. This wri

and Nottingham, and East Riding of ter has given a curious and important table of the

Yorkshire, the number of paupers in population, offenders, and paupers, ofevery county in

each 100 of the population 7 (less than 1-15 England, which settles this important point forever; 13 In Derby, Middlesex, and Rutland 8(less than 1-13) which we annex; from which there can be no ap

14 In Lincoln, Northumberland, Stafpeal; and which must remove the doubts of the

ford, and North Riding of Yorkmost sceptical.


9 (above 1-11)

14 West Riding of York, Durham Comparative view of nearly an equal population in Monmouth, and Salop

10 1-10

14 Bedford, Chester, Somerset, and one part of the kingdom with the same in another.*


12 (under 1-8) 16 Cambridge, Devon, Hereford, Hun

tingdon, Surry, and Worcester 13 (above 1-8)

13 Herts, Dorset, Kent COUNTIES.

14 above 1.7) | 4 Gloucester, Leicester Southampton . and Warwick

15 (above 1-7) 2 Norfolk and Northampton

16 (under 1-6)

17312 Essex and Suffolk Middlesex. 818,129/1217) 63,17312)

17 (above 1-6) Kent . . 307,6241 2101 41.832 I Buckinghamshire

18 (above 1-6) Surry 269,043 1991 36,138 1 Oxfordshire

20 - . (1-5) Essex

21 (above 1-5) 226,437) 1441 38.337 | 1 Berkshire Gloucester, includ'g Bristol 250,809 141) 36,904 /2 Sussex and Wiltshire

28 (nearly 1-4) Warwick. .

208,190 160 30,200 12 Counties in Wales, averaging 9 (above 1-11)* Norfolk - .

273,371 163 42,707). On the first of these tables Colquhoun makes the Suffolk

210,431 109) 36,110 following pointed and decisive remarks: Sussex • .

159.311 1051 37.076! “From this comparative statement,” it appears, Wilts -

185,107 75 42,128"that, contrary to the general received opinion, the Hampshire .

| 219,656 147) 32,581 numbers of paupers in the counties which are chiefly Nottingham

140,35074 9,806 | agricultural, greatly exceed those where manufactures Leicester

150,081 471 19,154 prevail!!! Thus, in Kent and Surry, where the agDerby

161,149 39! 13,167 gregate population is 576,687, there appear to be Dorset . .

115,319 381 15,783 177,770 paupers, while in Lancashire, where the poBerks .

- 109,215| 62 22,088|pulation is 672,731 the paupers relieved are only Oxford - :

| 109,620 381 21,025 | 46,200." Herts .

95.577 431 13,349] He has not compared the two descriptions of the Bedford

63,393 206 7,276 | population on the subject of crimes. But the con Huntingdon

37,568 15 4,746 trast in this respect, it appears, is equally unfavoraz South Wales, six counties 288,761 50% 23,384 ble to the agricultural districts. However, as ma

nufactures are spread throughout the kingdom, and 14,381,134/3096) 586,764 as all the counties partake to a certain degree of

the double character of agriculture and manufac

858,892 2451 77,661 Yorkshire •

|tures, it is impossible to institute a general compaLancashire •

672,7313711 46,200

rison. But it will answer every valuable purpose Stafford

239,153 911 22,510 lof testing the truth or falsehood of the prevailing Devon - .

343,001 961 43,674

opinions, that we take a view of six counties, three Lincoln .

208,557 58 18,845

decidedly agricultural, and three as decidedly maSomerset :

273,750 106] 33,979

nufacturing Chester -

- 191,751 30 22,152 Durham - .

160,361 271 15,807

188,269 Cornwall .

45 12,853

Manufacturing POPULATION OFFEX- PAUPERS Salop · 167,639


79 17,306

counties Worcester .

139,330 51| 18,895

131,757 421 20.534 Lancashire . Northampton

. 672,731 371 1 46,200

38) 14 304 | Yorkshire

245 Northumberland

77,661 117,230 18i Cumberland

. . 8.445 Stafford .

259,153 9122,510 Bucks.

| 107,444 33 19,659 Cambridge

| 1,770,776 | 707 | 146,371 89,3461 401 11,294 Hereford . .

89,191 31 11,779 Monmouth

45,5821 201 4,479 Agricultural
Westmoreland .
41,617 6 4,615

Rutland . . . | 16,356 4 1,358
North Wales, six counties | 252,785 28 28,131 Norfolk . .

273,371 163 | 42,707 Kent • .

307,624 210 41,632 14,491,84615091 453,952

269,043 199 | 36,138 *Colquhoun on indigence, p. 372.

850,038 | 572 | 120,477 *Colquhoun on indigence, p. 265. Idem 273.


In the three manufacturing counties, the offen-/merce would be relieved from that superfluous porders are only one out of every 2,500; whereas in tion of citizens who pursue it, and who is juleman.ro the agricultural, they are one out of 1,600; where ness of their competition in the markets, domestic by it appears that the latter districts have above and foreign, destroy each other's chances of suc. half as many more criminals as the manufacturing cess. in proportion to their population. This is a strong! Another source of indemnification to commerce and decisive fact.

for any disadvantage it might suilor fioin the pa- In the three manufacturing counties, the paupers tronage of manufactures would be the tracic in variare only eight per cent, of the population; whereas ous kinds of raw materials which would be importin the agricultural they are about fourteen per ed from foreign countries for the use of the manucent.

facturers.* We are tempted to cast a further glance on this An important consideration remains. The dinis table, and to call the attention to a more striking mution of our foreign trade, which is at all times precomparison. Yorkshire contains a greater popula. carious and often rainous, would be further compention than the three specified agricultural counties, sated by the vast increase of the coasting tradic, in and yet has far below half the number of offenders, the transportation of raw materials from the southand not two thirds of the number of paupers. Jern to the middle and eastern states, and of manu.

Population. Offenders. Paupers | factured articles from the latter to the former. Yorkshire,

858,892 245 77,661 Norfolk, Kent & Surry, 850,038 572 120,477

We do not deem it necessary to enter into further This result may appear extraordinary and para

1. detail, or to exhaust the subject. We trust enough doxical. But a very slight reflection on the sub

has been saiçi to prove, that a liberal patronage exject will remove all the paradox, and enable us to

totended to manufactures would be eminently beneliaccount satisfactorily for the existing state of thing's.

cial even to the mercantile part of our citizens, not Idleness is as much the parent of poverty and guilt,

merely by diminishing the number of competitors as industry is of independence and virtue. In agri

in thai department, but by offering profitable emcultural districts there is a considerable proportion

ployment to a portion of that capital which has esof the labor of the women and still prenter öropor. I caped the destruction proceeding from the ruinous

This system of that of the younyer people, wholly lost. The state of our commerce since the war. latter waste a great part of their early years in to

moreover, would afford commercial men opportunital idleness. Hence arises a fruitful source of pau-1

w ties of providing for a part of their children in a less perism and guilt.

hazardous line of business than commerce. * These statements, independent of their over.

III HIGH WAGES. whelming bearing on the present question, may! The high wages said to be given in this country have another very important advantage. They have been used as a powerful argoment against ene serve to display in strong colors, the danger of trust- couraging manufacturers, and have led many of our to mere assertions, unstroported by facts. There citizens to believe that we would not be capable of is not in the whole range of political economy, a manufacturing extensively for periaps a century to dogma that has been more universally received, or come. This idea has maintained its ground against appeared more plausible than the one here combat. the strong and palpable fact, that many of our ma. tel, which is now unequivocally proved to be not nufactures have thriven very considerably, notwithonly not true but the very reverse of truth. standing the rivalship of foreign competitors. The 11. H. INTERFERENCE WITH COMMERCE.

difference however between the wages in England, Among the opponents of the manufacturing sys- in many branches of business, is far less than is getem, were formly to be found great numbers of|nerally, supposed. But the argument falls to the those citizens, engaged in commerce, who appeared ground, when we reflect that in most of those impressed with an idea that in proportion as manu- branches depending wholly on manual labor, our factures are patronized and extended, in the same manufaeturers have met the rival articles from Eu. proportion commerce must be impaired. ,Hence rope with great success. Our batters, shoemakers, a degree of jealousy has been fostered among the saddlers, coachmakers, printers, cabinet makers, commercial, of the manufacturingciass of our popula-type founders, curriers, glovers, smiths, and various tion, as if there were a great hostility between their other classey, whoily debarred of the advantage of respective interests. The most enlightened mer- machinery, have stood their ground far better than chants at present are convinced of the errors of those citizens concerned in branches in wlich mathese views. It is not difficult to prove, that they chinery is employed, of whom a large portion have rest on as sandy a foundation as the superior purity been ruined. and freedom from paupcrism of the agricultural This is a very extraordinary fact, and could not districts.

hare entered into any previous calculation. The It will not, we trust, be denied, that in every endless variety of millseats throughout the Unit. community the greater the variety of pursuits, and ed States, and the acknowleged talents of our employments, the greater the field for esertion, citizens in mechanical pursuits, would have led to and less danger of rivalship, or of any of them being form a conclusion wholly different. It would have too much crowded. Hence an obvious consequence been believed that whatever we might suffer in ca. of the destruction of so many manufacturing estab-ses in which manual labor alone was employed, we lishments as, during the war, were in the full should be triumphant wherever water power and tide of successful experiment,” has been to divert machinery could be called into operation. the capital and industry engaged in them to com

TO BE CONTISCED. mercial pursuits, whereby the latter are so much overstocked as to narrow or almost destroy all! An intelligent citizen, who has carefully examinchance of success. Our wharves, our coffee houses, ed the entries into the port of Philadelphia, assimes and the assignments in our newspapers, fully prove us that the tonnage employed even now in the imthat commerce is overdone, and that it has unfortu- portation of raw materials, leather, dye-wood, iron, nately become a most precarious profession. Where- lead, &c. &c. is equal to that employed in the imas, were manufacturers properly protected, comportation of bale goods.

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