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remote frontier posts, we ought not to be sanguine in the expectation of aid to be derived from the army in the construction of permanent military roads and canals, at a distance from the frontiers. When our military posts come to be extended up the Mississippi and Missouri, as far as is contemplated, the military frontier of the United States, not including sinuosities, and the coasts of navigable bays and lakes opening into our country, as was stated in a former report, will present a line of more than 9000 miles, and, including them, of more than 11,000. Thinly scattered along so extensive a frontier it will be impossible, I fear, without leaving some peints oxposed, to collect any considerable bodies in the interior of the country, to construct roads and caaals. As connected with this subject, I would respectfully suggest the propriety of making an adequate provision for the soldiers, while regularly and continually employed in constructing works of public utility. The present allowance is fifteen cents a day, which is considered sufficient in occasional fatigue duty, such as is now done at most of the posts; but if systematic employ, on permanent works, should be made the regular duty of the soldiers, who can be spared for that purpose, a compensation, taking into the estimate the obligation of the governIncrit to provide medical attendance and pensions to the deceased and disabled soldiers, not much short of the wages of daily labor, ought to be granted to them. Without such provision, which is dictated by justice, an increase of desertion, and difficulty in obtaining recruits, ought to be czpected. Among the leading inducements to enlist, is the exemption from labor; and, if the life of a soldier should be equally
subjected to it as that of other citizens in the same
grade, he will prefer, if the wages are much inferior, to labor for himself, to laboring for the public. The pay of a soldier is sixty dollars per annum, and, if he were allowed, when employed permanently on fatigue, twenty-five cents a day; and suppose him to be employed 200 days in the year, his compensation, including his pay, would be 150 dollars per annum—a sum, it is thought, considerably short of the average wages of labor. If this sun should be allowed, the greater portion of it ought to be paid at the expiration of the term of enlistment. If fifteen cents a day were so reserved, and the soldier should be employed one thousand days in the five years for which he is enlisted, it would constitute a sum of one hundred and fifty dollars, to be paid at the expiration of his term, which ought, in the same manner as the bounty land, be made to depend on an honorable discharge. This would furnish an important hold on the fidelity of the soldier, and would be a powerful check on the great and growing crime of desertion. An honorable discharge is now worth but little to the soldier, and the consequence is, that desertions are more frequent with those enlisted since the war, than those who were then enlisted, and are entitled to the bounty in land on their honorable discharge. The latter patiently waits the expration of his term of service, while the former frequently seizes the first favorable opportunity for desertion. Should congress think proper to commence a system of roads and cana's sor the “more complete defence of the United States,” the disbursements of the sums appropriated for the purpose might be
made by the departinent of war, und, r direction of
the United States, on such terms and conditions as might be thought proper. In other cases, and where the army cannot be made to execute it, the work ought to be done by contract, under the superintendance and inspection of officers of the engineer Corps, to be detailed for that purpose. It is thus the government will be able, it is thought, to construct on terms at least as favorable as corporate companies. , The system of constructing all public works, which admit of it, by contract, would be attended with important advantages. it has recently been adopted in the contruction of fortifications, and it is expected will be attended with beneficial effects. The principal works at Mobile and New Orleans have been contracted for on terms considerably under the estimates of the engineers. Such a system, extended to military roads and canals, combined with a careful inspection and superintendance by skilful engineers, will enable the government to complete them with economy, durability, and despatch. - In the view which has been taken, I have thought it improper, under the resolution of the house to discuss the constitutional question, or how far the system of internal improvements which has been Presented may be carried into effect on the princi. ple of our government; and, therefore, the whole of the arguments which are used, and the measures Proposed, must be considered as depending on the decision of that question. The only military roads which have been commenced, are from Plattsburg to sackett's Harbor, through the Chateaugay country; from the southern boundary of the state of Tennessee, and crossing the Tennessee river near the Muscle shoals, to Madi. sonville, Louisiana; and from Detroit to Fort Meigs, at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of the Lakes. Documents marked A. B.C. show the progress which have been made. These roads have been commenced, and thus far completed by the labor of the soldiers, who, while they are so employed, recelve fifteen cents per day, with an extra allowance of a gill of whiskey. The labor of the troops is the only means within the reach of the department, of completing these roads; and, as the troops are so employed, only when they are not engaged in active service, it is impossible to state, with accuracy, when the roads will be completed.
J. C. CALH The Hon. Henry Clay, - OUN Speaker of the house of representatives. Head-quarters, Brownsville, - 6th December, 1818. Sin—Your letter, covering a copy of one of the 11th of August, calling for a report of the labor performed on the road leading from Sackett's trar. bor, through the Chateaugay country, is before me. My letter of the 29th November, will inform von what has seen done, but I fear will not exhibit the progress of this work to the extent you have expected. It may, therefore, be proper to state, in this place, that when the president, in the autumn of 1817, directed the road in question to be opened
and improved, I did not understand, that the second
regiment were to be ordered from the duty they were then upon. This regiment, at the time refer. ed to, were employed, enclosing with pickets the Public ground at Sackett's Harbor, and that duty occupied them the remainder of the season. Ex
the president. Where incorporate companies are specting the troops at the Harbor would have been
already formed, or the road or canal commenced under the superintendance of a st te, it perhaps would be advisable to direct a subscription on the part of,
employed in completing the barracks at that place to s year, they were not put upon the road, but allowed to be engaged in improving the public
grounds for gardens; and, as these grounds were new, it required much labor to put them in good condition. These causes, and the reasons assigned in my letters from this place and Plattsburg, produced the delay that has occurred in putting col. Brady's command upon the road, and, if your letter of the 11th of August had not been received upon my return to this place, I fear that this work would not yet have been commenced. I pray you to believe, that I regret the delay, and I beg you to see good cause for it in the reasons I have endeavored to assign. It is due to the command of col. Brady and col. Atkinson to say, that they have discovered not only a becoming cheerfulness in obeying the orders received for perfecting the Plattsburgh and Sackett's Harbor road, but much zeal in the performance of this duty, and, if these regiments are continued upon this important work the next season, more than double the length of way will be completed, that has been passed the last and the present year. With respect, I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, JAC. BROWN. Hon. J. C. Calhoun, secretary of war. B.
HEAD-quanters, Division of the south.
SIR-On the eve of setting out for the Chickasaw treaty, I deem it necessary to inform you, that no reports have been received as yet, of a particular character, in relation to the military road now opening from Columbia, Tennessee, to Madisonville; but I am enabled to inform you officially, that fifty miles have been completed by the troops on the lower part of the road, making many causeways and bridges of the most durable materials; and the detachment on this end have progressed about forty miles south of Tennessee river, making in like manner, many bridges and causeways.
It is considered, that the most laborious part of the road has been completed; and, from every information, it has been done in the best manner. An increase of men has been recently afforded to the detachment south of Tennessee river, which will enable it to progress with much greater facility.
Should I receive minute reports shortly, I shall communicate their contents without delay.
And have the honor to be, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, -, * *
ROBERT BUTLER, Adjutant general. Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of war. . . - : C
HEAD-quartens, DETR01t, - .November 2, 1819.
SIR-I have the honor to report, that the military way, directed to be opened from this place to the Rapids of the Miami, has progressed as far as the Eight Mile Creek, that is within eight miles of the Rapids, making in all a distance of seventy miles. The road is truly a magnificent one, being eighty feet wide, cleared of all the logs, and underbush, every low place causewayed, and all creeks and rivers requiring it, bridged in a substantial manner. The number of causeways exceeds sixty, and the bridges are of considerable length. The one on which the troops are now employed, is four hundred and fifty feet in length, constructed of strong oak framed work. It was found impossible to complete the road to the Rapids this season, on account of the time and labor required in throwing bridges over the larger streams: it was also deemed more essential to complete the bridges, than cut the road
this season, to the Rapids, as the road would be use, less without the means of crossing the large streams
The officers and soldiers who have been employed in this service deserve much credit for the zeal and perseverance they have displayed on this occasion. The work they have performed has proved highly beneficial, both to the people of the country and of the government. Besides greatly adding to the defence and strength of this frontier, the road has been the means of developing the richness of the public lands in this territory, and greatly augmenting their value.
As soon as major Anderson, topographical engineer, can complete the survey of the road, amore minute and particular description of the work will be forwarded.
I have the honor to be, with great respect, sir, your obedient and very humble servant.
ALEX. MACOMB. . .
|The Hon. J. C. Calhoun, Secretary of war, &c. &c.
Foreign Articles. GREAt Brita IN AND in ELAN n. Partial supplies of silver is furnished to the London bankers by the bank of England; and as the value of gold over bank notes had fallen, it was believed that some issues of it might soon be made with “safety.” The Catholics in England are said to amount to 300,000 persons—among whom, are 9 peers, and 17 baronets. Their spiritual government is vested in four superiors, called Vicars Apostolic, deputed by the pope. Each has his peculiar district. They have about 900 chapels in all, mostly erected within the last twenty-five years, 100 of which are in Lancashire; besides the private chapels of country gentlemen. The British duke of Devonshire, has given $10,000 for the marble statue of Bonaparte's mother. In Stockport, a poer woman was lately sold, under an execution for the satisfying of one of those ertra church levies, so common now-a-days; and her Holy Bible was sold for three shillings, and purchased by a gentleman of that town, as a curiosity connected with the civilization of the 19th century. Mr. Sheriff Roberts, at the bar of the house, presented a petition from the corporation of London, complaining of the crowded state of the goal of Newgate, by the influx of Middlesex prisoners.-Mr. alderman Wood stated that the crowded state of the gaol was such, that 47 prisoners who were under the sentence of death, were confined in 15 cells. It was a fact that sixteen persons convicted of an infamous crime, were all confined in one room. Brighton, March 13.-We are assured, that, a few nights ago, the regent, in a merry mood, determined to sup in the kitchen of the pavilion. A scarlet cloth was thrown over the pavement, a splendid repast was provided, and the good-humored prince sat down, with a select party of his friends, and spent a joyous hour. The whole of the servants and particularly the female part, were, of course, delighted with this mark of royal condescension! sp.A.I.N. The inquisitor-general of Spain, has fulminated his anathema against a work recently introduced in that country, entitled The coming of the JMessiah in his Majesty and Glory, by John Josaphal Ben Erza. He orders all the copies of this work to be delivered up, and prohibits its being in future, sold, kept, read, or printed, under pain of the grand excommunication, and a fine of 200 ducats, to defray the expenses
of the holy office. He says, the book has occasioned much disorder and anxiety in the minds of many persons, the learned as well as the unlearned. GERMANY. Frankfort, JMarch 21.-There is said to be a great misunderstanding between the courts of Berlin and Hesse Cassel. The Prussian minister, has quitted Cassel to return to Berlin, and the Hessian minister at Berlin is understood to have been recalled. HAYTI. - The account seems confirmed, that there is an insurrection in that part of Hayti under the controul of president Boyer; who had concentrated a considerable force at Jeremie, to which place he was about to embark in a frigate, to commence active operations against the revolted chief, whose name is Goma - Mexico, By an official despatch from “col. Don Jose Barados,” who claims a victory over gen. Victoria, we Hearn that the empire of Ferdinand is not fully “restored” in Mexico. The col boasts of the capture of “thirty English muskets in very fine order.” South AMERICA. McGregor has landed, with 1500 men, a little to the windward of Porto Bello—a favorable position to communicate with the revolutionists of the different districts. Another account says, he had only about 400 soldiers and 100 seaunen; reinforcements being expected. Com. Joli has capturod many vessels, prizes to privateers under the Artigas flag.—The La Popa privateer had also been captured by him, and was expected to be treated as a pirate. Brion was cruizing to catch a pirate. ... hese are Venezuelan squadrons, and we are much pleased to find that they are determined to maintain the laws of civilized nations. They are on good terms with the Danes at St. ThoInas. Margaretta is a very strong place—600 English troops lately arrived there. We have many rumors of battles on the main, but know not how to separate truth from romance. We have news from Buenos Ayres to the 10th of March, by the arrival of W. G. D. Worthington, esq. Hate consul there, at New York. Mr. W. left Chili on the 29th of Jan. and made the journey across the country, computed at 420 leagues, in 21 days. It was reported, after he had left Chili, that the U.S. frigate Macedonian had arrived at Valparaiso. Our president’s message on opening the late session of congress, had been received. They were disappointed as to an expected recognition of their independence, but do not seem impatient about it. Chili is entirely freed of the royal forces—Lord Cochrane, in command of a very handsome fleet, was at Valparaiso, preparing an expedition to the coast of Peru, by which it appears that Lima had not been taken, as reported. Lord Cochrane's squadron put to sea suddenly on the 14th Jan. from Valparaiso, in pursuit of two i. nish frigates that they had information had sailed from Lima for Panama—they were also to make a dash at the harbor of Lima. The Chilian and Buenos Ayrean army under San Martin, about 3500 strong, was to embark for the siege of Lima as soon as the fleet returned to transport them. . Capt. Wooster, who commanded the O'Higgins frigate, resigned his commission just previous to the sailing of the fleet. The reason assigned for it is this: lord Cochrane sent on board the frigate an order for her to be ready for sea in four hours, to which captain Wooster sent an answer that it was impossible— Cochrane immediately repeated his order, adding that the word impossible was not in his vocabulary.
Upon which captain Wooster threw up his commission, and the fleet sailed without him. The marine of Chili is now wholly commanded by Englishmen. It was understood that the British frigate Andromache was at Lima, taking in five millions of dollars, which it was suspected that Cochrane would endeavor to intercept, under the pretence that she was violating her neutral character. The U. S. sloop Ontario also carried a million, or more, of dollars from Lima, which she delivered at Rio Janeiro—when she stopped at Valparaiso, and it was known that she had the money on board, under an apprehension that they would attempt to seize it as Spanish property, capt. Biddle suddenly left the port. We should like to hear the details of this' affair, if the report is true. The communication of Buenos Ayres with the interior, was rendered very . by wanderin hordes of Indians, called Montoneros. Bodies § troops had been marched against them, without any decisive advantage, as they are well mounted and careful to avoid a regular attack. A partial mutiny took place at Buenos Ayres, among the militia blacks on being harangued to much against those Indians. The regular troops are nearly all in Chili or on the frontiers of Peru, and the military duties of the city are performed by the militia.It was reported, that orders had been sent to gen. San Martin to march his troops to Buenos Ayres— probably on account of the expected expedition from Cadiz. It was thought that San Martin would be chosen supreme director. The royal Spanish general Ordonnis, and 32 other Spanish officers, being prisoners at “the 6 mile San Luis,” attempted to seize upon the governor and make their escape, by violence, though they seem to have been treated in the most hospitable manner. They were all put to death. “The congress,” on the 12th Dec. last by a public decree acknowledged Chili “as a free state, sovereign and independent, with all the attributes and plenitude of power, which are inherent to the great and elevated character,” and in form waited on the chief deputy residing in Buenos Ayres. qJ-It is openly announced in the Belfast News Letter, of Jan. 22, that col. Urslar's rifle regiment, of 1000 picked men, had been completed, and that the last detachment had sailed for South America? —that a house of the first respectability had offered him assistance to the amount of 100,000l. sterling.— Mention is also made of the sailing of 400 other troops, from Hamburg and Cruxhaven, who are to form a part of the cavalry under colonel Urslar. The following is a copy of a large handbill, publicly posted up in all parts of the city of Dublin: 1st rifle regiment, South America, army of Venezuela and JVew Granada, commanded by gen. Bolivar, size preme chief of Venezuela and the Granadas. The most flattering encouragement will be given to such young men, of good character, as shall be found qualified for gen. Devereaua's Irish legion, about to sail direct for the head quarters of the supreme chief, none but effective and spirited mem need apply; well disciplined soldiers who have their discharges, will be preferred, and will find this a: most favorable opportunity to improve their fortunes and acquire a handsome provision for themselves for life. Application to be made to col. Meade, 39, lower Ormond Quay. Every volunteer will receive, viz: 1st. Four pence in the shilling more than the British army, from the day of enrolling their names. 2d. A passage: to head quarters, with 60 dollars on arriving; 3d. 1 lb. of beef or pork, 1 lb. of bread, 14 lbs. of pota:
toes, 1 naggin [a gill] of whiskey per day. 4th. Oatmeal and butter, &c. &c. on the passage. 5th A proportionate share of land, captures, and prize money. 6th. 200 acres of land, with eighty dollars to purchase implements of agriculture. 7th, A full discharge and leave to sell the land, with a free passage horne, if required, after five years service. A corporal to have 250 acres, and a sergeant 300, colour do. 350, and so on in proportion. Every corporal, well recommended, will be made a sergeant, every sergeant, a colour serjeant with the strongest assurance of promotion according to their gallant and soldier-like conduct.
To sail on the 18th of April next, from Dublin.
(TThe reflections arising out of these facts are ourious—the British are playing a deep game, helping Ferdinand on one side, and opposing him on the other.
CH18ONICLE. The president of the United States reached Gharleston on the 26th ult, on his southern tour. He is every where received wit great attention and respect, but there is much less pomp and parade than took place on his eastern journey.
The U. S. corvette John Adams has arrived at Norfolk from Havana. We have not heard any particulars of her voyage.
The JMediterranean squadron, by late advices, all well. Com. Stewart had just learnt that the Tunisians had obliged some American vessels to shew their “Mediterranean passes,” and had left Messina to tell them that they inust desist from the procedure.
A steam boat of seven hundred tons, has been launched at New York.
East India missions. We see that the public benevolence is called upon at New York, in support of certain missionaries about to depart for the East Indies—to proclaim the gospel to the heathen. Now, if we had no room for the exercise of such functions at home, this might be well enough—but our own Indians require the attentions of the religious and humane, in our opinion, quite as much as those in the | East. .New York. The election for members of the senate and assembly of this state, was held last week. There are three distinct political parties in New York—two calling themselves republican and the other federal. As far as the 1 eturns are received, that branch of the republican party opposed to gov. Clinton, seems to have succeeded—in the city, in the choice of assemblymen, the average majority against the friends of the gov. was 2,301 votes; for senators, the majority on the same side was about 850 over the “Clintonian,” and 500 over the federal ticket. ...An arch bridge, on a new construction, has been recently erected over Onion river, near Montpel'lier, in Vermont. It is said to be “composed of sixty-nine string pieces, thirty feet in length, and ten inches by eleven and a half in size; together with twelve thwarts, or cross pieces, twenty two fect long, seven inches by fourteen; forming one entire arch one hund, ed and ninety-five feet long, and twenty broad; with not a single mortice, tenon, bolt, or band about it. The whole expense of the bridge did not exceed two hundred dollars.”
Died, lately, at Marblehead, capt. Nathan Bartlett, ared 70—a naval hero of the revolution, having .£aithfully served as an officer in several public vesIsels of war from 1776 to the latter end of 1781, when
he was first lieutenant of the South Carolina fri-
gate. — also, in Kent county, Maryland, Thomas S. Smith, esq. in his 89th year. He was a member of the convention that formed the constitution of this state in 1776, and a member of the council of safety during the revolution. — also, in Massachusetts, Jonathan Cogswell, esq. aged 79, an officer of the revolution, a member of the convention of that state which ratified the constitution of the U. S. and for several years a mem: ber of congress. Louisiana. At the late session of the legislature, the following resolution received the sanction of both branches of the legislature, and the approbation of the governor: S Resolved, by the senate and house of representatives of the state of Louisiana, in general assembly convened, That the governor of this state be required to solicit from the president of the United States, to order that a sufficient naval force be stationed on our coasts, to protect them against the depredations of the pirates which desolate t + m, and which impede our communications with Vera Cruz and other Spanish ports in the gulf of Mexico. Rhode-Island. The general election was held in this state on the 21st ult. and eventuated in the reelection, without opposition, of the present republican General officers. A majority of republicans is also chosen for the house of repersentatives. Every branch of the government is therefore republiCail. From the .4labama Courier, ...?pril 9. A gentleman direct from the land sales at Cahaba, states: that in consequence of a combination of the land speculators, the sales have been postponed. The company, consisting of about forty, deposited one thousand dollars each, and agreed not to bid over two dollars per acre for any land which might be offered. That two valuable townships were bid off at that price, when the Register ordered the saies to be postponed. These townships were then sold at auction by the company, and the net profit arising from the resale of the land amounted to $1989 to each individual concerned. We presume that the gentlemen speculators formed their plans on the commonly received principle, that the public is a goose, and that while its enchanting plumage offered so many temptations to pluck a few feathers, no other danger was to be apprehended than that of being hissed at! Indians.—By a report made to the assembly of New York, it appears that the whole number of Indians within it, is 4976. Oneidas, 1031. The land possessed by all the Indians, is 271,323 acres—By the Oneidas, 20,000. All the land is estimated at S1,626,000. a Col. Trumbull. By a letter received from the duke of Ischia (the celebrated Ganova) we learn, that our distinguished countryman, Col. Trumbull, has been elected a member of the royal academy, at Napies. An act of liberality honorable to our country and to the individual who received it. JV. P. paper. .1 new apphication of steam.—We hear that a par tent had been taken out in the city of Washington to apply steam, in the place of gun-powder, to propel balls, &c. from cannon &c. We are assured that much confidence is reposed in this discovery, and much expectation is excited as to the effects to be produced by this new application of steam. Press. .View J.ondon .April 7. Sailed, sloop Macdonough, Colt, for New York. Went passenger the celebrated Massachusetts Hog-girts 73 feet, and weighs 1100, on a visit to the New York mammoth turtle.
raisrep AND published by ii. Niles, At $5 PER ANNUM, PAYAHL* IN ADVANCB,
momestic Industry.—The essays, published by the sanction of the Philadelphia society for promoting domestic industry, and re-publishing in the Roots. ten, have had the widest circulation of any series of papers that we have met with for years—and they deserve universal attention.
Mitigation of Slavery–No. 2. Propositiox THE Flitst. *That slavery must, at some future day, he abolished in the United States. There is no man who believes that God is just, or affects a veneration for our republican institutions, that can bear the assurance to his own mind, that this blot, or curse, is to remain as long as our country endures.”
When we mentally survey the fair country which Alwigarr Phov in ENck has given to us to inhabit, and reflect upon the light and knowledge he has dispensed that we might ascertain our rights as men, and esteem as we ought the natural and moral capacities within us to maintain a national independence—there is no transition of thought that can be less satisfactory than when our attention is turned to the condition of our slaves. This “land of freedom.” “the asylum of the oppressed of all nations” —“triumph of reason,” and “hope of humanity,” sinks in our estimation when we remember, that more than one seventh part of the whole population is composed of miserable men, the property of others, liable to be disposed of like horses or hogs, except in regard to life and limb, Behold the regions of the republic—bounded on the north by the St. Lawrence and the wonderful chain of inland seas, and on the south washed by the gulf of Mexico, and extending from the Atlantic ocean on the east to the Pacific on the west; indented by numerous bays, watered by unrivalled streams, diversified by lofty mountains, fruitful valliesonmense forests and delightful plains: fitted to *ry constitution of the human system, and pro‘tive of all that may wants and most of the good things which he enjoys; darting to eminence and approaching the political sun with the daring flight of an eagle; fitted to prosper in peace, and qualified to triumph in war. Apparently destined by Heaven to command the respect of the world; to negociate nations into justice and repose—“a terror to evil doers and a praise to them that do well:” to teem with uncounted millions of intelligent and high spirited men—and become the grand depository of all the arts useful or ornamental to mankind. Lo!-im
*Since the preceding was in type, we accidently
onet with the following extract from a speech of JPatrick Henry, in the generalassembly of Virginia:— - “I venture to prophecy there are those now living, who will see this favored land amongst the rnost powerful on earth- able, sir, to take care of herself, without resorting to that policy which is always so dangerous, though sometimes unavoidable, efealling in foreign aid. Yes, sir - they will see her reat in arts and in arms –her golden harvests waving over fields of immeasurable extent - her commerce penetrating the most distant seas, and her cannon silencing the vain boasts of those who now proudly affect to rule the waves,” Vol. XVI.-14,
-- Fprovement is putting forth her powerful hand—science is brought in aid of nature; capital is raised and labor casts the waters of the lakes thronglf naviga. ble channels into the ocean, rivers are cleared of their obstructions, and artificial streams groan beneath the rich burthens of commerce—the vast interior is penetrated by shipping; permanent roads are constructed, and the shores of roaring torrents are united by magnificent bridges, “Unconquered steam,” whose utility is yet in its infancy, brings the most distant places together by its agency, and introduces uniformity of habits and manners by the facility which it affords to friendly communication; the product of our forest finds a ready passage to the sea-board to meet the market of the world, and the rich commodities of Asia are in common use a thousand miles from the ocean. Nor is our political history less interesting. A few years ago, and all this vast country was the ha. bitation of savage tribes, thinly scattered through the woods, continually at war with each other, and mainly depending upon the uncertain chase for sub. sistence. As light dawned in the old world, and man began to discern his privileges and esteem his rights, a spirit grew up to maintain then, Kingcraft and priestcraft had so long lorded it over the persons and consciences of men, that many sup, posed there was a “divine riglrt” in them, as to al temporal and spiritual things; and, as the former, most impudently dared to treatits subjects as beasts made for its use—so the other, most impiously, af. fected a power to condemn to punishment after death, for non-compliance to priestly will while liv. ing!—Our forefathers partially judged these things as they ought, and for conscience-sake, preferred li. bertyand the woods, beset with savages and beasts of prey, to oppression and the “flesh pots” of the land of their ancestors. Determined to possess the right of managing their own affairs between themselves and their Creator, according to th: convictions of their own understanding, they left all that fastens so powerfully on the heart of man as connected with the idea home, and encountered the perils of a then terrifying voyage across the Atlantic, to meet with new and untried difficultsea and privations in a strange land, yet almost as rude as nature had left it. It was this principle that chief. ly settled the states east of Maryland, and partly Maryland, also; but those to the south were partially planted under the care of the British government, and, herein, perhaps, we may discover the principal cause of the introduction of a population into the latter which every good man now regrets. Though thus differently planted, there was one subject on which the pecole of all the co onies were pretty general agreed, when union was necessary to give force to their will. Having brought with them very liberal opinions of men and things, and enjoying for many years a great degree of freedom of intellect and action, they naturally became republicans, ( as to themselves_), and when the time arrived at which the “mother country” thought it an object to oppress them, they resisted and unfurled the standard of rebellon; they succeeded, and courtesy has softened their opposition to the
royal will into the term revolution—such is the vile sycophancy of man, who measures right by Power