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lar examples. We have almost all the trades and Forincreasing the magazines of wool in the manufactures that can be conceived, as well for small towns - -

4,000 things of absolute necessity, as for the conveniencies For establishing a manufactory of beaver and luxuries of life. Some of them have attained to stockings at Lawenberg .

2,000 a great degree of perfection, as those of woolen For establishing a cotton manufactory at New cloth, linen, porcelain, and others. The greater Stettin • - - - . . . 2,400 part are in a state of mediocrity, and may be brought For a magazine of cotton for the benefit of the by degrees to perfection, if there is continued to manufacturers of Pomerania . . 6,000 be given to them the same attention, assistance, and

East and West Prussia... support, which the Prussian government has hither-For repairing the damage occasioned by the to most liberally bestowed; and especially when to burning of woolen cloths near Preusch Ei. these are added the motives and inducements of_lau •

- 3,506 emulation, which are absolutely necessary for bring. For establishing a manufacture of muslin at ing manufactures and works of art to perfection. Koningsburg - . . . . . 1,000 Our manufactures exclusively supply all the Prussain For a manufactory of leather at Preusch Ein dominions; unl, with a very favorable rivalshap, espe lau • • • • • • • • 5,000 cially for cloths, linens, and woolens, Poland, Russia, For a dye house at Gastrow . . .

2,600 Germany, Italy, and especially Spain and Am-rica. For magazines of wool in the little towns of In order to afford a more strong and clear convicod clear convic- West Prussia - ". . .

- 6,000 tion, I shall here add a compendious table of the For a manufactory of press boards... 6,000 principal trades and mamifactures, which exist in

Silesia. . the Prussian monarchy, of their produce, and of the For the establishment of forty weavers at number of traders and manufacturers who are em- | Striegaw and in the neighborhood. : 17,368 ployed in them.”-Hertzberg's Discourses, p. 101. For premiums relative to manufactures . 2,000 "The Prussian dominions had in the course of the

- Brandenburgh. . year 1785,*

For establishing work shops for carding wool 1,360
Produce of For rewards, intended for the encouragement
Manu. tho manu-

L of spinning in the country . .
factu factures in

. . . 2,000 rers.

rix dollars. For the erection of silk mills at Berlin - 24,000 In linens. . 51,0007 : 80,000 9,000,000 For purchasing the cods of silk worms, and Incloths and woolen 18,000 58,000 8,000,000 causing them to be well spun .

. 10,000 In silk . . 4,200 6,000 3,000,000 For machines for carrying on the Manchester In cotton . . 2,600 7,000 1,200,000/ manufacture . . . .

10,000 In leather . . . . E 4,000

4,000 2,000,0001...

2,000,000 . ANNO 1786. In Bradenburg. In iron, steel, copper, &c. - - 3,000 2,000,000 For procuring Spanish sheep . : .. 22,000 In tobacco, of which 140,000 quin

For increasing the magazines of wool - 17,000 tals are the growth of the coun

For improvements relative to the spinning of try - '

..

2,000 1,000,000 wool - . . . . . 4,000 Sugar . . . . . 1,000 2,000,000 for a manufactory of woolen cloths at Zinna 3,000 Percelain and earthen-ware.

200,000 For a plantation of mulberry trees at Nowawest 2,000 Paper - - -

800 200,000 For the purchase of cods of silk worms and Tallow and soap . . .

400,0001 establishing a magazine of them . - 20,000 Glass, looking-glasses

200,000

In the New March. Manufacturers in gold, silver, lace,

For several small manufactures of wool and embroidery, &c. . . 1,000 400,0001 leather, and for fulling mills in Custrin, NeSilesia madder - - ..

300,000 wedel, Falckenburg, and Sommerfeldt, Oil ..

600 300,0001 towns of the New March - - - 4,021 Yellow amber. - 600 50,000

In Pomerania.

For increasing the magazines of wool . 6,000

165,000 30,250,000| For a manufactory of cotton stockings at EXPENSES OF FREDERICK'II. FOR PROMOTION OF MANU

Gartz . . . . .

4,000 I. BACTURES, ANNO 1785.* *

For a manufactory of leather at Anclam : 3,000 In New March.

For a manufactory of leather at Treptow 1,500

Crowns. For a manufactory of sail cloth at Rugenwalde 5,000 For establishtng a manufactory of leather, For a manufactory of cables in the same city 4,000

and for tanning at Landsberg - . 3,500 For a manufactory of cloth for Aags at Stettin 3,000 For a similar manufactory at Drisen . 3,000

In East Prussia. - Ditto ditto at Cottbus

1,000 For a manufactory of moroccoleather at KoFor erecting a fulling mill at Drambourg. 200

• - - 3,000 For increasing the magazines of wool for the For a manufactory of English earthenware in manufacturers of small towns . .. 3,000 the same city • I Pomerania,

For a manufactory of leather

ory of leather :. - - 1,000 For enlarging the manufactory of leather at For a manufactory of ribands and bags - 600 Anclam - - -

= 3,000 For a cotton manufactory at Gumbinnen . 1,000 For establishing a manufactory of leather at

In West Prussia. Treptow . . .. .. . . 1,500 For a dye-house at Darkhenen . . 2,600 For establishing a manufactory at Griffenha For a dye-house at Bromberg:. . . 2,600 gen . . . .

• 1,500 For a manufactory of fine cloth at Culm - 7,200 Por establishing a manufactory of fustians

In Silesia. and cottons at Frederickshold - . 1,000 | Premiums for manufacturers and for encou

raging and supporting weavers

- 17,000 *Hirtzberg's Discourses, 1. 103. Item 41.

260,448

700

300

Roads and Canals.

| the part of wisdom to profit by experience, so it is

of the utmost importance to prevent a recurrence INTERESTING OFFICIAL DOCUMENT.

of a similar state of things, by the application of 2 · Report of ihe secretary of war to congress. DEPARTMENT OF VAR. JAN. 7TH. 1819. portion of our means to the construction of such

roads and canals as are required with a view to iniSir-Incompliance with a resolution of the house

litary operations in time of war, the transportation of representatives of the 4th of April, 1818, instruct

of the munitions of war, and more complete defence ing the secretary of war to report to that house, ats

of the United States." their next session, “a plan for the application of such

" In all questions of military preparations, three of ineans as are within the power of congress for the

iour frontiers require special attention, the eastern purpose of opening and constructing such roads and

or Atlantic frontier; the northern, or the Canadian canals as may deserve and require the aid of go. I frontier: and tbe southern, or the frontier of the vernment, with a view to military operations in time

Gulf of Mexico. On the west and north-west we of war; the transportation of munitions of war; and

are secure, except against Indian hostilities; and also a statement of the works of the nature above

e the only military preparations required in that quar, mentioned which have been commenced, the pro- Iterare such

- pro- ter, are such as are necessary to keep the Indian gress which has been made, and the means and pros-tribes in awe, and to protect the frontier from their pect of their completion; together with such infor-ravages. All of our great military efforts, growing mation as, in the opinion of the secretary, shall be out of a war with an European power, must, for the material in relation to the objects of the resolu- present. be directed towards our eastern, northern, tion," Į have the honor to make the following re-lör southern frontier: and the roads and canals which port:

will enable the government to concentrate its means A judicious system of roads and canals, construct

onstruct for defence, promptly and cheaply, on the vulneraed for the convenience of commerce and the trans- ble points of either of those frontiers, are those portation of the mail only, without any reference to which, in a military point of view, require the aid of military operations, is itself among the most efficio i government. I propose to consider each of those ent means for “the more complete defence of the frontiers separately, beginning with the Atlantic, United States.” Without adverting to the fact, that which, in many respects, is the weakest and most the roads and canals which such a system would re-lexposed. quire are, with few exceptions, precisely those from the mouth of St. Croix to that of St. Marys, which would be required for the operations of war, the two extremes of this frontier, is a distance, such a system, by consolidating our union, increas-along the line of the coast and principal bays, withi. ing our wealth and fiscal capacity, would add great-Jout following their sinuosities, of about two thouly to our resources in war. It is in a state of war sand one hundred miles. On this line, including when a nation is compelled to put all of its resour-lits navigable rivers and bays, are situated our most ces, in men, money, skill, and devotion to country, populous cities, the great depots of the wealth and into requisition, that its government realizes, in its commerce of the country. That portion of it which security, the beneficial effects from a people made extends to the south of the Chesapeake, has, with prosperous and happy by a wise direction of its re- the exceptions of the cities and their immediate sources in peace. But I forbear to pursue this sub- neighborhood, a sparse population, with a low ject, though so interesting, and which, the farther marshy country, extending back from 100 to 150 it is pursued, will the mare clearly establish the in-miles. . To the north of the Chesapeake, inclusive, timate connection between the defence and safety it affords, every where, deep and bold navigable of the country and its improvement and prosperity, bavs and rivers, which readily admit vessels of any as I do not conceive that it constitutes the immedi- size. Against a line so long, so weak, so exposed, ate object of this report.

and presenting such strong motives for depreda. There is no country to which a good system of|tions, hostilities the most harassing and exhaust. military roads and canals is more indispensable than ing may be carried on by a naval power; and should to the United States. As great as our military ca- the subjugation of the country ever be attempted, pacity is, when compared with the number of our it is probable that against this frontier, facing Eupeople, yet, when considered in relation to the vast rope, the seat of the great powers of the world, the extent of our country, it is very small; and, if so principal efforts would be turned. Thus circumgreat an extent of territory renders it very difficult stanced, it is the duty of the government to render it to conquer us, as has frequently been observed, as secure as possible. For much of this security we it nuglit not to be forgotten that it renders it no less ought to look to a navy, and a judicious and strong difficult for the government to afford protection to system of fortifications: but not to the neglect of every portion of the community. In the very na- such roads and canals as will enable the government ture of things, the difficulty of protecting every part, to concentrate, promptly and cheaply, at any point so long as our population bears so small a propor- which may be menaced, the necessary force and tion to the extent of the country, cannot be entire means fordefence. ly overcome; but it may be very greatly diminished To resist ordinary hostilities, having for their obby a good system of military roads and canals. The Iject the destruction of our towns and the exhaus. necessity of such a system is still more apparent if|tion of our means, the force ought to be drawn from we take into consideration the character of our po. the country lying between the coasts and the sourlitical maxims and institutions. Opposed in princi- ces of the principal rivers which discharge through ple to a large standing army, our main reliance for it into the ocean; but, to resist greater efforts, aimdefence must be on the militia, to be called out fre. ing at conquest, should it ever be attempted, the quently from a great distance, and under the prese force and resources of the whole community must sure of an actual invasion. The experience of the be brought into resistance. To concentrate, then, lace war amply proves, in the present state of our a sufficient force, on any point of this frontier which internal improvements, the delay, the uncertainty, may be invaded, troops must be marched, and mui. the anxiety, and exhausting effects of such calls. nitions of war transported, either along the line of The facts are too recent to require details, and the the coast or from the interior of the Atlantic states, impression too deep to be soon forgotten. As it is to the coast, or, should the invading force be of such

inagnitude as to require it, from the western states; measure lost to him. In fact, the capacity for rapid and the roads and canals necessary for the defence and prompt movements and concentration, would of this frontier are those which will render these be, to the full, as much in our power. We would operations prompt, certain, and economical. have, in most of the points of attack, a shorter line

From the coast to the Alleghany mountains, and to move over, in order to concentrate our means; the high land separating the streams which enter and, aided by steam boats, would have tlie capacity into the St. Lawrence from those of the Atlantic, to pass it in a shorter time, and with greater certainin which the principal Atlantic rivers take their ty, that what an enemy, even with a naval superioririse, the distance may be averaged at about 250 ty, would have to attack us. Suppose the feet of miles; and the whole extent, from the St Mary's to such an enemy should appear off the Capes of Dela the St. Croix, is intersected, at short intervals, by ware; before it could possibly approach and attack large navigable rivers and the principal roads of this Philadelphia, information, by telegraphic communiportion of ourcountry, trough which its great com.cation, might be given to Baltimore and New York, mercial operations are carried on. These, aided by and the forces stationed there thrown in for its rer the steam boats, now introduced on almost all our lief. The same might take place if Baltimore or New great rivers, present great facilities to collect the York should be invaded; and, should an attack be militia from the interior, and to transport the ne- made on any of our cities, the militia and regular cessary supplies and munitions of war.

forces, at a great distance along the coast, could, in a Much undoubtedly remains to be done to perfect short time, be thrown in for its relief. By this speethe roads and improve the navigation of the rivers: dy communication, the regular forces, with the mi. but this, for the most part, may be safely left to the litia of the cities and their neighborhood, would be states and the commercial cities particularly inte- sufficient to repel ordinary invasions, and would rested, as the appropriate objects of tbeir care and either prevent, or greatly diminish, the harassing exertions. The attention of both have recently calls upon the militia of the interior. If to theso been much turned towards these objects, and a few considerations we add the character of the climate years will probably add much to facilitate the inter- of the southern position of the Atlantic frontier, so course between the coast and the interior of the At- fatal to those whose constitutions are not inured to lantic states. Very different is the case with the it, the value of this system of defence, by the regular great and important line of communication, extend- troops and the militia accustomed to the climate, ing along the coast, through the Atlantic states. No will be greatly enhanced. Should this line of inobject of the kind is more important; and there is land navigation be constructed, to enjoy its benefits none to which state or individual capacity is more fully, it will be necessary to coverit against the nainadequate. It must be perfected by the general val operations of an enemy. It it thought that this government, or not perfected at all, at least for ma- may be easily effected, to the south of the Chesia ny years. No one or two states have a sufficient peake, by land and steam batteries. The bay is itinterest. It is immediately beneficial to more than self one of the most important links in this line of half of the states of the union, and without the aid communication; and its defence againt a navo] force of the general government, would require their co-ought, if practicable, to be rendered complete. It operation. It is, at all times, a most important object was carefully surveyed, the last summer, by skilful to the nation; and, in a war with a naval power, is officers, for this purpose in part, and it is expected almost indispensable to our military, commercial and that their report will throw much light upon this financial operations. It may, in a single view, be important subject. Long Island Sound, another part considered the great artery of the country; and, of the line which is exposed, can be fully defended when the coasting trade is suspended by war, the by a naval force only. vast intercourse between the north and south, which It remains, in relation to the defence of the Atannually requires five hundred thousand tons of lantic frontier, to consider the means of communicashipping, and which is necessary to the commerce, tion between it and the western states, which rıthe agriculture and manufacture of more than half quire the aid of the government. Most of the ob. of the union, seeks this channel of communication. servations made relative to the increased strength If it were thoroughly opened by land and water; if and capacity of the country to bear up under the Louisiana were connected, by a durable and well pressure of war, from the coastwise communication,

finished road, with Maine; and Boston with Savan- are applicable in a high degree at present, and are - nah, by a well established line of inland navigation, daily becoming more so, to those with the western

for which so many facilities are presented, more states; and should a war for conquest ever be wathan half of the pressure of war would be removed. ged against us, an event not probable, but not to be A country so vast in its means, and abounding, in laid entirely out of view, the roads and canals neces. its various latitudes, with almost all the products of sary to complete the communication with that porthe globe, is a world of itself; and, with that facility tion of our country, would be of the utmost imporof intercourse, to perfect which the disposable tance. means of the country is adequate, would flourish! The interest of commerce, and the spirit of rivaland prosper under the pressure of a war with any ry between the great Atlantic cities, will do much, power. But, dropping this more elevated view, to perfect the means of intercourse with the west. and considering the subject only as it regards mi. The most important lines of communication appear litary operations in time of war, and the transporta- to be from Albany to the lakes; from Philadelphia, tion of the munitions of war," what could contri- Baltimore, Washington, and Richmond, to the Ohio bute so much as this communication to the effec- river; and from Charleston and Augusta, to the Tontual and cheap defence of our Atlantic frontier? nessee; all of which are now commanding the attenTake the line of inland navigation along the coast, tion, in a greater or less degree, of the sections of the whole of which, it is estimated, could be com- the country immediately interested. But in such pleted, for sea vessels, by digging one hundred great undertakings, so interesting in every point of miles, and at the expense of $3,000,000, the advan- view to the whole union, and which may ultimately tage which an enemy with a naval force now has, become necessary to its defence, the expense ought by rapidly moving along the coast, and harassing not to fall wholly on the portions of the country and exhausting the country, would be in a great more immediately interested. As the government has a deep stake in them, and as the system of de- completion of the road which has already been com. fence will not be perfect without their completion, menced from Tennessee river to the same place, it ought at least to bear a proportional share of the with the inland navigation through the canal of Caexpense of their construction.

rondelet, Lake Ponchartrain, and the islands along I proceed next to consider the roads and canals the coast of Mobile, covered against the operations connected with the defence of our northern frontier. of a naval force, every facility required for the transThat portion of it which extends to the east of Lakeportation of munitions of war, and movements and Champlain has not heretofore been the scene of ex- concentration of troops, to protect this distant and tensive military operations; and I am not sufficient important frontier, would be afforded. ly acquainted with the nature of the country, to Such are the roads and canals which military ope. venture an opinion whether we may hereafter berations in time of war, the transportations of the mu. called on to make considerable military efforts in nitions of war, and the more complete defence of the that quarter. Without, then, designating any mili. U. States, require. tary improvements, as connected with this portion Many of the roads and canals which have been of our northern frontier, I would suggest the pro- suggested, are no doubt of the first importance to priety, should congress approve of the plan for a mi- the commerce, the manufactures, the agriculture, litary survey of the country to be hereafter propos- and political prosperity of the country; but are not, ell, to make a survey of it the duty of the engineers for that reason, less useful or necessary for military who may be designated for that purpose.

purposes. It is, in fact, one of the great advantages of For the defence of the other part of this line of our country, enjoying so many others, that, whether frontier, the most important objects are, a canal of we regard its internal improvements in relation to water communication between Albany and Lake military, civil, or political purposes, very nearly the George, and Lake Ontario, and between Pittsburg same system, in all its parts, is required. The road and Lake Erie. The two former have been com- or canal can scarcely be designated, which is highly menced by the state of New York, and will, when useful for military operations, which is not equally completed, connected with the great inland naviga- required for the industry or political prosperity of tion along the coast, enable the government, at a the community. If those roads or canals had been moderate expense, and in a short time, to transport pointed out, which are necessary for military purmunitions of war, and to concentrate its troops from poses only, the list would have been small indeed. any portion of the Atlantic states, fresh and unex-I have, therefore, presented all, without regarding hausted by the fatigue of marching on the inland the fact, that they might be employed for other uses, frontier of the state of New York. The road com- which, in the event of war, would be necessary to menced, by order of the executive, fronı Plattsburg give economy, certainty, and success to our military to Sackett's Harbor, is essentially connected with operations; and which, if they had been completed military operations on this portion of the northern before the late war, would, by their saving in that frontier. A water communication from Pittsburg single contest, in men, money, and reputation, more to Lake Erie would greatly increase our power than indemnified the country for the expense of their on the upper lakes. The Allegiany river, by its construction. I have uot prepared an estimate of main branch, is said to be navigable within seven expenses, nor pointed out the particular routes for miles of Lake Erie, and by French creek, within the roads or canals recommended, as I conceive that sixteen miles. Pitisburg is the great military de- this can be ascertained with satisfaction only by able pot of the country to the west of the Alleghany, and skilful engineers, after a careful survey and exand, if it were connected by a canal with Lake amination. Erie, would furnish military supplies with facility I would, therefore, respectfully suggest, as the to the upper lakes, as well as to the country water basis of the system, and the ürst measure in the splan

we add a road from Detroit to Ohio, which has al- er of congress,” that congress should direct such a ready been commenced, and a canal from the Illi- survey and estimate to be made, and the result to be noise river to Lake Michigan, which the growing / laid before them as soon as practicable. The expopulation of the state of Illinois renders very im- pense would be inconsiderable; for as the army can portant, all the facilities which would be essential furnish able military and topographical engineers, it "to carry on military operations in the time of war, would principally be confined to the employment of and the transportation of the munitions of war" for one or more skilful civil engineers, to be associated the defence of the western portion of our northern with them. By their combined skill, an efficient frontier, would be afforded.

system of military roads and canals. would be pre. It only remains to consider the system of roads sented in detail, accompanied with such estimates and canals connected with the defence of our south of expenses as may be relied on. 'Thus, full and saern frontier, or that on the Gulf of Mexico. For the tisfactory information would be had; and though defence of this portion of our country, though it some time might be lost in the commencement of present weak of itself, nature has done much. The the system, it would be more than compensated by bay of Mobile, and the entrance into the Mississip- | its assured efficiency when completed." pi through all of its channels, are highly capable of For the construction of the roads and canals, defence. A military survey has been made, and the which congress may choose to direct, the ariny, to a necessary fortifications have been commenced, and certain extent, may be brought in aid of the monied will be in a few years completed. But the real resources of the country. The propriety of employ. strength of this frontier is the Mississippi, which is ing the army on works of public utility, cannot be Ho less the cause of its security, than that of its com- doubted. Labor adds to its usefulness and health. merce and weakh. Its rapid stream, aided by the A mere garrison life is equally hostile to its vigor and force of steam, can, in the hour of danger, concen- discipline. Both officers and men become the sub. trate at once an irresistible force. Made strong by jects of deleterious effects. But when the vast exthiis noble river, little remains to be done by roads | tent of our country is compared with the extent of and canals, for the defence of our southern frontier. our military establishments, and taking into consi. The continuation of the road along the Atlantic deration the necessity of emploving the soldiers on coast, from Milledgville to New Orleans, and the fortifications, barracks, and roads, connected with remote frontier posts, we ought not to be sanguine | the United States, on such terms and conditions as in the expectation of aid to be derived from the ar- might be thought proper. In other cases, and where my in tbe construction of permanent military roads the army cannot be made to execute it, the work and canals, at a distance from the frontiers. When ought to be done by contract, under the superin. our military posts come to be extended up the Mis-tendance and inspection of officers of the engineer sissippi and Missouri, as far as is contemplated, the corps, to be detailed for that purpose. It is thus military frontier of the United States, not including the government will be able, it is thought, to consinuosities, and the coasts of navigable bays and struct on terms at least as favorable as corporate lakes opening into our country, as was stated in a companies. The system of constructing all public former report, will present a line of more than 9000 works, which admit of it, by contract, would be at. miles, and including them, of more than 11,000.tended with important advantages. It has recently Thinly scattered along so extensive a frontier it will been adopted in the contruction of fortifications, be impossible, I fear, without leaving some points and it is expected will be attended with beneficial axposed, to collect any considerable bodies in the effects. The principal works at Mobile and New interior of the country, to construct roads and ca. Orleans have been contracted for on terms conside. pals.

rably under the estimates of the engineers. Such a · As connected with this subject, I would respect. system, extended to military roads and canals, comFully suggest the propriety of making an adequate bined with a careful inspection and superintendance provision for the soldiers, while regularly and con- by skilful engineers, will enable the government to tinually employed in constructing works of public, complete them with economy, durability, and de. utility. The present allowance is fifteon cents a spatch. day, which is considered sufficient in occasional fa- In the view which has been taken, I have thought tigue duty, such as is now done at most of the posts; it improper, under the resolution of the house, to but if systematic employ, on permanent works, discuss the constitutional question, or how far the should be made the regular duty of the soldiers, who system of internal improvements which has been can be spared for that purpose, a compensation, presented may be carried into effect on the princitaking into the estimate the obligation of the govern- iple of our government; and, therefore, the whole of ment to provide medical attendance and pensions to the arguments which are used, and the measures the deceased and disabled soldiers, not much short proposed, must be considered as depending on the of the wages of daily labor, ought to be granted to decision of that question. them. Without such provision, which is dictated! The only military roads which have been comby justice, an increase of desertion, and difficulty in menced, are from Plattsburg to Sackett's Harbor, obtaining recruits, ought to be expected. Among the through the Chateaugay country; from the southern leading inducements to enlist, is the exemption from boundary of the state of Tennessee, and crossing labor; and, if the life of a soldier should be equally the Tennessee river nearthe Muscle Shoals, to Madisubjected to it as that of other citizens in the same sonville, Louisiana; and from Detroit to Fort Meigs. grade, he will prefer, if the wages are much inferior, at the foot of the Rapids of the Miami of the Lakes. to labor for himself, to laboring for the public. The Documents marked A. B. C. show the progress pay of a soldier is sixty dollars per annum, and, if he which have been made. These roads have been were allowed, when employed permanently on fa- commenced, and thus far completed by the labor of tigue, twenty-five cents a day; and suppose him to the soldiers, who, while they are so employed, rebe employed 200 days in the year, his compensation, ceive fifteen cents per day, with an extra allowance including his pay, would be 150 dollars perannum--a of a gill of whiskey. The labor of the troops is sum, it is thought, considerably short of the average the only means within the reach of the department, wages of labor. If this sum should be allowed, the of completing these roads; and, as the troops are so greater portion of it ought to be paid at the expira- employed, only when they are not engaged in active tion of the term of enlistment. if fifteen cents a service, it is impossible to state, with accuracy, day were so reserved, and the soldier should be em- | when the roads will be completed. ployed one thousand days in the five years for which

J. C. CALHOUN. ħe is enlisted, it would constitute a sum of one hun- The Hon. Henry Clay, dred and fifty dollars, to be paid at the expiration of Speaker of the house of representatives. his terin, which ought, in the same manner as the

(A.) bounty land, be made to depend on an honorable

, Head-quarters, Brownsville, discharge. This would furnish an important hold

. 6th December, 1818.. on the fidelity of the soldier, and would be a power-1 Sin-Your letter, covering a copy of one of the ful check on the great and growing crime of deser- | 11th of August, calling for a report of the labor tion. An honorable discharge is now worth but lit. porformed on the road leading from Sackett's Har. tie to the soldier, and the consequence is, that deser- | bor, through the Chateaugay country, is before me. tions are more frequent with those enlisted since Mv letter of the 29th November, will inform you the war, than those who were then enlisted, and are what has been done, but I fear will not exhibit the entitled to the bounty in land on their honorable progress of this work to the extent you have expect. discharge. The latter patiently waits the expira- ed. It may, therefore, be proper to state, in this tion of his term of service, while the former fre- place, that when the president, in the autumn of quently seizes the first favorable opportunity for de- 1817, directed the road in question to be opened sertion.

land improved, I did not understand, that the second Should congress think proper to commence a sys- regiment were to be ordered from the duty they tem of roasis and canals for the snore complete de- / were then upon. This regiment, at the time refer. fence of the United States,” the dishurseinents of ed to, were employed, enclosing with pickets the the sums appropriated for the purpose might be public ground at Sackett's Harbor, and that duty made by the department of war, under direction of occupied them the remainder of the season. Ex the president. Where incorporate companies are pecting the troops at the Harbor would bave been already formed, or the road or canal commenced un employed in completing the barracks at that place der the superintendance of a st te, it perhaps vould this year, they were not put upon the road, but be advisable to direct a subscription on the part of allowed to be engaged in improving the public

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