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though they are not actually ibwent, yet their losses, consequent upon the sudden decline of cotton, has swallowed up the profits of years of industry.
*he whole attention of the planter has been devoted to the cultivation of cotton, and what is the consequence? The state of Georgia is obliged to kok to the more northern states for bread stuffs.Corn, which might be raised for 50 cents, is imported from Massachusetts, and carried two hundred miles into the interior, at an expense of three to fbur dollars per bushel.
We would advise every planter, to cultivate at least as much grain as will suffice for his own use; iet this be the first object of his attention: this attained he cannot lose money; the surplus of his labor may be applied to the cultivation of cotton and tobacco, and is so much clear gain—but what profit can a plantation afford, even if cotton were 50 cents a pound, so long as the whole product must be applied to the purchase of provisions, for the support of his family and working hands.
- From JWew York Advocate.
The TIMEs.-The pressure of the times is now beginning to be most seriously and dangerously felt. In New York, four or five highly respectable and important mercantile houses have stopped payment, and there is reason to fear that the evil will be increased. The rage for speculation has carried them beyond their depth, added to which the extraordinary state of commerce in Europe affords no hope of better prospects. Under such circumstances, prudence should dictate to our merchants a cessation of further hazardous enterprize; and by a more judicious application of their means at home, retrieve their past losses.
From the .Aurora. -
Let the American people now turn to the spindle; the day is near at hand, when the cottoR planter will earnestly desire his cotton to be sold in domestic mart only. The price of cotton we hear, has already fallen to 10d. and 11d. in England, per lb. and we may expect to hear of its being still lower—British dry goods have also fallen in proportion to the fall of the raw material, at the place of manufacture—33 1-3 to 50 per cent. and will still fall—let the consumer beware how he purchases goods at this time, for he will soon have to buy domestic goods at a very low rate; let the wholesale dealers beware how they buy of British agents, for they will not be able to pay them; the goods will fall too much upon their shelves to enable them to do so.
The intention of this communication is to caution the unwary; we are going to have sad times, and plenty of goods under the hammer at any price they will bring. Let the man that can pay twenty shillings take care of himself—Tom Straddle is almost dismounted, and will soon accompany Jack Manchester home. - PETER.
Banking, et cetera.
Desirable equality. The secretary of the treasury has lately dispatched his circulars to the west, by which every land office in the United States is authorised to receive payments in such money as is in good credit in the district. We have no objection to urge against this arrangement—on the contrary, we would advise the officers of government to receive pay for the public land in any way, and as soon as they can. But we think the Atlantic states have an equal right to participate in the liberality of go
vernment, and to demand that the collectors bein-
tion of manacles—a rope—a figure of Britannia swallowing human beings; and a prison window with twelve heads looking through the bars. On the right are these words “Bank restriction,” under which is a gallows, on the supporters of which are written “Bank Post with eight men and three wo. men hanging. Over their heads are written, “I promise to perform No. ad lib. during the issue of bank notes easily imitated, and until the resumption of cash payments or the abolition of the punishment of death.” The note is signed “For the governor and company of the bank of England. J. Ketch.” - Franklin Guzetle.
Kentucky. The people of this state are reaping “the full harvest of misery,” by reason of their banks, which we mournfully predicted a long time ago. “Warrants, writs and executions” are becoming almost as cominon as bank notes were! There will be no peace for the people until the quantity of the banks are reduced, and those that may remain are compelled to recollect that they cannot do what they please. The paper age must pass away, and speculation must fail. At present, the command of what passes for money is not in those who hold property, bout in such as are directors of banks, or who hold shares in them. Real wealth has little to do with the circulation of money, at this time, because the priests of Mammon want it for—themselves. We Allude chiefly, to the modern money-shops. Many of the old banks are yet highly honorable and eminently useful institutions.
In Virginia. We understand that the office of the bank of the U. States, in this city, not onlv refuses to receive the notes of the other offices of that bank, (as has been long known to the public) but also refuses the notes of the branches of the Virginia state banks on every case, and even in certain cases the notes of the mother bank, except in p, vinent of debts. It is understood that this measure has been adopted to prevent its notes from being drawn o' it for the purpose of remittances to the northern towns, where they are worth rather more than the notes of the state banks, in consequence of being taken in payment of custom house bonds; and that this measure is put in force in those cases only where this intontion of monty changing is detected in the transaction.” The two state banks have also been compelled to refuse the notes of their own branches, except in the payment of debts.--- his is intended to prevent the accumulation of balances against them on the part of the office of the Unite: States bank, inasmuch as it will prevent persons holding branch notes from depositing them, and then giving checks on favor of that office. In other words, those who have branch notes, and have no payments to make in the mother banks, will have to resort to the branches, instead of depositing them in the mother ban", as heretofore. Richmond Enquire.
Rad times. The great Europcan novses having agreed to loan the French government e.ghty milisons of dollars, have found themselves hard pressed: and in taking care of themselves, they crush every body else.
* We consider “money changing” as lawful a business as money-making. Bank notes are as legally things of merchandise as bales of old rags, imported from Italy, or collected throughout our own country, and the value of each depends upon the faelity with which the commodity may be converted into gold and silver, or something that answers all Whe purposes of those metals. Ex. R. G.
At the same time, the bank of England has re duced its circulation from thirty six millions sterling, to twenty seven, that is, they have called in about forty mullions of dollars. It is matural to suppose that private bankers have at the same time been compelled to call in about the same amount. These two causes account fully for the great scarcity of money in England, France and Holland —and for the fall of prices and the want of purchasers for every article. The extent to which this depression will go is as yet unascertained—nor is it in the power of any body to foresee it.— Boston Weekly Repôrt. A London paper of March 28, says—“The Gazette of last uigilt contains a list of thirty bankrupts; some of the houses have been established near a century, which is a nelancholy proof of the present state of trade and commerce.” The same paper observes that the stocks have fallen one and a halfper cent. in consequence of the news of the cession of the Floridas. ==== o American Manufactures. At a meeting of a number of the citizens of Bal. ti.lore, held at the Merchants' coffee-house, pursuant to a public notice, on Tuesday evening the 23d Feb. 1819: Col. JAs Mostirn was callc, to the chair, and Leo’d MAtta Ews appointed secretary. Resolved unanimously, That it is expedient to establish a society for the encouragement of...?merican .Manufactures and Domestic (Economy. The follow ng was proposed as the constitution of the society, and adopted unanimously: CONSTITUTION of the MARYLAND Associatrox for the encouragement of AxenicAN Masufactuars and Do Mestic (Ex: Now Y.
.doticle 1.-shis society shall bear the name and style of “Too MARx. As out.coso MacAl Associatios.” Jrticle 2. —Each person, on becoming a mem. ber of this society, shall subscribe the constitution thereof, and thereby pledge himself to promote the objects for which it is established, by giving a preference to American manufactures in all cases where to cy play be used or consumed consistently with true to onomy. frticle 3. —All residents of the U. States may be." coole oenoers of no association, on paying one dol: lar at the time of s.19scribing the constitution, and one dollar annotally thereafter. .d. icle 4.—The affairs of the society shall be managed by a president, treasurer, secretary, and six directors, who shail constitute a board of nine dilectors. .drticle 5–In the absence of the president, the attending members shall have power to appoint * president pro to m. , he president, or any two dito coors, shall have pover to call a special meeting of the board, and a majority from time to time may fill of an: vacancies that may occur. Jrticle 6-1 he directors, or a majority of them, shall organize their own board, form ruses and bylaws for its government; and generally do all matters arol things which they may conceive will promote the objects of the society. . hticle 7.--" he re shall be an annual meeting ou the 4th Tuesday in Feer, ary, for the choice of a president, to easure r. secretary, and six directors, and for the transaction of such other') isiness as may come b fore them. .doticle 8.--There shall be four general stated meetings of Vie society in each year, to wit: On the
4th Tuesday of February, April, October and December. . Resolved, that the meeting now proceed to the qhoice of officers, agreeably to the constitution; when the following citizens were duly elected to the offices annexed to their names: William Patterson, President, Isaac Burneston, Treasurer, Leonard Matthews, Secretary, James Mosher, N. F. Williams, Alex. M'Kim, A. J. Schwartze, John Hillen, | Luke Tiernan, J Resolved, That the officers of this society be re... quested to prepare an address to the public, setting ... forth the objects thereof. Resolved,” that the proceedings be signed by the so chairman and secretary, and published in all the newspapers in this city. Roed, that the meeting adjourn to the fourth Tuesday in April. JAMES MOSHER, Chairman. L. MATThews, Secretary.
In offering the constitution of the “Maryland q:conomical Association” to the consideration of the public, it is requisite to say, that its provisions, although patriotic, do not ask a sacrifice of Private interest to public welfare; this is secondary, and individual emolument the first object of the association. Necessity is the source of exertion; it has proved so in nations as well as individuals who have benefitted by it. The excess of population which cannot be usefully employed in the tillage of the soil, necessarily creates manufacturers. If England, a century since, had not been compelled by necessity to invite the distressed of other nations, her policy might, and either must, have placed her in the advantageous situation she now enjoys as to her manufactures. We have lived to see that necessity among ourselves, already we are tributary to all the nations of the earth; already do we see the period approach, when, if we continue in the road which we have so far pursued, we shall be ruined; a fate doomed to a people who voluntarily abandon their own resources to the avidity of foreign nations. And can we hesitate to profit by the experience of ages? Can we refrain from using the means which nature has so plentifully placed within our reach? Shall we go for our §.. to foreign countries, when we have the raw materials of the very best quality within ourselves? —shall we send them to Europe, to have them returned again, under great additional charges, which we may save? Or have we not skilful workmen, to convert these very materials into the desired and desirable fabrics? Surely this ought not to be the case. Itepeatedly has it been demonstrated that our cotton and woolen manufactures may vie with any foreign fabrics, and at prices, too, much lower than those imported, of equal quality. . To encou? rage, then, these home manufactures, is the chief aim of the association; and, with these views, we respectfully call on our fellow-citizens for their support and good example. Those who first recommended the association, will be called on in a few days, by Mr. Emmerson, for their signatures, as well as such other citizens as Inay think proper to become members. W.M. PATTERSON, President. L. Matthews, Secretary. .
National Interests. " Address of the Philadelphia society for the promotion of domestic industry, to the citizens of the United States. No. IV. Philadelphia, April 26th, 1819. We have presented to your view, fellow-citizens, a cursory sketch of the admirable and benéficent policy of Great Britain," on the all-important and vital point of fostering and protecting domestic industry—a policy, we repeat, and wish steadily borne in mind, in direct hostility with the doctrines of Adam Smith, which number among their supporters so large a portion of our citizens. We now request your attention to the policy of a mighty empire, whose situation bears considerable analogy to that of this country. Russia, like the United States, possesses territories of most immoderate extent, which are very slenderly peopled. The cultivation of her vacant lands, according to the captivating and plausible theories of many of our citizens, might find employment for all her inhabitants. And as other nations if “freedom of trade were restored,” according to Adam Smith, “could furnish her with commodities cheaper than she could manufacture them,” she ought to open her ports to the merchandise of all the world. But, low as we fastidiously and unjustly rate her policy, she has too much good sense to adopt a maxim, so pernicious in its results, although so plausible in its appearance. And let us add, its plausibility is only in appearance. It vanishes on even a cursory examination. uwo Russia completely fulfils the indispensable duty of fostering and protecting domestic industry, and guarding it against the destructive consequences of overwhelming foreign competition. This is the great platform of her political system, as it ought to be of all politicas systems: and it is painful to state, that so far as respects this cardinal point, she is at least a century in advance of the U. States. She is not satisfied with the imposition of heavy duties for the purpose of raising a revenue, which, with too many statesmen, appears to be the chief, if not the only object worthy of consideration in the formation of a tariff. No. She prohibits, under penalty of confiscation, nearly all the articles with which her own subjects can supply her, unaffected by the terrors, so powerfully felt in other countries, of giving a monopoly of the home market to her own people -- terrors which have probably cost the United States one hundred millions of dollars since the war—terrors which the profound and sage maxim of Alexander Hamilton, quoted in our last number, ought to have laid in the grave of oblivion nearly thirty years ago, never to rise again to impair the prosperity of the nation, or the happiness of its citizens. The annexed list deserves the most pointed attention, and cannot fail to surprise the citizens of a country, where unfortunately nothing is prohibited, how great soever the domestic supply, and where
*Objections have been made to our statement of the prosperity of England resulting from her protection of domestic industry. Those objections are grounded on the oppression she has exercised on and the abject state of, some of her dependencies. This, we apprehend, does not in the least militate with our view, which went to prove, from indisputable facts, that the protection of domestic industry in the island of Great Britain, had there produced as great a mass of wealth and prosperity as had ever existed. Her wars; which greatly impair that pros. perity, and her treatment of her dependencies, have not the most reno" - connexion with our theory
there are hardly any duties deserving the name of
prohibitory, and very few affording adequate pro
.1rticles absolutely prohibited to be imported into Rus
Anchors Female dresses and Plates
Aif sorts of ginger. fashions in general Powder boxes of all d Fur caps of every sorts .
brea All kinds of dress, ex
kind #. cept belonging to Forte pianos archment :a: ging Fans Pewter. utter Fishing nets Pip s of all sorts £. of every kind . Fringes of all kinds Pomatum Riscuit of every kind Fire engines Pocket books of all Busts Fine black cloth, and kinds Buttons coarse cloth of all Pots Bas reliefs colors Pewter, and pewter Brushes Fire pumps of all vessels Boots inds Paper hangings Basket; Groupes of figures Plated metal Bombs Girandoles . Quills #. Glasses for Flore Rape oil Bar-iron Girdles and sashes Ribands of order Beans and peas, fresh Grain spirits of every Rush till January or dried kind o Beds of all kinds Gin Ribauds Blank-books Galloons Slippers Bellows Gayters - Spangles and links Basins Garters of all kinds Sealing wax
Bolts for doors
Glass, crystal, and o- Spurs Balass rubies of ull
ther lanterius Silks and satins"
Gold, silver lace, silk, Statues thread, woolen, ca. Sinall shot and single, it: mel, hair and cot. Stove pipes of all wedges, in sheets, ton lacks sorts in plates wrought Gunpowder Sword belts of all sorts into vessels, or Golds or silver place Straw and rush mats other articles Glass ware Sword, sabre and rass ornaments Glue poignaud handles wrought, or cast, Galoon Saltpetre glides or otherwise Gilded ol. and Sausages racketts spaugles soap
3. balls Grape wines infused Shoes of all sorts
Candclabras in cherries, pears Shot
Chimwey tiles or other fruits Silver lace, wire,
Columns, vases, and Hydromel - hooks and eyes
article made Hats of every kind. Stuffs enriched with
sorts Black iron, double
ver - - - :* o: or ala. Hair for making wigs, images of saints baster Harpsichords Stills chocolate Horse harness of exe- Tobacco Consectionary of all ... ry kind Tobacco boxes kinds Housings Tea of every kind Coutons, tissued, Honey Teapots painted, printed or Horneomo Tea tables grey Hair powder Tinsel Clothès-brushes made Horns of elks and Thinbles of all kinds of dog grass and ...otago Tinsel beat out flat rushes Hinges, and other ar- Tables
crystals and glasses ticles of iron ware Trunks of every or lustres and gi- Indigo .. ..[and randoles Ink and ink powder Thread, down, chachequers, trictracks, Inkstands of all kinds mois, or silk stock.
every other Isinglass lings
t. of o for Jewelry Tinselled lace
games Lustres Tinselled edgings Cannons Linen of all kinds red and white coach-whips Lamp wicks Thread, lace gilded, Canary seed Looking glasses plated and timselcool of all sorts locks of all kinds led Coffee mills Line Urns . Clocks Lace and thread em- Utensils fabricated cloth of every kind broidered with in large founderies
except carnbric gold Velveted and tinCoffe pots Linon, muslin and selled, and all kinds Candlesticks silk handkerchiefs ...of tapestry China Macaroni, Wessels of crystal cases of all kinds Mushrooms Vinegar Chimney pieces Marks of distinction Vermicelli Cards Musling Wases Cords for fishing Mustard White-smith's work
lines, and other ar- Meat of every kind, Wooden furniture
ticles of that yo smoked, dried or Wax candles Çocks (for vessels) of salted Woolen cloths and
all sorts Muffs frizes of all kinds Door and window Mittens Walking canes and
cases Metal plates (for sticks Ion win chimney backs) Wax, white and yel. pried or preserved Nightcaps. low fruits Nails of all kinds Wadding Dressed skins and all Pins. Wafers articles of leather Playing cards Woolen or silk cover
Dolls of all kinds Pewter milled and lids
Delf ware made into vessels Woolen, thread or
. An appalling reflection arises from the view here given of the policy of Russia; a reflection which we would willingly suppress, but which, fellow citizens, Justice to the subject forces us to present to your minds, . We are imperiously led to offer it from a conviction, that to induce a patient to submit to medicine or regimen, it is necessary that he should be convinced of the existence of his disease. And in the present disordered state of our manufactures, trade and commerce, it is absolutely necessary to “hold the mirror up to nature,” and “nought exte: muate, nor aught set down in malice.”
The United States, as is admitted by writers of yarious nations, enjoy the best form of government in the world. It would therefore be natural to presume, that with such a government, and with a representation, probably as freely and as fairly chosen as any legislative body in any age or country, the solid interests of its various descriptions of citizens would be more scrupulously guarded than those of any other nation. Yet we have before us the most cogent and the most irresistible proof of the extreme fallacy of such a presumption, so far as regards the large and important class of citizens engaged in manufactures, on whose success and prosperity so much of the strength and resources of nations depends. This description of citizens” must look with
*It is common, we apprehend, for some of the farmers and planters of the southern states, to regard with disesteem, or, to use a common phrase, to look down on manufacturers as beneath them in point of respectability. To this source may probably be ascribed the inflexible refusal of that protection which was so earnestly solicited for the manufacturing interest throughout the union. It is hardly possible to conceive of a greater absurdity. We touch this delicate subject freely. We, however, mean no offence, and hope none will be taken; Our object, we trust, will be regarded by liberal minded men as not only innocent, but laudable. It is to correct a deep rooted and pernicious prejudice, which tends to produce jealousy and alienation between the different members of one family, who ought to cherish for each other kindly sentiments of regard and good will, and who are so closely connected in point of interest, that it is impossible for one to suffer heavily, without the others being deeply affected. We freely ask, and request a candid reply, can there in the eye of reason and common sense be found on the most impartial scrutiny any superiority in a South Carolina or Virginia planter, surrounded by five hundred negro slaves, over a proprietor of one of the extensive factories in Rhode Island, in which an equal number of free, independent, and happy workmen, with their wives and children, are employed? As our object is conciliation, we forbear to assert any superiority on the other side. But in order to afford a fair opportunity of deciding this important question of the merits,
| demerits and usefulness of the different descrip
tions of citizens, we state some important facts which bear forcibly on this subject. In the year 1815, there were within thirty miles of the town of Providence
Cotton manufactories 140 Containing in actual operation—spindles, 130,000 Using annually—bales of cotton 29, Producing yards of the kinds of cotton
*Tariffdesdroits dedouane de L'empire Russe, 1816, p. 79–99.
goods usually made - 27,840,000 The weaving of which at eight cents
per yard amounts to $2,227,200 Total value of the cloth $6,000,000 Persons steadily employed 26,000 envy at the paternal and fostering care bestowed on persons of the same class by the emperor of Russia, one of the most despotic monarchs of Christendom. The contrast is immense, striking, and decisive.— It reflects honor on the profound wisdom and sound policy of that prince—and, fellow citizens, cannot ful to excite painful sensations in your minds, to reflect how the United States sink on the comparison. This is a most impressive point, and evinces how short sighted mankind are. It could never have entered into the mind of Hancock, Adams, Franklin, Washington, or any of those illustrious men, who in the field or cabinet achieved the indepengence of this country, that before the lapse of half a century, American citizens should be forced to make invidious comparisons between their own situation and that of the subjects of a despotic empire; and that the protection denied to their industry is liberally afforded to the subjects of Russia. In order to render this extraordinary and almost incredible fact more striking, we shall, fellow citizens, compare the situation of a subject of Russia and a citizen of the United States, engaged, for instance, in the cotton manufacture. The former, we will suppose, embarks $50,000 in that business. He has no competition to dread but that of his fellow subjects. His paternal government closes the door against his destruction, by shutting out all interference from any other nation. He has a large and beneficial market, and in consequence enriches himself, and adds to the wealth, the strength, the power and the resources of his country. What a chilling contrast when we regard the situation of the American engaged in the same useful line of business. When he has expended his capital, established his works, and entertains what he has groond to deem a reasonable hope of success, and of that reward to which honest industry has so fair a claim, the market, on the supply of which he formed all his calculations, is deluged with rival articles, manufactured in Europe of cotton raised in his own country, or by Hindoos, at a distance often thousand miles, which can be afforded at lower prices than his, and which accordingly aestroys his chances of sale. He cast an imploring eye to his representatives for the same kind of relief which England, France, and Russia afford their subjects and the refusal of which is a manifest dereliction of duty. His representatives, acting on the maxims of Adam Smith, and disregarding the admonitory lessons of those mighty nations, meet him with a positive refusal; and he sinks a victim of
We may demand whether, throughout the world, there is to be found any equal space devoted wholBy to agriculture, which furnishes employment to one fourth part of the number of individuals, or produces one-fourth of the amounts of wealth or happiness? Wetrust that this brief view will serve to remove the film from the eyes of those citizens who, for want of due consideration, have cherished opinions on the subject of manufactures, and manufacturers, so diametrically opposite to the truth, and so pregnant with ruinous consequences. “Honor or shame from no condition rise, “Act well your part: there all the honor lies.” And the manufacturer of cottons, woolens, watches, paper, books, hats or shoes, who “acts well his part” has no reason to shrink, and we trust he never will shrink, from a comparison with any of his fellow men, whether merchants, farmers, planters or men
of overgrown wealth.
a policy long scouted out of all the wise nations of Europe, and which now only lingers in, and blights and blasts the happiness of Spain and Portugai. The subject is too important not to warrant us in casting another slight glance at it, and placing the policy of the United States and that of Russia in stronger contrast. Russia raises no cotton. All her supplies arc derived from remote quartcra, and yet she prohibits the importation of cotton fabrics, of every descriptio , except cambrics, from all nations whatever, friends and foes alike, in order to foster a of sure which does not appear congenial to er. The United States are peculiarly fitted for the cotton manufacture, being capable of raising the raw material, as we have already stated, in quantities commensurate with the demand of the whole world. And yet cotton goods of every description (except those below twenty-five cents per yard, which are dutied as at twenty-five cents) are freely admitted at the very inefficient duty of twenty-seven and a half per cent. in consequence of which, great numbers of the most promising establishments have been destroyed. The raw material is transported across the Atlantic, 3000 miles, at twenty to thirty-five cents per pound, and returned to us at the rate of from one dollar to five dollars—thus fostering the industry and the manufacturers of Europe, and consigning our own work. men to poverty, and often to mendicity—their em. ployers to the long list of bankrupts which are daily increasing in our towns and cities—and impoverishing the nation. On this system and its conscquences we shall descant more at large on a f. ture occasion. For the present we shall barely state that the policy of England during the dark ages of Edward 111. and Henry IV. as sketched in our last number, was far superior to ours. At the close of the war, powerful and eloquent memorials were presented to congress from the cotton manufacturers of Rhode Island, New York, Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, New London, and various other parts of the United States, in which they implored the aid of government, in the most respectful terms. To narrow the range of objection, they bounded their requests generally to a prohibition of cotton manufactures, except nankeens, from the East Indies, and to such an increase of duties on those from other quarters, as would save the rivenue from injury by the prohibition.-The memorials were filled with predictions of the ruinous consequences that would result from the contrary policy. Their simple request, enforced by a most luminous train of reasoning, was onlappily rejected; and it is almost demonstrable, that to this rejection a large portion of the difficulties and embarrassments which at present overspread the face of the country may be ascribed. All the gloomy predictions of the memorials have unfortunately become history. A consideration of the rejection of the first pray. er of the memorials, which respects the prohibition of East India cottons, is calculated to excite an equal degree of regret and astonishment. The East India trade, during the continuance of the wars in Europe, when we had markets in that quarter and in some of the colonies of the belligerents, for the surplus of our importations from beyond the Cape of Good Hope, was probably advantageous, or at least not injurious. But as at present carried on, it is highly pernicious, by the exhausting drain of specie it creates. On this strong ground, and more. over as the coarse fabrics from that quarter, as