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character, and who, according to the provisions of the said act, ought to verify the said invoice. 2d. Where merchandise is purchased for a commercial house in the U. States, by a partner residing abroad, the invoice ought to be verified by such partner, under the 8th section of the act. 3d. All cases embraced by the 13th section of the act are subject to the addition of fifty per cent. the failure to produce invoices duly verified being, in contemplation of the act, equivalent to merchandise fraudulently invoiced at twenty-five percent. below its appraised value. 4th. Difficulties have occurred under the 21st section of the act relative to discounts. It has been represented to this department, that the most of the discounts which appear on the invoices of merchandise, especially from England, are not made for prompt payment, nor ultimately depend upon any condition of that nature. It is asserted that the true price of the merchandise is ascertained only by deducting the discounts from the invoice prices, and that where discounts are allowed for prompt payment, or, upon a future contingency, they are entered distinct from the common discounts, above described. .You are therefore requested to state to this department the general custom in this regard within your consulate, and, as far as depends upon you, to endeavor to have the articles invoiced at their true value, so that no discount may appear thereon, except what may be made and allowed in the payment made for the same within the term of the said section: 5th. You are requested to cause the discount allowed upon such invoices as may be verified before you to be entered upon each invoice, and not upon the summary or recapitulation of several invoices, as is sometimes practised. The continuation of that practice may be productive of inconvenience to the parties, and is at all times calculated to excite suspicions of unfair dealing. 6th. You are lastly requested to furnish this department with semi-annual statements of the articles, the growth or manufacture of the United States, which are entered in the ports within your consulate, and the foreign merchandise which is shipped therefroin to the United States in American vessels; showing, as nearly as practicable, the comparative value of the exports and imports. Conjectural estimates of the foreign shipping employed in the same trade, and of the value of the imports and exports, laden on board such vessels, will be acceptable. The introduction of useful plants, not before cultivated, or such as are of superior quality to those which have been previously introduced, is an object of great importance to every civilized state, but more particularly to one recently organized, in which the progress of improvements of every kind has not to contend with ancient and deep rooted prejudices. The introduction of such inventions, the results of the labor and science of other nations, is still more important, especially to the U. States, whose institutions secure to the importer no exclusive advantage from their introduction. Your attention is respectfully solicited to these important subects. J The collectors of the different ports of the United States will cheerfully co-operate with you in this interesting and beneficent undertaking, and become the distributors of the collections of plants and seeds which may be consigned by you to their care. . It will greatly facilitate the distribution, if the articles shall be sent directly to those sections of the union where the soil and climate are adapted to their cul
At present, no expense can be authorised, in relation to these objects. Should the result of these suggestions answer my expectations, it is possible that the attention of the national legislature may be attracted to the subject, and that some provision may be made, especially in relation to useful inventions. - I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your most obed’t serv't, WM. H. CRAWFORD.
Address of the Philadelphia society for the promotion of
domestic industry, to the citizens of the United State.
No. II. - Philadelphia, April 12, 1819.
... We proceed to take a view of the system of political economy, pursued in England, which has elewated that country to a degree of wealth, power and influence, far beyond what her population o: natural resources would entitle her to. This system displays profound policy and wisdom, and may with safety be taken as a pattern by other nation; with such variations as particular circumstances may require. We do not pretend that it is altogether Perfect; nothing human ever deserved this character. Butth tit has more exoellence than, and assittle imperfection as, that of any other nation in ancient or modern times, can hardly be questioned. The nearer any nation approximates to its leading prin. ciples, the more certain its career to prosperity. Indeed, it is not hazarding much to aver, that normtion ever did or ever will arrive at that degree of power or influence, or happiness, of which it is susceptible, without adopting a large portion of this system. There are parts of it, however, which are “more honored in the breach than the observance:” we loan those particularly that restrain personal libery. The grand and leading object of this system, into which all its subordinate regulations resolve them. selves, is to encourage domestic industry, and to check and restrain "... may injure t. this pervades the whole political economy of the nation: and, as industry has ever been, and, according to the fixed laws of our nature must eternally be, a greato-curity to virtue and happiness, this is among the primary duties of every legislative body; and their neglect of, or inattention to, this duty, affords an unerring criterion of their merits or demerits. To enable her to effect this object, Great Britain is unwearied in her efforts—
I. To facilitate the importation of raw materials, for the employment of her artisans and manufactu. rers;
II. To discourage, or wholly prohibit, the exportation of raw materials;
III To exporther manufactures in the most finished form possible;
IV. To prohibit, or heavily burden with duties, the introduction of all manufactured articles with which her own subjects can supply her;
V. To prohibit the emigration of artists or me. chanics, and the exportation of machinery.
To accomplish these purposes, she has steadily employed the powerful means of
1. Bounties on, or encouragements to, the establishment of new manufactures:
2. Absolute prohibitions of the importation and exportation of certain articles:
3. Such heavy duties as nearly amount to prohi. bition;
4. Drawbacks, on exportation, of the whole or chief part of the duties paid on inportation.
All great undertakings, such as the establishment of extensive manufactures, require heavy disburseYments previous to their commencing operations; and in their incipient state are attended with great difficulty, in consequence of which they too frequently fail of success in all countries, and involve the undertakers in ruin. While they are in this perilous situation, the aid of government is necessary, and wisdom commands to afford it. Small temporary sacrifices are abundantly compensated, by immense permanent national advantages. We shall furnish noble instances of this kind, on a large and liberal scale, worthy of a great nation, when we enter on the discussion of the policy of France.
It was by these means that the woolen manufactures were first established in England. Edward III., a wise prince, held out great inducements to the manufacturers in that branch, to remove from Flanders to England. “Very great privileges were granted, and pensions were allowed them from every crown, till they should be able to gain a comfortable livelihood by their ingenuity and industry.”
Further, to favor and foster this infant manufacture, the exportation of wool, and the importation of foreign cloths was prohibited.s
Such was the degree of care and attention undeviatingly bestowed on it, that “in the short and turbulent reign of Henry IV.” who reigned but fourteen years, and was almost constantly at war, “there were no fewer than twelve acts of parliament made for the regulation and encouragement of that manufacture; for preventing the exportation of wool and importation of cloth; and for guarding against frauds in the fabrication of it at home.”f
It is obvious that the continuance of bounties beyond the infancy of manufactures, would be oppressive to a nation, and waste its treasures. And therefore as soon as they are ëstablished, the English go vernment has usually adopted a more effectual mode of fostering them, by the total prohibition of the rival articles, or by the imposition of such heavy duties as nearly amount to prohibition, and thus securing to its own subjects the whole or principal part of the domestic market.
In the year 1463, under Edward IV. the wisdom and policy of fostering domestic industry having become generally understood, the prohibition | importation, which had previously been confined chiefly to woolens, was extended to a very great variety of articles, viz.
The penalties for the importation of some of those articles are very severe. Besides the confiscation of the goods, there is a forfeiture of two hundred pounds sterling for every offence, in the case of leather gloves. . The most general mode, however, of encouraging domestic industry in Great Britain, at present, is by the imposition of such heavy duties, as in most cases amount to prohibition; or, if the rival articles will still admit of importation, they cannot from the necessary advance of price, materially affect the native manufacturer. We annex a list of some of the articles, with the amount of duties imposed on them.
Ertracts from the British tariff of 1818.
Articles subject to duty of 591.7s.6d. per 100l. value. Musical instruments Steel not otherwise watches
Nuts. . enumerated Wicker-ware
Copper in pigs Mineralsnot otherwise Polishing stones
Hoofs of cattle enumerated Rag stones
Horns Polishing brushes Tanners' waste
Silk laces Ships with their tac-Tare
Pig lead kle ,Touch-stones
To 791. 3s. 4d. per 100l.
China-ware Earthen-ware . Tobacco-pipes Shawls to 631.6s. 8d. per 100l.
Liuen not being chequered or striped. Gauze of thread
To 85l. 10s. per 100l. Cotton stockings. Cotton caps. Cotton thread. Linen sails. To 1141. per 100l. Glass bottles, rough plate glass, German sheet glass, glass mang.
Leather fan mounts any way dressed luable part
kins or furs, tanned, ther is the most va- dressed.
tawed, curried of - -
Here an important consideration arises, that demands the most sober and serious consideration of the people of the United States, in their future policy... An idea has long been entertained, by many
well-meaning people, that to secure the home mar_
ket to our own manufacturers, operates merely to enable them to prey on and oppress their fellow citizens, by extorting extravagant and exorbitant prices for their productions. And hence many of our planters and farmers have uniformly opposed, in congress, duties for the mere purpose of protecting
... manufactures. There are some who have openly avowed, that their sole view in laying impost duties, is to provide a revenue for the czpenses of the government. And a writer of considerable celebrity, John Taylor, esq. of Caroline county, Virginia, in his Arator, has devoted a number of chapters to prove that every dollar given by a nation as bounty, or imposed as duty, to protect domestic manufactures, is a dollar robbed from the pockets of the farmers and planters!
It is a trite but indisputable truth, that one solid, well established fact, bearing upon any particular F. will countervail a long train of arguments, lowever plausible, which militate against that fact. Behold a case, which must operate to open the eyes of every man accessible to conviction. There is probably no country in the world, where the system of prohibitions and heavy prohibitory duties is carried farther than in England: and yet, notwithstanding this circumstance, and the enormous burden of taxation which she sustains, as well as the boundless extent of her paper money, which must enhance the expenses of living, she is able to meet in their own markets, and undersell, a large proportion of the manufacturers of all the other nations of christendom. This mighty and never-to-be-controverted fact, sets the question at rest forever, and establishes on the firmest basis the luminous maxim of Alexander Hamilton, a maxim that ought to be written in Hetters of gold, and affixed in a conspicuous place in the hall of congress, that powerful body, on whose wisdom or errors depend the prosperity or decay of a mighty empire:– “Though it were true, that the immediate and certain effect of regulations controlling the competition of foreign with domestic fabrics, was an increase of price, it is universally true, that thE contman r is the ultiMATE EFFECT WITH EVERY SUCCESSFUL MANUFACTURE. JWhen a domestic manufacture has attained to perfection, and has engaged in the prosecution ofit a competent number of persons, 1T INvanian Lr arco MEs cheap ER. Being free from the heavy charges which attend the importation of foreign commodities, it can be afforded cheaper, and accordingly seldom or never fails to be sold cheaper, in process of time, than was the foreign article for which it is a substitute. The internal competition which takes place, soon does away every thing like momopoly; and by degrees Reduces the PR1ce of The AnT1c LE to THE MINIMUM of A REAsox AHLE PR of IT ox The cAPITAL Exploy En. This accords with the reason of the thing, and with experience.”
The true tests of the czcellence or folly of any system, are its results when carried fully into operation. These confirm sound theories, however unpopular they may appear on a superficial view; and set the seal of reprobation on pernicious ones, how plausible soever an aspect they wear on paper.
By this touchstone, let us judge the political economy of England, and on a fair examination, we shall unhesitatingly bestow the most unequalled plaudit on her parliament, for the admirable and incomparable system it has devised. We may fairly assert, without the least danger of contradiction, that there never existed a legislative body which bestowed more attention on the solid, substantial, and vital in
*Hamilton's works, 1.212.
terests of its constituents, so far as respects domestic
II. The second point, to which we wish to turn the attention of our fellow citizens, in order to establish the soundness of the system of political economy pursued in England, is the wonderful increase of power it has secured her. For twenty years she was the main support of a war of unexampled expenditures, against the most gigantic combination of power, and the most formidable monarch, that Europe has beheld for a thousand years. From her resources alone it arose, that he did not arrive at universal empire. She not only preserved herself from the loss of her own possessions, but conquered colonies and dependencies of her enemies, of great extent and immense value. Her revenue for the year 1812, was above 63,500000l;f and in the same year, her expenditure was above 112,000,000/+. During the whole of this war, she was not obliged to borrow money from any nation; but made large loans to several. She subsidized some of the first rate monarchs in Europe. Her enormous debt, which according to Colquhoun, amounted at the close of 1813 to above 909000,000l., is wholly owned by her own subjects,
*Colquhoun on the wealth, power and resource” of the British empire, p. 91.
§Page 273. He states, however, in this page, that 236,000,000l. of this debt have been redeemed.
*rexceptabout 17,000,000l., purchased and owned by foreigners. It is no impeachment to the merits of her system, that her paupers amount to above 1,500,000, and her poor tax to 6,000,000l. sterling, equal to 26,000,000 of dollars.” This lamentable feature in her affairs, arises from the wasteful and ruinous wars she has maintained, which alone have prevented the country from being an earthly paradise. Since the war, she has been enabled to lay this country under heavy contribution, so that there is an enormous debt due her, notwithstanding she has ossessed herself of a very large portion of our [. and other public stocks, which will yield her a great and permanent income, at the expense of the United States. To her support of domestic industry alone, she chiefly owes these capacities and advantages, and the imordinate power she possesses. Were she to abandon her system, and adopt that of Adam Smith, she could not fail, in a few years, to be reduced to a level with Spain and Portugal. All her treasures would be drawn away to the East Indies, France, Germany, &c. Trusting to the good sense of our fellow-citizens, for duly weighing the great mass of important facts presented to their view, we shall close with a comparison between the policy of Great Britain and that of the United States, on a few plain and simple points:
GREAT BRITAIN THE UNITED STATES
Prohibits the importation of calicoes. silks, threads, ribands, velvets, &c. even from her own dependencies. (see page 3.)
§. imposes a duty of 85 per .cent ad valorem on various articles of cotton, the productiou of those dependencies.
She imposes a duty of 79 per eent ad valorem on earthenware,
She imposes a duty of 1421-2 per cent on leather manufactures,
Prohibit no manufactured articles whatever, however great the capacity of our citizens to "o them. They admit all cotton fabrics, of o denomination, from Great Britain and her dependencies, and any other part of the globe, at 27 1-2 per cent. Although they could supply themselves superabundality with earthenware, they admit it at 22 per cent!!! They admit leather manufactures at 33 per cent.
tuation of our affairs. No two nations ever carried on intercourse on terms more entirely destitute of reciprocity: and hence our citizens on the banks of the Missouri are clothed with fabrics manufactured in Hindostan, while thousands of useful men, women and children, capable of furnishing superior goods, at equal prices, are literally pining in wretchedness, in our towns and cities, for want of employment, and many of them driven to mendicity, to support a miserable existence! and while our country is impoverished, and its wealth exhausted, to support the manufacturers of the East Indies and every part of Europe. And why (let us solemnly ask) does this lamentable state of things exist? Because, in the language of Adam Smith, “foreign countries can furnish us with commodities cheaper than Awe ourselves can make them,” and we have thought it “better to buy from them, with some part of the produce of our own industry.” On the subject of drawbacks, we forbear to descant; as that part of the English system is in operation in the United States: Every prudent merchant, farmer, or planter, commencing his career of business, will naturally enquire into the plans acted on by those engaged in similar pursuits, before he determines on his own. Those dictated by wisdom, tested by long experience, and attended with success, he will study as rules by which to regulate his conduct. Those emanating from folly, sinister views, or empiricism, he will regard as beacons to warn him to beware. This conduct, indisputably wise in private life, is imperiously the duty of those on whom rests the high responsibility of regulating the career of nations, particularly in their infancy or youth. This is a duty which no enlightened or honest legislature will ever neglect. We trust, therefore, that a calm and candid observation of the fatal consequences of adopting the doctrines of Adam Smith, as well as of the transcendent benefits, public and private, resulting from the English system, which is in undeviating hostility with that of the doctor, will serve to display the true policy which this country ought to pursue, in order to fill the high destiny which appearsallotted to her in the course of human events; and induce the legislature of the union, to devote that attention to the protection of domestic industry, without which the United States can never hope to be really independent, or to enjoy that degree of prosperity and happiness which God and nature have placed within their grasp; and which cannot be neglected without a most culpable dereliction of our duty to ourselves and our posterity, on whom the folly or wisdom of our councils will operate when
we are consigned to the peaceful grave, *
A bank has lately teen discovered off the Shetland islands, which is resorted to by great numbers of cod-fish. The length of the bank is about 140 miles, the breadth from 18 to 25--depth of water from 28 to 49 fathoms. Thirteen vessels, of about 35 tons, and manned by 6 or 8 hands each, caught se many fish as gave a profit of 3000l. One vessel, “in a tide of day, caught 1200 fish.” The adjacent shores of the islands possess superior advantages for
drying the fish. Price of...?merican stocks, at London on the 10th of March—U.S. 6 per cents 98, a 100. Bank shareh
+- To • A letter from Liverpool says, the import of cotton, from the 10th of Feb. to the 10th of March, was 27,462 bags—11,979 from the United States, 10,000 from the East Indies, 4,580 from Brazil, and 903 from other places. Prices again declining: - An express has been sent from England to Calcutta, over-land, with orders to prevent any further shipments of cotton. The despatches are engaged to be delivered in three months from leaving. The English merchants are likely to be indemnified by Russia for 140 vessels and cargoes, under neutral flags detained by Russia in 1810, principally loaded with colonial produce. A dreadful cpedemic is spreading in Scotland–90 persons died of it in one week at Dundee. The Brittu agricultural report for February says —“By general report, wages are very low, and many wretched laborers, in most parts, in a state of mendicancy.” A letter from Manchester says, 50,000 weavers will be out of employ in that town and neighborhood, if busines: continued as it then was (March 10) to the end of April—and “insurrectiona*y movements” are spoken of “500 young poplars have been cut from a single plantation near Stockport, as supposed for pike handles!” Price of bullion on the 11th of March; foreign gold 4. 1s 6d, new doubloons 4!. 2s; silver in bars, standard, 5s. 6d. By an account of the amount df bank notes and bank post bills in circulation from the 25th January, 1819, to the 1st instant, it appears that on the 27th January the amount was 27,176,580l. and on the 1st March 24,991,4101. being 2,185,1701. less at the latter period than at the former; A parish clerk in a chapel of Ease at Meltham in
* Yorkshire, being ordered to advertise a horse, de;
scribed it as follows—Stolen, or otherwise conveyed from Hallam, near Bedlam, a horse 15 hands high, four white feet, and a black one. God save the king, with a pack-saddle on his back.” The latest accounts from Italy say, “the princess of wales is still at Pesaro. Young Austin, whom she has brought up from his childhood, is called Prince by his attendants.” i.ndon, March 15. A phenomenon, which tends to elu idate the origin and nature of funguses, particularly of that species termed mushroom, lately occurred to the observation of Sir Joseph Banks. Having a cask of wine rathertoo sweet for immediate use, he directed that it should be laced 1In a cellar, that the saccharine it contained might be more perfectly decomposed by age. At the eñd of three years he directed his butler to ascertain the state of the wine; when, on attempting to open the cellar door, he could not effectit in consequence of some powerful obstacle. The door was therefore cut down, when the cellar was found to be completely filled with a firm fungus vegetable production, so firm that it was necessary to use the axe for its removal. This appeared to have grown from, or have been nourished by, the decomposed parti; -cles of the wine; the cask being empty and carried up to the ceiling, where it was supported by the surface of the fungus. Later—Londom papers of April 1. 3 per cent. cons. April 1, 74; 7-8, The secret committees about the bank had not concluded their investigations on the 1st April. * Cotton, at Liverpool, April 3, 11% to 13, uplands. * Am. flour, 30 a 40. . One hundred thousand dollars of U. States six per cent. stock, was put up at auction in London on the 1st inst. and withdrawn, the highest bid being 95. westminster was ascene of agroar and confusion,
though the election was over. The horse guards had been called out to preserve the peace. A late London paper states, that no less than 500 persons, in the parish of Potsea, are about to emigrate to the U. States. " ... The state of the British navy is enquired into. The establishment is considerably greater than usual in peace, and many very fine vessels are building— especially frigates of 46 guns. In the British house of commons after a very interesting inquiry, a debate on the petition against the Hon. Windham Quin, a member from Limerick, charging him of bribing; a resolution against him was negatived; Ayes 73, Noes 162. A letter from Liverpool says—“The cession of the Floridas, the news of which was received by the Magnet, has made considerable stir among the politicians; but the public attention is more particularly engressed by the accounts received of the approval of gen. Jackson's conduct. Parliament is pledged to take the subject into consideration. The ministerial party have evinced a backwardness with regard to it, for which reason, it is said, the opposition are urging a discussion.” An Algerine ambassador is at present in London. A Persian ministerwassoon expected, having reached Paris. Latour Maubourg is to be the new French ambassador to the court of St. James. In a late debate in the house of commons it was stated by one of the members that there was in England and Wales, 25,000 miles of turnpike road, which originally cost upwards of seven millions of money, and that the annual expense of keeping them in repair exceeded twelve hundred thousand pounds. A fellow sold his wife at public auction, on a late market day, at Retford, in England, for 2s. 6d. She was a good looking woman of about 20 years of age. Junius. The real author of Junius is again said to be discovered—for about the fortieth time. The present claim is in favor of a Dr. Wilmot, late of Oxford universitiy. - . . Purity of parliament.—The following advertisement appeared in the West Briton, a paper published at Truro, in the “frce and independent county of Cornwall.” “To gentlemen of fortune. Any two gentlemen, who would wish to secure seats at the next parliament, may be accommodated at the borough of Launceston. There are but fifteen votes, majority eight. All letters, directed for A. B. to be left at the Exeter post office, will be duly attended to.-Jan. 24, 1819. - ...An Irish telescope—Sir Frederick Flood was one day observing to a friend that he had a most excellent Telescope.—“Do you see yon church,” said he, “about half a mile off?—it's scarcely discernablebut when I look at it through my telescope, it brings it so close that I can hearthe organs playing.” FRANCE. A great stagnation of business exists in France. Many new and heavy failures have occurred. Régnault de St. Jean d’Angely and the duke of Bassano, have received leave to return to France. The Moniteur of the 6th of March contains a decree of the king by which fifty nine new members are added to the French chamber of peers. They are of those who were most distinguished in the days of Napoleon, and are called “our cousin.” Among them, are the dukes of Albufera, Conegliano, Eckmuhl, Dantzick, and Treviso, and count Jordan, all marshalls under Bonaparte. We see also the marries of Lacepede, Chaptal, Cadore, Lato. Xiaobviorgs Rapp, Potalis, Lebrun, $.c.