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result of my labors; and I flatter myself that it will saw, moved by a steam machine; but the medium be found, on impartial examination and trial, to be work of these saws is about twelve slabs to the inch. an important acquisition to the agrioultural and mil. The only saw that I have seen in motion, was ten Jing interest.
feet in diamater and worked with admirable preci. The mere act of chafinge" can be performed by sion. The wood to be cut was placed vertically roinnowing, the mode practised by our ancestors long against it, by means of a cog-wheel which produced before the invention of fans, and still in use by the a progressive motion of about 3 inches per minute. great majority of the farmers of every country, but This ingenious inachine appeared to me perfectly the separation of garlic and other noxious seeds adapted to its end. ( Extract firom the British libra. from wheat, at the time of chailing, was the object I ry, March, 1815. ) had in viw; if I have succeeded in this, (as I confidently believe I have) I have no doubt but a generous and enliglitened public will patronize my ef.
Admirable Order. forts.
The following is a curious order of the day issued The gentlemen, members of the agricultural so. by Bonaparte, when first consul, on the occasion of ciety of Maryland, aré respecfully invited to exa- an act of suicide committed by a horse grenadier. mine and prove my fan, and their patronage is soli. Extract from the orderly book of the horse grecited in proportion to its utility.
nadiers of the consular guard. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedt, serv't. . Order of the 22: Floreal, (year 10.)
THOMAS WILSON. The grenadier GROBBIN has destroyed himself in Orders sent to the patentee, Gunpowder, Bal. consequence of a love affair. He was otherwise a timore county, or left at No. 6, Market street, (post respectable man. This is the second event of the paid) will be duly attended to.
kind which has happened in the corps within a
month. 66The Belt Saw.".
The first consul has directed that it should be in.
serted in the order of the day of the guard, that a FROM THE SAME,
1 soldier ought to know how to subdue sorrow and The saw without an end-Of M. Touroude.
| the agitation of the passions; that there is as much This machine is principally composed of a bladu courage in enduring with firmness the pains of the plate of a saw, where the two ends are united; or ra- heart as in remaining steady under the grape-shot ther, it is without end. It embraces two circular of a battery. ro abandon one's self to grief without surfaces plateaux ) turning upon their axes, and resistance, to kill one's self in orderto escape from it, placed at a distance, greater or less, according to the is to fly from the field of battle before ane is con. length of the saw. .
quered. These surfaces are mounted upon a frame in such
(Signed) BONAPARTE, first consul. a manner, that, in giving them a rotary motion, in A true copy
BESSIERS. the same direction, the saw plate is made to cut the wood, which is fixed upon a carriage in the ordinary manner.
Colonization Society. A weight, proportioned to the hardness and thick. Address of the board of managers of the American cola. ness of the wood to be cut, causes that to advance
nization society to the public. against the part of the saw, which forms a right line The period has arrived when the American Colo. tangent to the two surfaces that it embraces, and nization society is called to increased activity and which causes it to circulate by the friction.
extended operations. The attention of the society The circular saw cuts the wood without interrup- has hitherto been principally engaged in collecting tion, as long as the surfaces, which serve as movers, and diffusing information. The information thus are made to turn. It performs, according to M, Tou- collected is sufficient to satisfy every candid and juroude, more work than an ordinary saw, which cuts dicious enquirer, that the establishment of a colony only in descending, and ought not to be confound on the west coast of Africa is safe and practicable, ed with the circular saw called fraises.
and that it will be of great benefit both to this counM. Touroude has erected on the principle of the try and to Africa. We believe, likewise, that there belt saw, a mill to cut wood after a certain measure, is a debt of justice and of moral obligation due from which answered advantageously for cutting the the people of this country to Africans, and their * thread (les liteaux] which composed the pipe of Ar. decendants in both continents, which can be dischimedes' screw (le tuyau de la vis d'Archimede.) This charged more satisfactorily and beneficially, to each. new mill cannot perhaps replace that of the old in this way, than in any other, · The board of ma. ones, but it can be usefully employed, in a number nagers, therefore, some time since, came to the re. of circumstances, to cut wood, and to give rise to a solution of commencing the colony as soon as funds combination of new machines equally useful. (Bu- could be procured, and the necessary arrangements letin de la Societe d'Encouragement, Jullet, 1815.) made. . The board have since been engaged in pre.
paratory measures for these arrangements, a brief Translated from the same work,
statement of which it is proposed to lay before the XEWLI INVENTED SAWFOR CUTTING VENEERING. I public. In the number of circumstances which have
A Traveller gives the following description of this since occurred to strengthen their hands and en. invention:
courage their hearts, animate their zeal and quickThe inventor of these saws is a Frenchman namen their diligence, they gratefully recognize the ed M. Brunot, a mechanic, established for a long smiles of Providence on their humble efforts. time past in England, and who receives from par. It is already known to the public, that the manaJiament an annual pension of 300 pounds sterling, gers laid before congress, at the last session, a great as a recompense for the invention of different ma- variety of documents, and other valuable informachines which are employed with much success in tion, relative to the proposed colony and the slave the ship yards at Portšinouth.
trade, selections from which have been published He has succeeded in sawing an inch thickness of by that body, with the second annual report of the mahogany into thirty slabs, by means of the circular society. The shortness of the session, and the inass of other important business before congress, didi The board unanimously determined to avail themnot leave sufficient time for the discussion and con- selves of the privilege contained in this law, and to sideration of the question of colonization. At the send an agent to Georgia to comply with the condi. close of the session, however, an important law pas. tions, and to take charge of these unhappy victims scd, entitled "An act in addition to the acts prohi- of violence and fraud, for the purpose of returning biting the slave trade.” This law was zealously them to their native soil. Preparations are making, supported by the friends of the society, and, short with the aid of the government, for a safe asylum, ly after its passage, a committee was appointed by (2.) where they will be provided for and instructed the board to wait on the president of the U. States till the colony can be prepared for their reception. and the leads of departments, to tender the services Providence has thus entarged the sphere of useful. of the managers in any way in which they might be ness and the field of exertion for the society. The useful in carrying it into effect. From the measures managers are called to a more active duty, and an adopted by the executive, it is probable, that there opportunity is thus given to the public, in the com. will be a number of captured negroes to be pro- mencement of our operations, to test the sincerity vided for before the end of the year; and assurances of those expressions of detestation so frequently having been given that, if the society would pro- uttered against the slave trade, and of those frecure a proper situation in Africa, the captured ne- quent professions of sympathy for the abused and groes should be put under its care, and be provided oppressed Africans. The call is urgent, the ocs for at the public expense, the course to be pursued casion pressing, the time short; much is to be by the board could no longer remain doubtful. A done in a few days, or these unhappy beings will be number of free people of color, in different parts of beyond our reach. It is supposed that about fire
the United States, have already offered themselves thousand dollars may be required for this object, for the colony. To select those best qualified to lay and, as there is not time to make personal applicathe foundation of this infant establishment, the ma. tion to individuals, it is requested that the auxiliary nagers feel is of the utmost importance to its future societies and individuals favorable to this object, character and prosperity. To aid in this and other will make immediate exertions to raise funds to enaimportant preparatory measures, the board has ap- ble the board to comply with the conditions of the pointed the Rev. William Meade, of Virginia, agent Georgia law. Money collected for this purpose, of the society. To those who know Mr. Meade, and donations for the general object of the society, the value of his labors and the importance of his may be forwarded to David English, cashier of the pastoral services, this appointment will be one of Union bank of Georgetown, District of Columbia, the highest pledges which the managers can give treasurer of the society. to the public of the importance of the duties in We know that we commence our operations and which they are engaged, and of their zeal and per. make this call at a time peculiarly embarrassing. severance in their discharge..
Times and seasons are in the hands of Him whe The managers have entered upon these duties, doeth what seemeth to him right, and can overrule and engaged in these measures, with an humble all to our good. He who giveth for such objects, dependence upon Divine Providence, and a firm but lendeth to the Lord. We have followed what reliance on the justice, humanity, and liberality we believe to be the openings of Providence. This of their fellow citizens, that the necessary pecu- time may be selected to try our faith, and test our niary aid will be afforded for the prosecution of sincerity. The widow's mite was more acceptable their plans. For the purpose of collecting funds, than the costly offerings of the great. Will not, and of giving and procuring information, agents then, the sacrifices now made in a proper spirit, be will be sent to the different cities in the United more acceptable than the offerings from the overStates, and to such other places as will be conve. Aowings of abundance? nient. It is hoped that associations will be formed By order of the board of managers. in different parts of the United States to aid the
E. B. CALDWELL, Secretary. society. Over so widely extended a country much Jxo. UnderwQOD, Recording secretary. must be left to the voluntary exertions of the people, We have, however, now to make a more pressing
(Note 1.) call for immediate relief and aid. A few days since,
From the Georgia paper. " the hon. Wm, H. Crawford, secretary of the treasury, one of the vice presidents of the society, trans
SALE OF AFRICAN SLAVES, mitted to the board of managers an advertisement On Tuesday, the 4th of May next, in the town of in a Georgia newspaper, offering for sale, on the Milledgeville, will be exposed to public sale, to the 4th of May next, thirty or forty negroes, who had highest bidder, between thirty and forty prime Afbeen introduced into the state in violation of the law rican slaves, which have been taken possession of by Arohibiting the slave trade. (1.) The law of Georgia, the state of Georgia, in consequence of their having directing these 'sales, passed December 19th, 1817, been introduced contrary to the laws of the state, may be found in the appendix to the second an- and of the U. States. Indisputable titles will be nual report of the society, p. 91, letter 1. By the made, and prompt payment required. third section of that law, it is provided, “That if, pre-! By order of the governor. ' vious to any sale of any such persons of color, the " CHARLES WILLIAMSON, Agent, society for colonizing the free persons of color, within the United States, will undertake to transport
(Note 2.) them to Africa, or any other foreign place, which George W. P. Custis, esq. of Arlington, the grandthey may procure as a colony for free persons of son of Mrs. Washington, cheerfully offered the use color, at the sole expense of said society, and shall of his island near Cape Charles, at the mouth of the likewise pay to his excellency the governor all Chesapeake bay, and accompanied the offer with a expenses incurred by the state since they have been refusal to accept any compensation. It is called. captured and condemned, his excellency the go. Smith's Island; and is happily adapted, and most favernor is authorised and requested to aid in promot. vorably located for the purpose; and has been şe. ing the benevolent views of said society in such a lected by the president of the United States for the manner as he may deem expedient.”
captured Africans, till they can be sent to Africa.
Treasury Documents Accompanying the last unnual report of the Secretary,
inserted in V I. XV. page 257.
(1) Statement of the funded debt of the U. States, on the 1st Oct. 180. Old six per cent.stock, (unred. amount) 1,262 212 96 Deferred do do.
4,667,678 09 Three per cent, stock
13,465,088 25 Louisiana sis per cent. stock
10,291.700 Six per cent. stock of 1796
80,000 Exchanged six per cento stock of 1812 2,669,103 99
--31,835,788-29 Six per ct. stuek of 1812-11 mil. loan, 6,206,502 12
1813-16 do. 15,522,272 81
71.2 do. 6,836.332 39
1814-25 & 3 do. 13,011,455 19
are in a state of forwardness, and will be completed iq a sliort time. to those which accompanied the annual report of the secretary of the treasury, previous to the year 1815, Note.- The statement exhibiting the details of the revenue for the years 1815, 1816, and 1817, similar
TREASURY DEPARTMENT, Register's office, November 16, 1818.
JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.
Merchandise Tonnage,&c Passports,&c.
for expenses of collection, during the year 1817.
debentures issued on the exportations of foreign merchandise, of payments for bounties and allowances, and Statement exhibiting the amount of drties which accrueil on merchandise, lonnage, passports, and clearances, of
dolls 99,907,721 43 Treasury department, Register's office. Nov. 18. 1818,
3.817,674 37 Three per cent. stock, do.
13,465,088 25 Louisiana 6 per cent. do.
10,291.700 00 Six per cent. do. of 1796
80,000 00 Exchanged 6 per cent. do. of 1812, 2,669,108 99
1,034,957 31 er et. do. of 1812-11 million loan, 6206,402 12 do. 1813-16
9,505,625 41 do. Trenstry note stock,
1,208,383 23 Seven per cent.
8,821.918 49 Five per cl. stock, subscrip, to bank U.S. 7,000,000 00
Dollars, A. 99,107,346 95
Ist January, 1817, dolls. 115,847,805 48
issued in 1817, viz:
amount, A. 1,232,8:7 63
Seven per ct.
- ---15,881,784 50
18.131,215 16 As above,
90, 101,346 $$ Statement exhibiting the total amount of the six and seven per cent.
treasury note stuck issued, to the 31st Decernhei. 1811. At what office issued.
Six per ceut. Seven per cent. Treasury .
201.657 00 New Hampshire.
121,150 00 Massachusetts
3,037,097 00 Rhode Island
162,405 00 Connecticut .
• 79, 499 00 New York
4,723,559 90 Pennsylvania .
699,487 00 Delaware
940 00 Maryland .
14,761 00 Virginia ..
1,866 00 North-Carolina
• 8,756 92
1,180 00 Soutli-Carolina
8,608 00 Grorgia
A Statement of monies received into the treasury from internal
duties, and other objects, during the year 1817. From new internal duties, dolls. 2,676,882 77
new direct tax, . . . . 1,833,737 04
4,512,286 87 Miscellaneous receipts, viz: Postage of letters
29,371 91 Fees on letters patent
4,680 United States moiety of the nett proceeds of prizes captured
52,652 26 Nett proceeds of gun.boats, &c. of 27th of February, 1815,
2,134 69 Cents and half cents coined at the mint of
the United States Rent of the salt spring in the Steuben ville district
76 80 Fines, penalties and forfeitures
5 25 Sarplus proceeds of property sold for the payment of direct taxes, of 1815
417 17 Shares in the Georgia Mississippi company adjudged to the U. States
1,500 52 Proceeds of sale of a temporary custom house on Sullivan's island
89 48 Interest on stock in the bank of the U.S. 202,426 3.'
1,393,641 059,054,909 00 Deduct so much thereof includ. ed in the statetnent of the fund. ed deut, to Ist January, 1817, 60,834 02 8,856,980 00
A.1,232,807 63 B.197,949 00 Treasury department, Register's office, Nov. 18, 1818,
JOSEPH NOURSE, Regiãtet..
dolls 4,824,475 19 · Treasury department, Register's office, Nov. 21, 1818,
JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.
(3) Slalement of the funded debt of the United States, on the 1st October, A statement of the several denominations of treasury notes issued, 1818.
showing the amount outstanding by estimate, on the 30th Seger. Deferred 6 per cent. stock, unred. amt. 8,519,810 27
teinber, 1818. Three per cent. do.
13,454 575 68
Treasury ons were issued under several acts of congress, Louisiana,
dolls. 5,000,000 Six per cent. do. of 1796,
5,000,000 Exchanged o per cent. do. of 1812, 2,609,108 99
4th Marchi, 1814,
10,000,000 29,679,394 04 Loth D. ernber, do.
8,318,400 Six per cient. do. of 1812-11 million Iman, 6,206,502 12
24th February, 1815, of 100 dol. notes, 4,969,400 do, 1813-16 du. 15,522,272 81
Sipall Treasury notes
3,392,094 do. do. 71-2 do
8,362,394 6,836,232 39 1814-25 & 3 do. 13,011,437 63 do. 1815 9,505,625 41
Total amount issued, dolls. 36,080,794 Treasury note stocks:
or the ahore amount there has been cancelled at the of o per cent. funded
27,336,210 of 7 per cent. do.
Drawn into the treasury by warrants, and in a course of:
3,345,923 " In notes including interest, 5,817,890 61 Amount. 30th September, 1818, 97,825,434 78 Deduct the estimated amount of Amount as stated 1st January, 1818, 99, 107,346 95;
377,890 61 Add stock issued in 1818, to the date
5,440,000 of last returns:
Small treasury notes in the several banks, viz: Treasury note 6 per cent. 68,729 41
New-Hainpshirashington. 7 pereent. 5,46 00
Branch bank, Wa
,118 Three per cent. for interest on
1.125 old registered debt,
| In the Auditor's office, in a course of caocelment for
99,181,142 44 6 per cent stock, issued at the treasury, 14,196 02 Dednet stock purchased,
1,915 97 Old 6 per cent. unredeemn, amt. 2,973 67
81,848 40 Deferred
2,446 08 -
19.326 31.* * Louisiana, 335,800 00 Maryland,
42,881 26 Treasury note 6 per cent. 107 65
460 Six per vent, of 1814,
13.6:9 64 Stoek reimbursed,
103,955 60 Old 6 per cent.
280,810 23 A, above, to 30th September, 1818, 97,825,434 78 From which deduct the estiinated amount of Stnek reimbursable in the 4th quarter, 1818.
interest included in the above sum, 20,810 23 Oo the 1st Dec. deferred 6 por cent. 252,091 ps
260,000 220 October, Louisiana
Balance ontstanding by estimate, viz:
251,500 Estimated amount redeemed, 1st Jan. 1819, dolls. 92,595,393 15
$97,506 Treasury department, Kegister's office, Nov. 18, 1818, JOSEPH NOURSE, Register.
As above, dolls. 36,680,794
Treasury department, Register's office, Nov., 19, 1818, Comparative statement of the funded debt of the United States, be
JOSEPH NOURSE, Register. trpeen the 1st of October, 1817, and the 1st October, 1818. Amount of tbe funded debt as stated on the 1st Oct, 1817, and referred to in Estimate (3) accompanying
Statement of the claims awarded by the commissioners appointed The report of the secretary of the treasury, to the
by virtue of the act of congress, entitled "an act supplementary house of representatives, dated the 5th December,
to the act, entitled 'an act for the indemnification of certain claint 1817, dolls. 99,911,845 41
ants of public lands, in the Mississippi Territory," passed on the Deduct this snm aseertained by the tree.
3d of March, 18.15. sory settlements to have been paid for
Awards in favor of
Amount. reimbursement of the old 6 per cent.
Individuals claiming under Upper Mississippi company, 350,000 00 and deferred stocks, to 1st Oct. 1817,
Tennessee company 531.428 05 more than the amount estimated,
Georgia Mississippi com'y 1,412,134 96
1.887.040 95 and this sum short stated in ac.
t101.547 16 count of stock purchased 8 90 4,123 98
Total, 4,282,151 1E
[Here follows the names of claimants and amount of each awarda Amount of the fundrd debt on the 1st Occ. 1817, as per statement, herewith
*99,907,721 43 To which adal, Irvisory note stock issued in the 4th guarter of 1817, 6 per cent. 234,422 10
Treasury department, March 26, 1819. ? per cent. . . 99019 00
SIR-In order to ensure uniformity in the exe133,441 10
cution of the act, of the 20th of April, 1818, sup.
100,241,162 53 plementary to the collection laws, and more espes Deduct, Seven per cent. stock purchased in the 4th quarter
cially to enforce the provisions of the 8th, 13th and of 1817,
21st sections thereof, the consuls of the U. States re. And old 6 per cent. and deferred stocks
siding in foreign states, are informed that, reimbursed,
1st. In all cases where, by the municipal laws of Amount of the funded debt on the 1st January, 1818, –
the country in which they exercise their functions, as per statement herewich,
99,107,346 95 To wlijch add,
they are restrained from administering oaths, the veStock issued in the three first quarters of 1818:
rification required by the 8th section of the act may Treasury note 6 per cent.
be made, in the presence of the resident consul, 7 pr cent.
5,040 00 3 per cent.
before any magistrate duly authorised to adminis. 20 08 73.795 49 ter oaths; and sucli consul shall certify not only the
official character of the oficer, and that the oath :
60,181,1421 Deduct stock purchi'd during same period, 415,91,9 37
was adini, stered in his presence, but that the per.' Reimbursements of old 6 per cent, and
sen to whom it was administered is of respectable eferred stocks, estimated at
incluring 925 dollars issued to the representative
character, and who, according to the provisions of At present, no expense can be authorised, in rethe said act, ought to verify the said invoice. lation to these objects. Should the result of these
2d. Where merchandise is purchased for a com.suggestions answer my expectations, it is possible mercial house in the U. States, by a partner residing that the attention of the national legislature may be abroad, the invoice ought to be verified by such attracted to the subject, and that some provision partner, under the 8th section of the act.
may be made, especially in relation to useful inven3d. All cases embraced by the 13th section of the tions. act are subject to the addition of fifty per cent, the I have the honor to be, very respectfully, sir, your failure to produce invoices duly verified being, in most obed't serv't, WM.H. CRAWFORD. contemplation of the act, equivalent to merchandise fraudulently invoiced at twenty-five percent. below
National Interests. its appraised value.
I 4th. Difficulties bave occurred under the 21st Address of the Philadelphia suciety for the promotion of section of the act relative to discounts. It has been/ domestic industry, to the citizens of the United States. represented to this department, that the most of
No. II. the discounts which appear on the invoices of mer.
Philadelphia, April 12, 1819. chandise, especially from England, are not made! We proceed to take a view of the system of poli, for prompt payment, nor ultimately depend upon tical economy, pursued in England, which has ele. any condition of that nature. It is asserted that the vated that country to a degree of wealth, power. true price of the merchandise is ascertained only and influence, far beyond what her population or by deducting the discounts from the invoice prices, natural resources would entitle her to. This sýs. and that where discounts are allowed for prompts tem displayprofound policy and wisdom, and may payment, or, upon a future contingency, they are with safety be taken as a pattern by other nations. entered distinct from the common discounts, above with such variations as particular circumstances may described. You are therefore requested to state to require. We do not pretend that it is altogether this department the general custom in this regard perfect; nothing human ever deserved this charac. within your consulate, and, as far as depends upon ter. Butth tit has more exoellence than, and as little you, to endeavor to have the articles invoiced at imperfection as, that of any other nation in ancient their true value, so that no discount may appear or modern times, can harrlly be questioned. The thereon, except what may be made and allowed in nearer any nation approximates to its leading printhe payment made for the same within the term of|ciples, the more certain its career to prosperity. Inthe said section:
deed, it is not hazarding much to aver, that no rition 5th. You are requested to cause the discount al.] ever did or ever will arrive at that degree of power. lowed upon such invoices as may be verified before or influence, or happiness, of which it is susceptible you to be entered upon each invoice, and not upon without adopting a large portion of this system. the summary or recapitulation of several invoices, as There are parts of it, however, which are more is sometimes practised. The continuation of that honored in the breach than the observance:" we practice may be productive of inconvenience to the mean those particularly that restrain personal liberparties, and is at all times calculated to excite suspi- ty. cions of unfair dealing.
The grand and leading object of this system, into 6th. You are lastly requested to furnish this de which al] its subordinate regulations resolve them. partment with semi-annual statements of the arti-selves, is to encourage domestic industry, and to cles, the growth or manufacture of the United States, check and restrain whatever may injuret. This which are entered in the ports within your consu- pervades the whole political economy of the nation: late, and the foreign merchandise which is shipped and, as industry has ever been, and, according to therefroin to the United States in American vessels; the fixed laws of our nature must eternally be, a showing, as nearly as practicable, the comparative great,curity to virtue and happiness, this is among value of the exports and imports. Conjectural esti- the primary duties of every legislative body: and mates of the foreign shipping employed in the same their negleci of, or inattention to this duty, affords trade, and of the value of the imports and exports, an unerring criterion of their merits or demerits. laden on board such vessels, will be acceptable. To enable her to effect this object, Great Britain is
The introduction of useful plants, not before cul- unwearied in her efforts uvated, or such as are of superior quality to those I. To facilitate the importation of raw materials. which have been previously introduced, is an objects for the employment of her artisans and manufactuof great importance to every civilized state, but rers; more particularly to one recently organized, in II. To discourage, or wholly prohibit, the exporwhich the progress of improvements of every kind tation of raw materials; has not to contend with ancient and deep rooted III To export her manufactures in the most finishprejudices. The introduction of such inventions, ed form possible; the results of the labor and science of other nations, IV. To prohibit, or heavily burden with duties. is still more important, especially to the U. States, the introduction of all manufactured articles with wbose institutions secure to the importer no exclu- which her own subjects can supply her: sive advantage from their introduction. Your atten: V. To prohibit the emigration of artists or me. tion is respectfully solicited to these important sub-chanics, and the exportation of machinery. jects. .
To accomplish these purposes, she has steadily The collectors of the different ports of the United, employed the powerful means of States will cheerfully co-operate with you in this in-1 1. Bounties on, or encouragements to, the estab. teresting and beneficent undertaking, and become lishment of new manufactures: the distributors of the collections of plants and seeds 2. Absolute prohibitions of the importation and which may be consigned by you to their care. It exportation of certain articles; will creatly facilitate the distribution, if the articles 3. Such heavy duties as nearly amount to prohi. shall be sent directly to those sections of the union bitjon; . where the soil and climate are adapted to their cul-| 4. Drawbacks, on esportation, of the whole or ture.
chief part of the duties paid on importation,