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nation, the parent of vice; and while we yield they. Mr. Niles. The balance of trade” is in the silent and secret homage of the heart to the philan- mouth of every body and constantly referred to, and thropy of a Howard, lightening the fetters and yet it seems to be very differently understood or esbrightening the dungeon horrors of crime and timated by different persons, or never to have been wretchedness, we are constrained to tender equal correctly ascertained, and that for the want of proregard to the man whose genius discovered a sys- per data.-Unquestionably, the treasury statements tem of initiation into the general branches of learn- presented to congress and recorded by Pitkin and ing, whereby the advantages of it may be commu- by Seybert, do not contain, or exhibit in a clear point nicated to the whole human family. To enlighten the of view, the necessary information and details where. mind, and thereby prevent crime, is better than to by to ascertain the real balance with any tolerable punish or commiserute. This immense lever has moved|degree of certainty. the world; and combined with other more compli- In them, even the value of the importations is but cated powers which are also in motion, and which partially given, and that confused with an arbitrary cannot so readily move without it, must, in its reac. advance or supposed increase of value, included or tion, ameliorate and bless the tvorld.

to be added, for the pretended real value:--of a "To render the subject of education interesting part of the importations we are presented with the in the detail, must require no ordinary mind. Mr. quantity only, without regard to cost, price, or quaLancaster possessed this power--he rivited the at-lity, and there seems to be an egregious defect or tention of his audience they seemed to hang on his oversight in the total omission of the goods admitlips, during his lectures, with unabated pleasure. To ted by law free of duty, of which, however, a consijudge of his eloquence, which is familiar without de-derable value is every year imported. . scending to the ludicrous, and at times impressive, Yet these imperfect and detective data appear to because proceeding from his own feelings, by its effect, be all that congress are put in possession of, as the it must be of the first class:–He not only assailed means whereby they are to arrive at the discovery the outworks of the understanding but he took the of the balance of trade, a just knowledge of which citadel of the heart, His sincerity and devotedness is admitted to be so important to that authority to the diffusion of knowledge, the economy of time which has the regulation of commerce and the suand expense, the habits of attention and diligence perintendance of the common welfare. How is it formed in its acquisition, renders him indeed the be- possible, I would ask, for congress, and particularly nefactor, and he has just claims to the gratitude of gentlemen who have not perhaps, paid constant and mankind. In this country I am glad to find such a close attention to the course and incidents of trade, man justly appreciated.” Washington City Gaz. the rise and fall of foreign markets, and commer:

Mr. Lancaster has just delivered, or is delivering,cial transactions everywhere, &c. to form a very cora a course of lectures at Philadelphia, in Washington rect idea of the state of our account with foreigners? Hall, which was very handsomely granted to him -ought they not to have, in addition to all the infree of expense, because in his advertisement he forination now communicated, a great deal more?-Due says<«No money taken for tickets, but a voluntary allowance ought also to be made for the value of collection will be made at the door, the produce of merchandize smuggled or illicitly introduced into which will be applied, under public inspection of the U. S. which in some years has amounted to no respectable auditors, to the object of establishing a trifling sum, as has been admitted by the secretary; seminary to board and clothe a number of American but of this indeed, we could not expect any formal youth as teachers of the Lancasterian system, in its statement or account, more than opinion, or esti. highest bearings."

mates, founded on close attention, investigation and observation, on the part of the C. House officers, &c,

In a pro forma statement, herewith, I have at. Balance of Trade.

tempted to divide and note down the principal The intelligent gentleman to whom we are indebted points or heads, upon which information, or just es.

for the following communication, justly observes,timates, in detail, are, I believe, absolutely requithat the balance of trade is in the mouth of every site in order to arrive at the real balance of tradebody,"? but not understood, differently estimated, which I respectfully submit for yourbetter judgment, or not correctly ascertained, for want of data, by remarking however, that the sketch is very roughly any.

drawn out, and very probably not well matured. : As it becomes every man in business, now and then! We have enough of custom house and other offi

to take an account of his stock, and look to his cers, whose duty it might be made to obtain and redebts and credits, that he may know what he is port positive information, or intelligent and rational about, it no less becomes our national rulers to see estimates, on all the heads and details wanted. It what the nation is doing. We should certainly would impose but very little additional labor and consider the man as a very great dunce who by trouble, and surely might be accomplished without his labor, or attention to business, cleared a thou. much difficulty, by requiring a fewother declarations sand dollars a year, which he passed over to his and reports, on the part of the ship-owner, of the exwife who spent that profit as well as impaired his porter, and of the importer, severally, as will readily capital-if he pretended to believe he was getting occur to you, in addition to those that are now exactup in the world. We apprehend that such hased from them by law. been the case in the United States-- and that the In the statement herewith I have only endeavor. people of some sections, supposing they were ed to find out a method of arriving at the balance making money by exports, took no heed to the between the U, States and the other countries of the general amount of imports, which, exceeding the world—to find the standing of the account betwixt former, must be paid for in money,

nation and nation, or nations, We recommend this subject to our statesmen, and the domestic account betwixt the American ship

hope that in the next congress some man may be owners, American merchant, the importer and the found who will take the trouble to understand, exporter, and the U. States, or total mass of consuand appreciate, the true interests of his country, mers, and betwixt one and another of them res which through ignorance or inattention have been spectively, to shew the prosperity or decline of all left, in matters of trade, very much to chance. Tor each, may be separately stated afterwards.



The Importations into the United States, from Foreign countries, consist

of goods paying duty ad valorem, viz. $

goods paying specific duties, viz.

goods admitted by law free of duty, viz. S and of goods smuggled or illicitly introduced, estimated, S



United States.......

...DR............. ..............To Foreign Countries. For value of importations, (and shipments) on American account-in American vessels: : Which value consists of...the actual cost and charges at place whence imported . . . . .

dolls For value of importations (and shipments) on American account-in Foreign vessels: the actual cost and charges at place whence imported, viz.

dolls. Which value consists or{

. . . . wwl wema and...the freight to foreigners for transportation to the U. States . . . For value of importations into the U. States, on Foreign account-in American vessels: Which value consists of Less...the freight to Americans for transportation u n ters the sales in the U. States, (less, the C. Hovlse duty, commissions, petty charges) dolls.

· · · · · For value of importations into U. States, on Foreign account-in Foreign vessels: Wbich value consists of the sales in the U. States, (less, C. House duty, commissions and charges for selling) dolle.

Total debit of United States on account of importations, and to credit of Foreigners) dolls DEDUCT the following, which should go debit of foreigners, (and to credit of United States)

Amount of tonnage duty, ligbeamoney, port-charges, commissions on freight and disbursements, ...

and sundries, disbursed for foreign vessels in the ports of the United States, . : . . dolls.
Such proportion of the debts due on the above importations unto fortiguers, as may be extin-

guished by insolvency of Ainerican debtors . . . . . . .
Such proportion of the above importations as may be the property of emigrants from fe

countries, coming to settle down with it permanently in the United States, e
The net proceeds or sales of American vessels or tonnage, sold to for. igners and paid for . dolis.
The gains or net profits, when any have been earned, by Americans that may have been em-

ployed as carriers, agents or traders, between one foreign port and another-consisting of
the excess of their freight, compensation and sales, &c. over and above the disbursements,
cost, charges, &c paid on account of the same, in such foreign ports . ..

And, perhaps, some other small itens).


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United States... Dr.... To Foreigners.....DOLLS.



United States.....

........By Foreign Countries. For value of exportations, arrived at foreign ports from U.S. on Am. account, in Am. vessels

Which value consists of the actual sales thereot; at foreign ports, (less, duty, commission and charges of selling) dolls. For value of exportations, arrived at foreign ports from U.S. on Am. account, in For. vessels:

e nds the sales at foreign poris, (less, duties, commissions and charges of selling) consi

dolls. " Less...the freight to foreigoers for transportation outward . . . . dolls. For value of exportations, cleared from U.S.for foreign ports, on For. acc't, in Am. vessels: Which value consists of the actual cost and charges paid by foreigners therefor in the U. States .. . dolls.

COST and..the freight thereon due on arrival out, payable by foreigners . . dolls.
For value of exportations cleared from U.S. for foreign ports, on For. acc't, in For, vessels:
Which valué consists of...the actual cost and charges in U. States, payable by foreigners therefor . . . dolls.

Total to credit of the United States, on account of exportations, (and to debit of foreigners) dolls.
DEDUCT the following which belong to credit of Foreigners (and to debit of U. States):

Amount of tonnage duty, light-money, port-charges, commissions on freight and disbursements,

and sundry monics, disbursed for American vessels in the foreign ports, . . . . dolls.
Such proportiou of the debts due by foreigneri on account of above exportations, &c. as may

become extinguished by bankruptcies
Litts y the premiums of insurance, to debit of Americans, ordering goods or vessels to be in-
Excess of the premiums of Insurance to debit of American devine.....'.

sured in Europe-over and above the amounts recovered for losses sustained, payable by fo-
reigners . . . . . .


. . .
m ie

. .

Remittances from the U. Scates for interest due to foreigners on capitals belonging to foreigners,
Remittances from the U. Som
invested in American stocks, or otherwise lent or employed in the United States,

(Aod, perhaps, some other small items)



Foreigners...Drs.... To United States...DOLLS.

And the difference of these two amounts will be the “Balance of Trade," resulting to the debit of one party in favor of the other--which must be liquidated with specie; and if a part of the balance be satisfied for a while, by means of government stock, bank stock, &c. the certificates thereof will, nevertheless, return to be redeemed with specie, or an equivalent.

J. W. W.

Indian Treaties,

I This instrument is explanatory of a treaty con

cluded at Vincennes in the year 1803, and obtains RATIFIED AT THE LATE SESSION OF CONGRESS the cession of some lands from the Peoria Indians, 1. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at the which it was contended was not included in the

foot of the lapids of the Miami of Lake Erie, be- lands granted by the treaty of Vincennes, &c. tween Lewis Cass and Duncan M'Arthur, com- 4. A treaty entitled -"A treaty of friendship, ces. missioners of the United States, with full power' sion, and limits, made and entered into this and authority to hold conferences, and conclude twenty-fourth day of August, eighteen hundred and sign a treaty or treaties with all or any of the and eigh'een, by and between William Clark and tribes or nations of Indians, within the boundaries Auguste Chonteall, commissioners on the part and of the state of Ohio, of and concerning all matters behalf of the United States, of the one part, and interesting to the United States, and the said na-|| the undersigned chiefs and warriors of the Quations of Indians, on the one part; and the sachems, paw tribe or nation, on the part and behalf of their chiefs, and warriors of the Wyandott, Seneca, Del said tribe or nation, of the other part.” lawarc, Sliawanese, Potawatomey, Ottawas, and By this treaty the Indians acknowledge themChippewa tribes of Indians.

selves under the protection of the United States, The prece ling is the title of an Indian treaty and it contains the cession of a large tract of land on which tills nearly five of the ponderous columns of the Arkansaw, &c. the Indians however, retaining the National Intelligencer, on its being ratified by the the right of hunting thereon, under certain condisenate. It provides for the cession of large tracts tions, and grants an annuity. of land, by the different tribes, in which, how. 5. A treaty headed thus. “A treaty of peace and ever, are a number of pretty extensive reserva-l friendship made and concluded by and between tions in favor of a great number of individuals, whose William Clark and Auguste Chouteau, commisnames alone, would fill two pages of the REGISTER! sioners of the United States of America, on the In consideration of these cessions, the United part and behalf of the said states, on the one part, States, have covenanted to pay several annuities. and the undersigned chiefs and warriors of the The treaty is signed by the chiefs of the tribes Pownee Marhar tribe, on the part and behalf of ainong whom is the The Devil Standing, Black Bird, their said tribe, on the other part.” Head Fell Down, Flat Belly, Full Moon, Crane, This instrument is for the simple purposes stated Black Hoof, Brtwren the Legs, Tail's End, Captain in the title. Tom, Biz Turtle, The Dog, &c. &c.

76. A treaty of peace and friendship made and conAmong the names of the persons in whose favor cluded by and between William Clark and Augus. the numerous reservations are made, are the follow. te Chouteau, commissioners of the United States ing, which may be taken as the character of the whole; | of America, on the part and behalf of the said Tahulodhowweda, Tawyauroutoreyea, Traretohau states, of the one part; and the undersigned chiefs weetough, Iloonorowyoutacole, Tyyeeawokeunobal and warriors of the Pitivariate Noisy Pawnee Ia, ilioreameausuwat, Aalautounasquas, Nenepesne tribe, on the part and behalf of th shequa, Taufouwquowsay, or Twenty Lives, Wa-l of the other part. waleepeshecka, and Egotacumsequa.

This also, is for the simple purposes stated in its 2. A treaty, duly ratified by the senate, is entitled

w title. It is signed by the Handsome Bird, Buffaloe as follows: “Articles of a treaty made and con

| Doctor, Running Wolf, &c. 'cluded at the St. Mary's, in the state of Ohio, be

7. “A treaty of peace and friendship made and contween Lewis Cass and Duncan Mc Arthur, com

cluced by and between William Clark, and Augus. missioners of the United States, with full power

te Chouteau, commissioners of the United States and authority to hold conferences and conclude

of America, on the part and behalf of the said and sign a treaty or treaties with all or any of the

states, of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs tribes or nations of Indians, within the bounda

and warriors of he Pawnee republic, on the part ries of the state of Ohio, of and concerning all

and behalf of their tribe, of the other part.” matters interesting to the United States, and the

| This is signed by the Good Chief, Wearer of Shoes, said nations of Indians, and the sachems, chiefs,

&c. and is simply a treaty of amity... and Warriors of the Wyandot, Seneca, Shawanese,

'18. “A treaty of peace and friendship; made and con. Ottaw:s, tribes of Indians: being supplementary

cluded by and between William Clark and Ay. to the treaty made and concluded with the said

guste Chouteau, commissioners of the U States of tribes, and the Delaware, Potawotomey, and Chip

America, on the part and behalf of the said states, pewa, tribes of Indians, at the foot of the rapids

of the one part, and the undersigned chiefs and of the Miami of Lake Erie, on the twenty-ninth

warriors of the Grand Pawnee tribe, on the part day of jeptember, in the year of our Lord one

and behalf of their said tribe, of the other part." thousand eight hundred and seventeen.

Signed by the Bald Eagle, Who-wants-to-go-to-theThis treaty seems to have been made for the

w war, Big Hair, Chief of the Sun, Chief of the Shield, chief purpose of more clearly designating, or alter

&c.-and only for the purposes designated in its tiius, at the request of the Indians, the reservations made in that to which it is supplementary; and also

9. A treaty made and concluded by and between makes some additional reservations, out of lands

William Clark, governor of the Missouri territory, herciofore ceded, with additional annuities, essen

superintendant of Indian affairs, and commissioner tially differing from Indian treaties in general.

in behalf of the United States, of the one part; 3. A treaty, ratified 48 aforesaid, is thus entitled

and a full and complete deputation of considerate “A treaty made and concluded by and between

men, chiefs, and warriors, of all the several bands, Ninian Edwards and Auguste Chouteau, commis

of the Great and Little Osage nation, assembled

in behalf of their said nation, of the other part, sioners on the part and behalf of the United States fainerica on the one part, and the undersigned

have agreed to the following articles:

'This instrument cedes a tract of land beginning ' princ pal chiefs and warriors of the Peoria, Kis, at the Arkansaw river, in consideration of certain haski, llitchigamia, Cahokia, and Tamarois tribes indemnities for property of the citizens of the Unit. of the Illinois nation of Indians, on the part and be led States taken by said Indians, for which the ! bill of the si" bos, of the other part."

States are bound to pay to the mount of 0.1007):

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It is signed by many chiefs-among them, Voisabe | 14. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at st. voiquanddaque, The Decuvoichipiche, Tadhasajuudes. Mary's, in the state of Ohio, between Jonathan sor: or the Wind Walking Řain, Sudden Appear. Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, comance, Raised Scalp, &c.

missioners of the United States, and the Miami naArticles of a treaty made and concluded at St. tion of Indians. Mary's, in the state of Ohio, between Lewis Cass, By this treaty a large cession of land is made on commisioner of the United States thereto espe. the upper parts of the Wabash, &c. in which many cially authorized by the president of the United small reservations are granted to individuals named. States, and the chiefs and warriors of the Wyan. The annuity therefor is $15,000 a year, and the U. dot tribe of Indians.

s. to build one grist mill and one saw mill for the This treaty cedes to the United States two tracts Indians on such sites as they may select, and also to of land heretofore reserved to them in the territory support one blacksmith and one gunsmith for their of Michigan, at Brownstown and Magagua, and gives benefit. them certain other lands in exchange, to be held so 15. “Articles of a convention made between John long as they or their descendants shall occupy the C. Calhoun, secretary of war, being specially aúsame. This seems to be mutually advantageous. thorized therefor by the president of the United 10.- Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. States, and the undersigned chiefs and head men

Mary's between the United States of America, by of the Cherokee nation of Indians, duly authorized their commissioners, Jonathan Jennings, Lewis and empowered by said nation, at the city of Wash Cass, and Benjamin Parke, and the Wea tribe of ington, on the twenty-seventh day of February, Indians.

in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hunThis is a cession of all the lands claimed by the dred and nineteen.” -tribe in the state of Ohio, with certain specified re-/ The introduction is as follows: «Whereas a greater servations, for an annuity in addition to the annuity part of the Cherokee nation have expressed an formerly paid to them.'

earnest desire to remain on this side of the Missis. 11. A treaty to settle all territorial controversies, sippi, and being lesirous in order to commence

and to remove all ground of complaint or dissa those measures which they deem necessary to tisfaction that might arise to interrupt the peace the civilization and preservation of their nation, and harmony which has so long and so happily that the treaty between the United States and existed between the U. States of America, and the them, signed the 8th of July, 1817, might, witkChickasaw nation of Indians, James Monroe, pre out further delay, or the trouble or expense of sident of the said United States, by Isaac She!.y taking the census, as stipulated in the said treaty, and Andrew Jackson of the one part, and the be finally adjusted, have offered to cede to the whole Chickasaw nation, by their chiefs, head United States a tract of country at least as ex. men, and warriors, in full council assembled, of tensive as that which they probabìy are entitled the other part, have agreed on the following arti to under its provisions, the contracting parties cles, which when ratified by the president and se. have agreed to, and concluded the following arnate of the United States of America, shall form al ticles." treaty binding on all parties.

The tract of land then ceded is described, with A large quantity of valuable land is ceded by this many reservations and indemnities, and to provide treaty, with many reservations however, for the be- for a school fund. The annuities paid to the Cheronefit ofindividuals, who seem to be desirous of becom- kees are to be divided, two thirds to those residing ing agriculturalists. It stipulates for the payment east, and one third to those west of the Mississippi. of considerable annuities, provides for a supply of salt. This tribe, or nation, furnishes, perbans, the for the Indians, and reimburses the chief maj.Colbert, best materials within our territory for the philan. in the sum of $1089, the amount of money which thropist to work upon. They are considerably be lost in June 1818, at the theatre in Baltimore- advanced in civilization, are herdsmen and farmthere are also 'grants of money to several chiefs; ers, witte pretty correct notions of property and of among those named are Immauk, Ushahopoyea, Illa- the value of money, &c. without partaking so much chouuarhopoyea, Hopoyeahaummar, &c.

of the vices of the whites, as generally falls to the 12. Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St. lot of Indians adjacent to our settlements. Many

Mary's, in the state of Ohio, between Jonathan discreet and intelligent white persons have settled :> Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, com among them—they have a number of schools, which

missioners of the United States, and the Delaware are well attended, and appear to be convinced that nation of Indians.

their prosperity as individuals and the existence of, This is a cession of all the lands in the state of their nation, depends upon a change of the manners Indiana belong to the Delawares---the United States of their life, We hope they may be carefully proto pay for the improvements in the country ceded, tected against all intrusions and intruders, that a full to furnish them with 120 horses, and a sufficient and free opportunity may be given to theni to'pur. number of boats to assist in transporting them be. sue their march to civilization, and subsequent mem. yond the Mississippi, with provisions, &c. for the bership in the great American family. This may emigration. The annuity granted for this cession possibly, be effected in two or three generations, is 4000 dollars a year. A few small reservations are and it is pleasant to think that it may be effected made. The treaty is signed by Kethteeleland, the even at so distant a period. Big Bear, The Cat, Ben Beaver, The War Mallet,&c. 13, Articles of a treaty made and concluded at St.

National Interests. Mary's, in the state of Ohio, between Jonathan Jennings, Lewis Cass, and Benjamin Parke, com- Address of the Philadelphia society for the promotion of missioners of the United States, and the Potawati-l domestic industry, to the citizens of the United States. mi nation of Indians..

No. Il.. This treaty contains a cession of land on the

Philadelphia, April 7, 1819. Tippecanoe, Wabash, and Vermillion rivers, with a Dr. Smith's maxim, riscussed in our first number, guarantee against any claim of the Kickapoos, for inevitably involves in its conservances, as we have 20 annuity of $2,507)

proved, the destruction of those manufacturing

establishments, of which-the productions can be pur-í We state a case, plain and clear. We will suppose chased “cheaper abroad than they can be made at five hundred workmen, and a capital of five hundred home:" and its necessary result is, to deprive those thousand dollars, employed in the manufacture of engaged in them of employment. The doctor, after watches, coaches, and silver-plate; and that Swit. having inflicted a deadly wound by this maxim, un.lzerland, or Paris, or London,fills our markets at such dertakes to provide a sovereign and infallible reme- rates as overwhelm at once all competition, and sup. dy for the evil, which, to do him and his disciples press the manufactories. Where are the scollateral justice, we shall exhibit in his own words:li re manufactures,to receive those oppressed and forinains to examine how far the prescription goes to lorn workmen, whose prospects, and those of their remedy the evil or any part of it.

families, are thus blasted? Are they to become hat1. «; hough a number of people should, by restor. ters, or shoe-makers, or tailors, or saddlers, or weaing the freedom of trade, be thrown all at once oul of vers, or smiths or carpenters? Is there a man who their ordinary employment, and common method of sub- can persuade himself into the belief of such an or. sistence, it would by no means follow, that they would den of things? Is there a man who can persuade thereby be deprived either of employment or sub- himself, that "the general industry of the country will sistence."*

nos thereby be diminished? No: and it is a matter of in2. “To the greater part of manufactures, there are expressible astonishment, that such an idea could other collateral manufactures of so familiar a nature, I have ever been hazarded, in a sober and serious that a workman can easily transfer les industry from book, intended as a guide to statesmen and legisla. one to the other

tors. It will not stand the test of a moment's inves. 3. “The greater part of such workmen, too, are tigation. As well might we suppose, that, on hunt. occasionally employed in count y labor. i ting up the courts of justice, and expelling the

4. “ihe stock, which employed them in a parti. whole corps of lawyers, they inight at once comcular manufacture before, will still remain in the mence the medical profession, without any previ. country, to employ an equal number of people in ous study, as that hatters, or tailors, or shoe-makers, some other way

or weavers, or watchmakers, or printers, whom the 5. «The capital of the country remaining the same, grand system of purchasing commodities cheap," and the demand for labor will still be the same, though it the equally grand system of "restoring the freedom of may be exerted in different places, and for different commerce," might bereave of employment, should occupations."

find those “collateral manufactures which Dr. Smith Here are five distinct piopositions, more clear and has so kindly provided for them. plain than Dr. Smith's usually are; but all bighly. We explicitly declare, that we are far from charg. erroneous, pregnant with ruin, and calculated to ing the doctor with an intention to mislead-or de. lead those statesınen astray, who square their sys- ceive. We believe him, like many other theorists, tem by them; as we hope to make appear.

Ito have been duped by his own system. But be this The main point is the facility of transferring in- as it may, we trust that it will appear that a more dustryfrom one branch to a “collateral manufac- deceptious ground never was assumed. We use ture," All the rest are but subsidiary to, or expla. strong and unequivocal language; as the political natory of this fallacious assumption.

heresy we combat is of the most pernicious tenTwo questions arise here, both important, and dency, is supported by the most imposing and for. both demanding afirmative answers, in order to midable name in the whole range of political science support the doctor's hypothesis.

-and has among its disciples a large portion of The first is, are there such collateral manufac. those of our citizens whose situations, as legislators tures” as he assumes, to which men, bereft of em- of the union and of the several states, render their ployment in those departments of manufacture, errors on this vital point pregnant with the most which are to be destroyed by the doctor's grand destructive and ruinous consequences. and captivating idea of "restoring the freedom of com. We now come to our second question. Suppose merce,” may “transfer their industry?

that every branch of manufactures, without excepIt may be conceded, that there is an affinity he- ltion, has some collateral manufactnre:" can those tween the weaving of cotton and woolen, and a few who are divested of employment, by "restoring the other manufactures. But this cannot by any means freedom of trade,transfer their industry” so easily" answer the doctor's purpose. Where will he, or las Dr. Smith supposes? any of his disciples, find "collateral manufactures toWe answer distinctly, No: or, at all events, on so employ coach-makers, watch-makers, shoe-makers, small a scale, as to be unworthy of notice, in discusHatters, paper-makers, printers, book-binders, cn- sions involving the best interests and the happiness gravers, letter-founders, chandlers, saddlers, silver. Iof nations. To test the correctness of this opinion, platers, jewellers, siniths, cabinet-makers, stone-llet it be observed, that, in manufacturing countries, cutters, glass-makers,brewers, tobacconists, potters, all departments are generally full: and not merely wire-drawers, tanners, curriers, dyer's, rope-makers, lfull, but there are almost always supernumeraries in brick-makers, plumbers, chair-makers, glovers, um- labundance; and therefore, nad these collateral ma. brella-makers, embroiderers, calico-printers, paper- nufacturer" really existed to the full extent the docstainers, engine-makers, turners, wheel-wrights,and tor's theory would require, and not been “fancy

reat variety of other artists and manufacturers! sketches," derived from his fertile imagination, There is no such affinity as he has presumed. And there would be no vacancy, to which the objects of

be asserted, without scruple, that if by what the doctor's care could transfer their industry.. the doctor speciously styles (restoring the freedom of! Although this appears so plain and palpable, as trade,” five hundred, or a thousand, or ten thousand not to admit contradiction or dispute, yet on a point, hatters, shoe-makers, printers and chandlers, for of such magnitude, it cannot be time ill spent, to instance, are thrown out of their “ordinary employ- lillustrate it by example ment,” there is no “collateral manufacture of so far I here are very few branches between which miliar a nature,” that they “can easily transfer their there is so much affinity as the cotton and woolen. industry from one to anothe..!!

And if the doctor's theory would ever stand the or. *Wealth of Nations, Hartford, 1818, 1. 329. deal of examination, it would be in the case of these Wealth of Nations, I. 330.

Itwo “collateral mannfuctures." Suppose, then, that,

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