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family, never to attempt to make at home what it, try in these branches, they make for themselves an! will cost him more to make than to buy. The tailor families, a comfortable subsistence. They afford a does not attempt to make his own shoes, but buys large and steady market for the productions of the them of the shoemaker. The shoemaker does not earth, giving support to, probably, at least a million attempt to make his own clothes, but employs a of persons engagedin agriculture. They, moreover, tailor The farmer attempts to make neither the enrich the nation by bringing into it wealth from one nor the other, but employs those different arti- nearly all parts of the earth. The immense sums of ficers. All of them find it for theirinterest to employ money they thus introduce into their native country, their whole industry in a way in which they have afford means of employment and ensure happiness some advantage over their neighbours; and to pur- to other millions of subjects, and thus, like the circles chase, with a part of its produce, or what is the made on the surface of the stream by the central same thing, with the price of a part of it, whatever pebble thrown in the range of happiness, is extended else they have occasion for.

so wide as to embrace the whole community. “That which is prudence in the conduct of every. From this cheering prospect, let us turn the start. private family, can scarcely be folly in that of a led eye to the masses of misery, which Dr. Smith's great kingdom. If a foreign country can supply us system would produce, and we shall then behold a with a commodity cheaper than we ourse'ves can make hideous contrast, which we trust escaped the doc. is, better buy it from them, with some part of the produce tor's attention; for the acknowleged goodness and of our own country employed in a way in which we benevolence of his character, will not allow us to be. have some advantage.

liere, that he would have been the apostle of such a “The general industry of the country being in pernicious doctrine, had he attended to its results. proportion to the capital which employs it, will not We fonilly hope that, like many other visionary men, thereby be diminished, any more than that of the he was so deeply engaged in the fabrication ota res abovementioned artificers; but only left to find out fined theory, that he did not arrest his progress to the way in which it can be employed with the great. weigh its awful consequences. est advantage. It is certainly not employed to the The East Indies vould at all times, until the recent

est advantage when it is thus directed towards an improvements in machinery, have furnished cotton object which it can buy cheaper thun it can make. The goods at a lower rate than they could be manufac. value of its annual produce is certainly more or less tured in England, which had no other means of pro. diminished whenit is thus turned away from produc- tecting her domestic industry, but by a total prohi. ing commodities evidently of more value than the bition of her rival fabrics. Let us suppose that commodity which it is directed to produce. Accord. France, where labor and expenses are much lower ing to the supposition, that a commodity could be than in England, has possessed herself of machinery purchased from foreign countries cheaper than it and is thus enabled to sell woolens at half, or even can be made at home. It could therefore have been three fourths or seven eighths of the price of the Fog. purchased with a part only of the commodities, or lish rival commodities.“ Suppose, further, that ar. what is the same thing, with a part only of the price ticles manufactured of leather are procurable in of the commodities, which the industry employed by South America, and iron wares in Russia, below the an equal capital would have produced at home, had rates in England. Then, if the statesmen of that it been left to follow its natural course.”

nation were disciples of Adam Smith, as "foreign There is in the subordinate parts of this passage, I countries can supply them with those commodities cheap. much sophistry and unsound reasoning, which weer than they themselves can make them, they must, acshall examine on a future occasion: and there is like-cording to the doctor, “buy from them with some part wise, as in all the rest of the doctor's work, a large of the produce of their own country," and accordingly proportion of verbiage, which isadmirably calculated open their ports freely to those various articles, from

barrass and confound common understandings, those four particular nations.-France and Flanders and prevent their forming a correct decision. But would supply them with superior and cheaper wool. stripped of this verbiage, and brought naked and ens and linens; Silesia and Russia with coarse linens unsophisticated to the eye of reason, the main pro---Sweden with iron and copper-Italy and China position which we at present combat, and to which with silks-Hindustan with silks, cottons and mus. we here confine ourselves, is, that

lins-South America with leather-North America “If a foreign country can supply us with a com-1 with wheat, flour, hops, barley, rye, rice, foil and modity, cheaper than we vurselves can make it, bet-salted fish. Who can contemplate the result withter buy it of them with some of the produce of our out horror? What a wide spread scene of ruin and own industry, employed in a way in which we have desolation would take place! The wealth of the some advantage.'

country would be swept awayto enrich foreign and The only rational mode of testing the carrectness probably hostile nations, which might at no distant of any maxim or principle is, to examine what have period make use of the riches and strength thus fatu. been its effects, where it has been carried into ope-litously placed in their hands, to enslave the people ration, and what would be its effects in a given case who had destroyed themselves by following such where it might be applied. This is the plan we baleful counsels. The laboring and industrious clas. shall pursue, in this investigation.

ses would be at once bereft of employment, recluced Great Britain affords a felicitous instance for our to a degrading state of dependance and mendicity, purpose. Let us examine what effect the adoption and through the force of misery and distress, driven of this maxim would produce on her happiness and to prey upon each other, and upon the rest of the prosperity.

the community. The middle classes of society There are above a million of people of both sexes I would partake of the distress of the lower, and the and of all ages, employed, in that country, in the sources of the revenues of the higher oruiers be dri. woollen and cotton manufactures.* By their indus- ed up. And all this terrific scene of woe, and wretch

*Dr. Seybert states, that, in 1809, there were edness and depravity, is to be produced for the 800,000 persons' in Great Britain engaged in the grand purpose of procuring broad cloth, and musling, cotton manufacture alone. It has since increased and shoes, and iron ware, from remote parts of the considerably. It is therefore probable that the two earth, a few shillings per yard, or piece, or pound, branches employ at least 1,300,000 persons.p. 92. cheaper than at home. The manufacturers of Bome

ray and Calcutta, and Paris, and Lyons, and Canton, other nations. And, setting South America wholly and Petersburg, are to be fed and clothed and foster- out of the question, it can hardly be doubted, from udby English wealth, while those ví England, whom the spirit with which the culture of cotton is proseit ought to nourish and protect, are expelled from cuied in the East Indies, and the certainty that the their workshops, and driven to Seek support from seeris of our best species have been carried there, the overseers of the poor. We trust this will not be that in a few years that country will be able, provid. thought a "fancy sketch." Such a view of it would ed Adam Smi's theory continued to be acted upon lje an extravagant error. It is sober', serious reality; here, to beat it ; lanters out of their own markets and puts down forever this plausible but ruinous after having driven im from those of Europe. It theory. Ponder well on it, fellow citizens.

is not, therefore, bazarding much to assert, that the Let us suppose another strong case. The cotton tiine cannot be very remote, when southern cotton produced in this country amounts, probably, to for. Industry will be compelled to supplicate congress ty millions of dollars annually. We will suppose for that legislative protection, for which the manathe minimum of the price, at which it can be sold to facturing ndustry of the rest of the union has so pay for the labor and interest on the capital employ, earnestly implored that body; and which, hadit been ed in its culture, to be fourteen cenis per pound. We adequately afforded, would have saved from ruin nu. will further suppose, that the southern provinces of merous manutacturing establishments and invaluaSpanish America base established their indepen-ble machinery, which cost millions of dollars-nou dence, and are able to supply us with this valuable a .ead and irreparable loss to the interprising progry mcterial at the rate of ten cents.* Ought we, prietors. Had these establishments been presers. for the sake of saving a few cents pör pound, to deed and duly protected, they would have greatly les. stroy the prospects. And ruin the estates of million | sened our ruinous y unfavorable balance of trade, ofáhe inhabitants of the southern states, to paralize and of course prevented that pernicious drain of spe a culture so immensely advantagcous, and produc-cie, which has overspread the face of our country ing so large a fund of wealth, and strength and han. with distress, and clouded we trust only temporari. pincss? Should we, for such a paltry consideration, ly) as fair prospects as ever dawned on any nation." run the risk of consequences which cannot be re

We have given a slight sketch of the effects the garded without awe, and which could not fail even. adopuon of this system would produce in England tually to involve in ruin even those who might ap

and the United States, if carried into full and compear in the first instance to profit by the adoption

Jplete operation; and also glanced at the consequenof the system?

ces its partial operations has already produced in It may be well worth while to proceed a step fur

the latter. We now proceed to take a very cursory ther and take the case of a nation able to supply us

view (reserving dctail for a future occasion of its fully and completely with wheat and other grain,

etely with wheat and other orin lamentable results in Spain and Portugal, where the at a lower rate than our farmers could furnish them.

statesbien are disciples of Adam Smith, and where 'Thus then we should find ourselves pursuing Adam the theory, which now goes under the sanction of Smith's sublime system-buving cheap bargains of his name, has been in operation for centuries. As wheat or flour from one nation, cotton from another. / foreign countries can supply them with commodities hardware from a third, and, to pursue the system cheaper than they themselves can make them," they throughout, woolen, and cotton, and linen goods

is therefore consider it better to buy from them, with from others. while our country was rapidly imposome part of the produce of their own country.verishing of its wealth, its industry paralized, the *This view may appear too gloomy. Would to Jaboring part of our citizens reduced to beggary, Heaven it were! A cursory glance at some of the and the farmers, planters and manufacturers involv. great interests of the United States, will settle the ed in one common mass of ruin. The picture de- the question. Cotton, the chief staple of the counmands the most sober and serious attention of the try, is falling, and not likely to rise; as the immense farmers and planters of the United States.

quantities, from the East Indies, have glutted the It may be asserted that the supposition of our English market, which regulates the price in ours. country being fully suplied with cotton and grain Affairs in the western country, 'on which so many by foreign nations, is so improbable, as not to be ad- of our importers depend, are to the last degree unmissible even by way of argument. This is a most promising. The importers, of course, have the most egregiouis error: our supposition, so far as respects dreary and sickening prospects before them. They cotton, is in oothe fulltide of successful experiment.” are deeply in debt and their resources almost altoThat article, to a great amount, is eren at present gether suspended, and a large proportion ultimateimported from Bengal, and sold at a price so far belly precarious. Commerce and navigation languish low our own, (difference of quality considered) that every where, except in the most ruinous branch we our manufacturers and the purchase eligible.' Let carry on, that to the E. Indies. Further,notwithstandit be considered, that in 1789 doubts were entering nearly eight millions of specie vere imported tained whether cotton could be cultivated in the in about a year, so great has been the drain, that the United States;t that, in the year 1794, there were banks generally are so slenderly provided, as to exexported from this country, of foreign and domestic cite serious incasmess. We are heavily indebted cotton, only seven thonisand bags;+ and vet that, in to England, after having remitted immense quanti. 1817, the amount exported was above eighty mil. ties of government and bank stock, whereby we lions of pounds. No inan can be so far misled as to shall be laid under a heavy and perpetual annual tax suppose that Heaven has given us any exclusive mo. for interest. Our manufactures are in general drocn. Jovoly of the soil and climate calculated for such ing--and some of them are one-half or two-thirds extraordijnary and'almost incredible advances. The suspended. Our cities present the distressing view lapici strides we have made, may be also made by of immense numbers of useful artisans and mecha

nics,:ind manufactures, able and willing to work, but * It is certain they can raise cotton at less than 5 unable to procure employment. We might go on cents, including all expenses, of cultivation, pick with the picture to a great extent; but presume ing, and cleaning.

enouglı has been statell, to satisfy the most incredu. tseybert's statistics, p. 84.

| lous, that the positions in the text are by no means Hedem, p. 94.

Texaggerated.

Fellow-citizens, consider the forlorn and despel

Foreign Articles. Fate state of those countries, notwithstanding the choicest blessings of nature have been bestowed on

ENGLAND, &c. them with lavish hand-industry paralized, and the

London dates to the 24th of Feb. enormous foods of wealth, drawn from their colo-|| Several vessels of war are to be launched in the nies, answering no other purpose but to foster and spring-two of them, we believe, are on the model encourage the industry and promote the wealth of of our frigates. rival nations; and all obviously and undeniably the The letter of our secretary of state, in reply to result ofthe system of buying goods where they are the Spanish note, respecting the occupation of Floto be bad cheapest, to the neglect and destruction rida, &c. is re-published in the London papers. The of their domestic industry. With such awful bea- editors seem very zealous to make it appear, that cons before your eyes, can you contemplate the de. their rights and honor is much concerned in the solating effects of the system in those two coun- fate of Arbuthn.t ani Ambrister and they talk tries, without deep regret that so many of our citi- loudly of our responsibility to England on account of zens, and some of them in high and elevated stations, them. advocate its universal adoption here, and are so far. The stock of tobacco on hand in England is ap.. enamoured of Dr. Smith's theory, that they regard parently very great. Its price, as.well as that of cotas a species of heresy the idea of appealing to any ton, had declined exceedingly. . . . other authority, on the all-important and vital point The duke of York is appointed guardian of the of the political economy of nations?

king's person, with a salary of 10,0001. The majoriTo avoid prolixity, we are obliged to postpone the ty in the house of commons, on this appointment, consideration of the rest of the errors of Dr. Smith was 95–46/members present.' on this subject: and shall conclude with a statement Westminster election generally causes a great exof those maxims of political economy, the soundnes citement throughout England, and is seemingly of which is established by the experience of the wi- more counted upon than the returns from 50 rotten sest as well as the most fatuitous nations of the boroughs. At the close of the poll, Feb. 21, the earth.

votes stood thus-for Mr. Lamb 2268; Mr. Hobhouse I. Industry is the only sure foundation of national 2030; major Cartwright 38. Much confusion and virtue, and happiness, and greatness; and, in all its uproar prevailed. Sir Francis Burdett was very acuseful shapes and forms, has an imperious claim on tive in favor of Mr. Hobhouse. Result uncertain.. govermental protection.

The following queer hand bill was read by Mr. II. No nation ever prospered to the extent of Hunt, in one of his harar guies-"Lost, last night, which it was susceptible, without due protection between St. James' Place and Mr. Brooks' in the of domestic industry.

Strand, a check, drawn by Sir Francis Burdett on III. Throughout the world, in all ages, wherever on Vessrs Coutts and Co baokers, for 10,0001. The industry has been duly encouraged, mankind have check was drawn as follows: been uniformly industrious.

“Pay Samuel Brooks, or order, the sum of 10,0001. IV. Nations, like individuals, are in a career of which charge to my account. “F. BURDETT. ruin, when their expenditures exceed their income. “N. B. No further reward will br given, as pay

V. Whenever nations are in this situation, it is ment is stepped at the bank, and another check is the imperious duty of their rulers to apply such re-issued in its place, and payment received, to uphold medies to correct the evil, as the nature of the case the purity of election in Westminster!!!” may require.

The lord chancellor of England, decided on the VI. There are few, if any, political evils to which 11th of February, that no auctioneer could become a wise legislature, untrammelled in its deliberations purchaser, for himself, of any property under the and decisions, cannot apply an adequate remedy. cognizance of the court of chancery.

VII. The cases of Spain, Portugal, and Italy, The state of commerce in England, and indeed in prove, beyond controversy, that no natural advanta- Europe generally, is exceedingly depressed. Every ges, how great or abundant soever, will counteract thing seems to he overdone and money is not to the baleful effects of unsound systems of policy; and be had. those of Venice, Genoa, Switzerland, Holland and The London Statesman remarks, that the finanScotland, equally prove, that no natural disadvanta-cial as well as the political face of the country ges are insuperable by sound policy.

appears peculiarly grave and interesting at this VIII. Free government is not happiness. It is moment. Accounts from foreign markets are unonly the means; but wisely emyloyed, is the certain promising. It appears by letters from Liverpool, means of ensuring happiness.

that 160 packages of British goods have been re IX. The interests of agriculture, manufactures,

turned from New Orleans, not finding a vent in and commerce, are so inseparably connect d, that

ly connected that America, owing to the price set upon thein. We any serious injury suffered by one of them, must ma

have not half the American merchants in England terially affect the others.

as some time back. They look into our manu

factories but purchase very little." [1e are glad X. The home market for the productions of the to hear this-it goes to shew that the Americans earth and manufactures, is of more importance than begin to think of paving for, as well as how to buy all the foreign ones, even in countries which carry goods]

. . on an immense foreign cominerce.

The London Courier of Dec. 24, contains an adXI. It is impossible for a nation, possessed of im-vertisement of the British vicrualling otice for tenmense natural advantages, in endless diversity of ders to supplu ten thousand barrels of American soiland climate--in productions of inestimable va- four; to be delivered in the month of May, at Parlue in the energy and enterprize ofits inhabitants badoes, Bermuda, Antigua, Bahama, Berbice, De

and unshackled by an oppressive debt, to suffer marara, Dominica, Grenaca, St. Vincents, St. Kitts, any great or general distress in its agriculture, com- St. L'icia, and Tobago. merce or manufactures (calamities of scasons ex- Letters from Italy say that the princess of Wales cepted) unless there be vital and radical errors in was preparing to ssit Judea and Egypt accompathe system of political economy,

I nied by a large suite. Some of the London papers

11810

Life guards.
Horse guards.

Dr. Guards and

Dragoons.

Foot guards,
Regiments of

the line."

talk pretty loud about another investigation of the part or in the whole, in six-six different languages conduct of this wandering wife.

or dialects. There is a cause depending in the court of chance. The total number issued on account of the society ry, wherein the extraordinary name of “Kinkvervan- from September 1805, to June 1817, amounted to kotsdorsprakingatchdern”appears as a party in the 1795,936. suit; the pronunciation of which seems to be no small The expenditure of the society has been as fol. annoyance to the gentlemen of the long robe, and lows; their coadjutors.

1805
£691 1812

£32419 It is stated that the five (not "legitimate"] daugh-| 1806

1637 1813

69496 ters of the duke of Clarence, have had pensions set. 1807

5053 1814

84652 tled upon each of them, of 5001. per annum, arising 1808

12206 1815

81021 out of the 41 per cent. fund.

1809
14565 1816

103680 A Paris paper says—The Persian ambassador, 1810

18543 1817

89230 Mirza Ahdoul Hassan Kan, arrived at Vienna on the 1811

28302 1st inst, on his way to London. He brings with him a beautiful Circassian girl, a present from the grand Total from the commenoement of the vizier of Turkey. She is guarded by three black is cuarded by three black institution.

541,504 eunuchs.

Prices of commssions in the British establishment, for At a late boxing match in England, one fellow had

December, 1818. his jaw bone broken and the other was killed on the spot-for the amusement of the people!

Two persons have been arrested and imprisoned for selling Paine's Age of Reason. These persecutions will cause many thousand people to read the work who, otherwise, would never have thought of it.

From official returns, printed by order of the house of commons, it appear that the aggregate

1 € S. E amount of gold coin issued from the mint in the Lieutenant cololonel, 152001495014982 1016700/3500 year 1818, was in sovereigns, 2,347,3331. 78. 60. Maior

4250 4050 3882 10630012600 in half sovereigns, 515,1431. 2s, 6d. Amount of con

Captain

3100 2950 2782 10 3500 1500 silver coin issued from the mint in do. 676,811. Lieutenant

1785 1350 997 10 1500 550 An official return of the strength of the British Coronet or ensign 1260 10501 735 | 900 400 army, laid before the house of commons, states the

Revenue.- In the house of commons, Feb. 8th general total at 109,810 non-commissioned officers

lord Castlereagh rose pursuant to notice, to move, and privates, and 5852 officers; of which amount

for the appointment of a select committee to en. there are serving in Great Britain 15,248, exclusive

quire into the income and expenditures of the counof 5,516 foot guards; Ireland 19,823; East Indies

try. His lordship congratulated the house on the 11,281; troop horses, 11,276.

present prosperous state of the country, in a long The estimates of the army services for the year

and eloquent speech. In the year ending January 1819, in England, are put down at 6,582,8021. 128.

5, 1818, the receipt of the revenue was 51,665,0001. 5d.

and in the year ending January 5, 1819, it was The following fact took place lately in Westmore

57,063,000, giving an increase this year of 5,398,0001. land:-A hound whelp and a cur dog, belonging to

hand combining it with other imposts, there was a ge. the Rev. R. Sandford, of Crook, started a hare from

neral increase of 4,062,000. "The general result that place, which they run all night; the next morn

would show, that this year exceeded even the year ing they were found by one of Mr. Bolton's laborer's

1815, though that had been considered as the year not far from Storr's Hall, quite exhausted, one lying

in which the amount so greatly exceeded any pre. on each side of the hare, which was quite dead, and

vious one, (by not less than 10,000,0001.) that it was not the least torn by them. After the hare was

esteemed an overgrown increase proceeding from taken from them, they remained on the spot a con

unnatural and temporary causes, which would never siderable time before they recovered sufficient

| be expected to occur again. In the statement which strength to enable them to return to their master's

he would read, he would take three quarters of house.

each year, from January till October --In the year During the last year, the British government ex

|1815, the amount of the exports was 35,231,0001. pended 22,000 pounds sterling for snuff boxes pre

an amount greater by nearly 10,000,0001, than any sented to foreign ministers! This sum was paid to 1.

preceding year. Randall & Bridge, the manufacturers-a neat round

1816. 28,000,0001. '18,32,000,0001.'18,35,325,000. sum, $100,000.

The outstanding exchequer bills of England, byl New mode of ascertaining the longitude. -An enqui. official statement, amount to 43,655,4001.

ry has been made during the last week, by order of A statement of six of the largest calico printers in the lords of the admiralty, on an improved mode of

England, from January 1st, 1818, to January 1st working the calculations necessary to ascert 1819.

| longitude of ships at sea. The plan is from obser. Robert Turner, jun. Ca.

150.000 pieces. vations of the positions of various stars, which pro Haworth, Herdman and Co.

145,000

mises to reduce the errors into so narrow a com. Simpson, Fox and Co.

138,439

pass, that the actual certainty may be almost said to Fort, & Brothers,

122,222

be discovered.' Capt. Robert Tucker, R. N. is the Hargreaves & Dugdall,

118,000 inventor of this new method, which requires only P. s. The above are taken from their returns six lines of figures. to the excise; and will average about 359. sterling. Wager of battle.The British parliament has abo."

The British and foreign bible society has printed, or lished the cruel and absurd law, sanctioning the ter. aided the printing or circulation of the scriptures in (mination of disputes by personal combat. Whate.

ver might have been its uses in the barbarous had ordered the inhabitants to cover the fronts of ages, when it found its way into the British statute their houses with tapestry, in those streets through book, it was argued that it was now a disgrace' to ci- which the mass was to pass, at what is called the vilization.

Feast of God.' The police of Gap fined Monsieur A dear rówhistle". --The terms demanded by Ma- Koman, a protestant, six francs, for refusing to obey dame Catalini, for her talents at the opera house, the mayor's edict. M. Roman appealed to the court for the ensuing season, were, a sum of 50001. a bene- of Cassation. The question was, Can a citizen be fit to produce 10001. a coach, a dinner of 14 covers compelled to hang out tapestry on the front of his daily, and liberty to sing at concerts, &c. as she house, while the external ceremonies of the Cathopleased!!!

lic worship are performing'? On this question “Spoliations." Lord Castlereagh brought into the counsellors for M. Roman delivered the most the house of commons, on the 19th, a motion to ena correct sentiments upon the subject; declaring that ble the administration to distribute among the per. all the constituted authorities had proclaimed the sons concerned, the sums received from the French principle of religious freedom; and had completely government for the payment of the English credi. separated questions of religion from those connects tors; which'amount, by his statement, to more than ed with civil and military rights.' "The court, after 6,000,0001. sterling

a long deliberation, pronounced a judgment, said in FRANCE.

to be most strongly worded, by which it annulled the " A Frenchman invented, and offered for sale at judgment complained of, and decided that the muVerviers, a cloth shearing machine, by which a sin-nicipal authorities have no right to make a rule for gle workman could direct 80 pair of shears. The constraining citizens to cover the fronts of their work people apprehensive of being thrown out of houses on occasions of religious ceremonies. Comemployment by its adoption, assembled tumultuous-paring the above decision with the spirit manifest. ly and destroyed it, and were about to destroy alled towards the protestants in France only three the other machines in the place, but before they had years since, we conidserit a subject for congrelation time to accomplish their designs, the gens-d'arms to all who love our Lord Jesus Christ in sincerity, appeared and dispersed them, but not without shed as the triumph of reason and religion over superstiing blood.

tion. A report of the death of the king, caused some French Generals. The following is the singular stirin Londonobecause his death would be the sig- fate of most of the celebrated French generals who nalfor the vile faction of jacobinism to rear its head, served in the army during the French revolution: &c. The report was not true.

General Dunourier, exiled frm France, now has The payment of the 100 millions due the allies a pension of 12001. per annum from the British gohas been arranged. The first instalment of one third vernment. part is fixed for June 1820.

Luckner, Custine, Houchard, Biron, (Duc de Many beavy failures among the merchants and Lauzun) Westerman, Rossiu, Rossignel-guillotined bankers of France have lately taken place.

under the government of Robespierre. The stocks were declining 5 per cents 66 1-2. Miranda, a native of Caraccas, died lately in Ca

The French government has permitted the ex-diz, a state prisoner. portation of maize, millet, and potatoes from the Hoche and Championet, poisoned. south western departments of France, in conse- Kleber, assassinated in Egypt. quence of the low prices at which the different spe- Pichegru, exiled from his country, afterwards cies of grain were sold throughout those districts. strangled.

Several of “Bonaparte's partizans" are said to Brune, assassinated at Avignon, in 1815. have been arrested in the north of France, on the Malet and Laborie, (the latter implicated in charge of enticing the soldiers to desert.

George's conspiracy but fled from France) shot for France is engaged in establishing a colony in Se- attempting to subvert the government of Bonaparte negal, for the cultivation of cotton, indigo, coffee, in 1812. and sugar.

Ney, shot in 1815, during the government of LouCount Regnault, (Saint Jean d'Angely,) has ob- is XVIII. tained permission to return to Paris.

Mouton Douvernet, ditto, in 1815. A gentleman passenger in the Adonis arrived at Murat, shot by order of the king of Naples, after New York from Havre, states that “a bill was intro. having himself been sovereign of that country. duced into the chamber of peers, the 21st of Feb. Moreali, exiled from his country, and killed in bat. the purport of which was to curtail the right of elec- tle in the war carried on against France, in 1813, tious. No event could have had a greater effect to Berthier, thrown out of a window and killed, his arouse the indignation of the French people. The murderers not known. introducer becoming intimidated, dared not vote in The following are at present exiled from France: its favor.”

| Grouchy, Vandamme, Thureau, Savary, (Duc de Joseph Bonaparte's wife and daughter are about Rovigo) Soult, Humbert, Bertrand, Lefevre, Desto proceed to America.

nouettes, and the brothers Lallemand. Growth of Tea in France. The Moniteur has the Washington's birth day was celebrated by the following-This precious shrub, first introduced Americans in Paris. Mr. Gallatin was sick, and into France by a Russian ia 1814, promises to be could not attend-Mr. Barnett, our consul, in the come naturalized among us. There are already chair. Among the guests was gen. La Fayette. 300 stocks, which it is easy to multiply. This tea His volunteer toast was—The American stars-May has received the approbation of the king's physici- the constellation of liberty enlighten both hemispheres. ans, and the first naturalists in France. The plants

SPAIN. are to be sold by subscription.'

The ol'l ex-king of Spain is dead his wife died a Religious liberty in France-From a London news. short time ago. paper. A cause involving questions of the highest The general of the Cordeliers, the reverend father interests to our protestant brethren in France, has Cyrille, has received orders to quit the capital. He just been decided in the superior court of criminal came from Brazil at the same time as the late queen. justice. The mayor of the little town of Lourmarin, I There are several conjectures as to the causes of his

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