The Handbook of East Asian Psycholinguistics: Volume 2, Japanese
Mineharu Nakayama, Reiko Mazuka, Yasuhiro Shirai, Ping Li
Cambridge University Press, 2006年8月31日 - 428 頁
A large body of knowledge has accumulated in recent years on the cognitive processes and brain mechanisms underlying language. Much of this knowledge has come from studies of Indo-European languages, in particular English. Japanese, a language of growing interest to linguists, differs significantly from most Indo-European languages in its grammar, its lexicon, and its written and spoken forms - features which have profound implications for the learning, representation and processing of language. This handbook, the second in a three-volume series on East Asian psycholinguistics, presents a state-of-the-art discussion of the psycholinguistic study of Japanese. With contributions by over fifty leading scholars, it covers topics in first and second language acquisition, language processing and reading, language disorders in children and adults, and the relationships between language, brain, culture, and cognition. It will be invaluable to all scholars and students interested in the Japanese language, as well as cognitive psychologists, linguists, and neuroscientists.
讀者評論 - 撰寫評論
activity adult anaphor animacy canonical caregivers child classiﬁers co-occur code-switching cognitive comprehension consonant context crosslinguistic cues dative deﬁcit deﬁned developmental difﬁculty downstep dyslexia dyslexic early effect English example experiment ﬁeld ﬁgure ﬁnd ﬁndings ﬁrst ﬁrst-language ﬁve frequency function gesture grammar hiragana hypothesis inﬂection inﬂuence input interaction investigated Japanese children Japanese infants Japanese language Japanese mothers Japanese numeral Japanese sentence kana kanji katakana language acquisition language-speciﬁc learning lexical linguistic marker marking Mazuka metalinguistic modiﬁers mora morphemes narrative nodes numeral classiﬁers object onset orthographic pattern phonetic phonological phrase prediction production prosodic psycholinguistic reading refer reﬂect reﬂexives relative clause reported rhythmic role scrambled second-language segmentation semantic sentence particles sentence processing Shirai showed signiﬁcant speakers speciﬁc speech errors speech segmentation structure studies suggest syllable syntactic target word tion types utterances verbs visual vocalizations vowel word order zibun
第 21 頁 - ... material; (2) morphemes, words, and constructions modified from the normal language; and (3) a set of lexical items peculiar to baby talk. Intonational features have been noticed by many authors, and even casual observers may notice the higher overall pitch, preference for certain contours, and special features such as labialization which occur in baby talk in a number of languages. Much of this is subsumed under the term Ammenton. Very...
第 21 頁 - ... synchronic classification and historical explanation become possible. By the term baby talk is meant here any special form of a language which is regarded by a speech community as being primarily appropriate for talking to young children and which is generally regarded as not the normal adult use of language.
第 17 頁 - ... were transcribed and each of them was assigned a communicative function that was an interpretation of how the utterance functioned in the context, a highly significant relation was found (Masataka, 1993b). The finding was that rising contours were more frequently used with utterances that demanded a response such as requests and protests, whereas nonrising contours were more often used with functions that did not demand a response from others. Moreover, intersubject consistency was found in the...
第 18 頁 - In addition, a longitudinal investigation by Eilers et al. (1993) revealed that, on the basis of the recording of babbling and other motor milestones in full-term and preterm infants of middle and low socioeconomic status, neither preterm infants whose ages were corrected for gestational age nor infants of low socioeconomic status were delayed in the onset of canonical babbling. They also reported that hand banging was the only important indicator of a certain kind of readiness to produce reduplicated...
第 14 頁 - After vocalizing spontaneously, the infant tended to pause as if to listen for a possible vocal response from the mother. In the absence of a response, he vocalized repeatedly. The intervals between the two consecutive vocalizations were changed flexibly by the infant according to his recent experience of turn-taking with the mother. Thus proto-conversational abilities of infants at these ages may already be intentional.
第 15 頁 - This was done because the classification of infant sounds that had been reported so far was performed by rather subjective analysis. It had been observed that certain sounds seemed more appealing to adult listeners. Indeed, naive observers make comments such as "this baby sounds as though he is really talking" in reaction to some of the sounds and not to others. By collecting and comparing hundreds of vocalizations, two categories emerged. The categories were actually defined perceptually, that is,...
第 19 頁 - ... parameters that were modified when they co-occurred with motor activity concern those that essentially distinguish canonical babbling from earlier speech-like vocalizations. For instance, a vocalization that can be transcribed as /ta/ would be deemed canonical if articulated with a rapid transition duration in a relatively short syllable, but would be deemed noncanonical if articulated slowly, hi the latter case, syllables have been conventionally referred to as marginal babbling (Oiler, 1986).